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WHAT IS GRAMMAR? Grammar is a theory of language, of how language is put together and how it works.

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Presentation on theme: "WHAT IS GRAMMAR? Grammar is a theory of language, of how language is put together and how it works."— Presentation transcript:

1 WHAT IS GRAMMAR? Grammar is a theory of language, of how language is put together and how it works.

2 Formal +traditional Functional Primary How is(should) this sentence How are the meanings of this concern be structured text realized? Unit of sentence whole text analysis Lg level syntax semantics of concern Languge = a set of rules for sentence = a resouce of meaning making = something we know = something we do

3 TEXT AND CONTEXTS Strategic Competence Socio- cultural competence Linguistic Competence Actional Competence

4 CONTEXT --------------------- TEXT Semantics -------- Lexicogrammar (meanings) (wordings) Field------------------Ideational-------------------- Transitivity (whats going on) (process, participants, circumstance) Tenor -------------- Interpersonal --------------Mood, Modality (social relation) (speech roles, attitudes) Mode -------------- Textual --------------------- Theme, cohesion (contextual, coherence)

5 Genres are cultural specific & have with them: particular purposes particular stages:distinctive beginnings, middles and ends Particular linguistic features

6 give -------- invite to receive role demand ----- invite togive goods & services ------- objects & actions comodity information ------------- language itself

7 Adjunct of polarity and modality Polarity : not, yet, no, so Probability : probably, possibly, certainly, perhaps, maybe Usuality : usually, sometimes, always, never, ever, seldom, rarely Readiness : willingly, readily, gladly, certainly, easily Obligation : definitely, absolutely, possibly, at all cost, by no means Adjunct of temporality Time : yet, still, already, once, soon, just Typicality : occasionally, generally, regularly, mainly Adjunct of mood Obviousness: of course, surely, obviously, clearly Intensity : just, simply, merely, only, even, actually, really degree : quite, almost, nearly, scarcely, hardly, absolutely, totally, utterly, entirely, completely

8 PROCESSES IN TRANSITIVITY MATERIAL doing bodily,physically,materially BEHAVIORAL behaving physiologically, psychologically MENTAL sensing emotionally, intelectually, sensorily VERBAL saying lingually, signalling RELATIONAL being equal to, or some attribute of EXISTANTIAL existing there exists METEOROLO- weathering GICAL

9 !!! BEHAVER BEHAVIOU- RANGE ACTOR MATERIAL GOAL RAL He did he shopping He shopped He took a nap He took two cases He threw a tantrum He threw the spear He drew a ragged breath He drew a picture He drove a hard bargain He drove a Porche

10 PROCESS TYPE CATEGORY MEANING PARTICIPANTS MATERIAL doing, happening actor, goal BEHAVIOURAL behaving behaver, range MENTAL sensing senser, phenomenon VERBAL saying, signalling sayer, target, receiver

11 RELATIONAL PROCESS ATTRIBUTE : carrier, attribute (intensive, possessive, circumstantial) ADENTIFYING : token, value (intensive, possessive, circumstantial)

12 ATTRIBUTIVE IDENTIFYING be become go be become equal get turn grow add up to play act as keep stay remain call mean define look appear seem represent spell express smell taste feel form give constitute sound end up turn out imply stand for symbolize last weigh concern realize indicate signify cost has belong to betoken take up span resemble occupy own include involve contain compass provide cause

13 PROCESS PARTICIPANTS TYPE er ed causer other MATERIAL actor goal initiator beneficiary, range BEHAVIOURAL behaver range MENTAL senser phenomenon inducer VERBAL sayer verbiage target IDENTIFYNG token value assigner ATTRIBUTIVE carrier attribute attributor EXISTENTIAL existent

14 CLAUSE BOUNDARIES TAXIS parataxis ---------- (numbers) hypotaxis ----------- (Greek letters) LOGICO SEMANTIC RELATION: EXPANSION elaboration (=) extension (+) enhancement (x) PROJECTION locution () idea ()

15 ELABORATING EXTENDING ENHANCING = + x PARATAXIS that is to say and, but so, then or (rather) not only for, thus in other words but also or else for example except still for instance or, yet otherwise in fact, like HYPOTAXIS which whereas as, while while when, where instead because, if besides even though rather than despite

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