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Colorado HIV Testing Eval Project 1. Background to HIV Testing Eval Project TB Epidemiologist and Assistant TB Program Manager for Colorado’s Dept. of.

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Presentation on theme: "Colorado HIV Testing Eval Project 1. Background to HIV Testing Eval Project TB Epidemiologist and Assistant TB Program Manager for Colorado’s Dept. of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Colorado HIV Testing Eval Project 1

2 Background to HIV Testing Eval Project TB Epidemiologist and Assistant TB Program Manager for Colorado’s Dept. of Public Health and Environment since June, 2010. Worked 10+ years in HIV and STI epidemiology, impact mitigation, policy development and capacity building. Six of those years in sub-Saharan Africa (Lesotho, Zimbabwe, Malawi, South Africa) where TB and HIV are all but endemic. As we all know, HIV and TB have an insidious relationship. TB bacteria can accelerate the progression of HIV to AIDS. Globally, TB is a major cause of death among people living with HIV. Harder to diagnose TB in HIV+ persons (anergy). A person who has both HIV infection and active TB disease has an AIDS- defining condition. This co-morbid relationship is less evident in the U.S. in general and Colorado in particular, but it’s still a public health and treatment concern. 2

3 Timeline of HIV Testing Evaluation Prior to 2010, Colorado focused on HIV testing TB patients 15 years and older. 2010 brought new NTIP objectives. A logic model and evaluation plan were developed in CO to expand testing to all active TB patients regardless of age. Began drafting first TB Surveillance report for the state in the fall of 2010. I immediately noticed a number of active TB patients that had no HIV status reported who were 15 years or older. Looking back at previous surveillance and NTIP reports, the same discrepancies were found; a handful of active TB cases each year with no HIV status, and often, no HIV test even offered. Began looking into it; was there a policy on HIV testing of active TB patients in place? No. Why not? The research is clear. If a person is co-infected with TB and HIV, the treatment regimens for both can change or are delayed depending on viral load, CD4 counts and other medical factors. Why would we not confirm all the active TB patients’ HIV status to eliminate the possibility of HIV infection before beginning anti-TB meds? 3

4 Timeline Part 2 In the fall of 2010, began looking at the RVCTs of those patients not offered or given an HIV test to see if it was isolated to certain regions or counties. The assumption was that there were several rural county nurses who were uncomfortable broaching the subject of HIV testing with their active TB patients (the awkwardness of addressing sexual and drug-taking behaviors, perhaps) so they avoided engaging in a discussion about the need for an HIV test. While there were a few outlying counties that missed opportunities to HIV test, the majority of missed opportunities came from the larger cities that continue to see the majority of active TB cases and that would seem to have the capacity to offer HIV testing services. 4

5 Timeline Part 3 December, 2010 the TB Program began collaborating with the state’s HIV Prevention Research and Evaluation Unit to develop a knowledge, attitudes and beliefs (KAB) survey meant to identify any barriers that might exist throughout the state specific to HIV testing among PH TB nurses. Spent a few weeks crafting ?s. (KAB survey available, contact me). A key informant interview questionnaire was design as well to flesh out any clear trends and expand on any barriers found in the KAB survey. The KAB survey was placed on Zoomerang in early-January 2011 and invitations sent out to all County Public Health nurses on our Listserv throughout the state to take the survey anonymously online. 41 surveys were completed by the early-February, 2011 deadline. Analysis of the results continued through April, 2011. Final report on the survey results was completed in June, 2011. Curry International TB Center has a 2012 CO Nurse-to-Nurse training planned. 5

6 Year # of cases HIV status knownHIV test refused HIV test not offered Test done/results unknown Unknown n% of totaln n n n 200113810475.4%1611.6%1510.9%00.0%32.2% 20021048682.7%96.5%65.8%11.0%21.9% 20031118475.7%75.1%2018.0%00.0%0 20041279776.4%96.5%2116.5%00.0%0 20051018180.2%42.9%1211.9%00.0%44.0% 200612411088.7%53.6%86.5%00.0%10.8% 20071119383.8%10.7%1311.7%00.0%43.6% 20081038885.4%10.7%98.7%32.9%21.9% 2009857385.9%10.7%1011.8%00.0%11.2% 2010716895.8%00.0%34.2%00.0%0 TOTALS107588482.2%5338.4%11710.9%40.4%171.6% 6

7 Known HIV Status Over the last 10 years (2001-2010), Colorado seen 117 persons (out of 1075) with active TB disease that were not given, much less offered an HIV test. (A few were dead at TB dx). Active TB patients not in care for their HIV infection is unacceptable. – We might expect this in the remote mountains of Lesotho, for instance, due to logistic and diagnostic limitations, but not in Colorado with top-notch, well-trained PH staff and world-class TB clinics/hospitals/clinicians. – We should not allow HIV testing decisions to be based on spurious demographic metrics e.g. She’s only 2 years old; he’s 85 years old, what are the chances he has HIV?; patient was born and raised in the U.S., this is a foreign- born issue, etc. Universal HIV testing regardless of age, race, gender, or nativity is the goal in Colorado. – We now know the benefits of getting an HIV positive person immediately into care; all the more so for a person co-infected with TB. 7

8 Results of the KAB Survey 1.CDC and CDPHE HIV testing recommendations for persons with active TB disease are not well-known. 2.Most county HDs do not have an HIV testing policy/algorithm in place specific to persons with active TB disease. 3.There are a significant number of county HDs that do not offer HIV testing internally. Instead they refer patients to a PCP, family planning clinic or CBO that offers HIV testing services. A few have no HIV testing resource close. 4.~10 counties asked for help in developing their own HIV testing policy/procedure/algorithm to clearly direct their respective PH nurses. 5.Counties that do not see much TB expect clear direction from the TB Program. They are willing to follow our recommendations when given. 6.There was no evidence of RN discomfort around offering/giving HIV tests. If we remind them, they will either test or refer the active TB patient to a facility that offers HIV testing services once they’ve been deemed non-infectious. 8

9 The Way Forward Colorado’s TB Program is working with Colorado’s HIV Prevention Capacity Building Unit to develop and offer HIV rapid testing trainings as needed throughout the state (sans pre-/post-test counseling component) to build local HD capacity to offer such services to active TB patients and other citizens needing them. State lab is willing to help counties request CLIA waivers for rapid testing and to offer use of their courier service to get whole blood to lab in timely manner when a rapid test isn’t an option. Colorado’s TB Program staff discuss HIV status in weekly case management meetings and are in contact with appropriate HD partners to ensure that HIV tests are offered and given. – If the patient refuses an HIV test, TB Program is encouraging local HD partner staff to clearly explain the health implications of TB/HIV co-infection w/ the patient. Ultimately, the onus falls to Colorado’s TB Program, as the state’s legislated TB control and oversight body, to keep Known HIV Status an imperative and help local HDs to remain/become compliant. 9

10 The Way Forward Continued TB registry to work more closely with HIV registry. HIV testing language has been added to contractual scopes of work as a key local HD deliverable to CDPHE’s TB Program. 2010 Known HIV Status rate was 95.8%; highest to-date. 10

11 Thanks to: All the public health nurses who participated in this project. The dedicated, talented PH nurses and ID doctors of Colorado who provide such high-quality care to their TB and HIV patients throughout the state. My colleagues at the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment’s TB Program. And thank you for your time 11

12 Contacts and Resources Pete Dupree, MPH TB Epidemiologist and Assistant TB Program Manager—Colorado 303-692-2677 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment’s TB Website: Denver Metro TB Clinic’s Website National Jewish Hospital (Denver) TB Program’s Website 12

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