Presentation on theme: "The smallest unit of life that can perform all life processes."— Presentation transcript:
1The smallest unit of life that can perform all life processes. CellThe smallest unitof life that canperform all life processes.
2CHOGER“Life is macromolecules that can perform unique functions because they are enclosed in a structural compartment that is separate from the external environment. This separation allows living things to maintain a constant internal environment (homeostasis)”.Purves, pg. 61and the Cell
3“little wretched beasties” Antone van Leeuwenhoek - lenses
5The Cell Theory (3 parts) Matthias Schleiden (botonist)Theodor Schwann (zoologist)1. All organisms are made of one or more cells.2. The cell is the basic unit of all living things.
63. All cells come from pre-existing cells All organisms are made of one or more cellsThe cell is the basic unit of all living thingsRedi – spontaneous generation3. All cells come from pre-existing cellsPasteur – spontaneous generation
7Structure and Function 2 types of cellseukaryoteprokaryoteCells that have a membrane around their nucleus.Cells that DO NOT have a cell membrane around their nucleus.Plant and Animal CellsExample – BacteriaEukaryote cells usually 10X larger than Prokaryote cells.
9eukaryotic cells The basic Eukaryotic cell contains: Plasma membrane around their nucleusCytoplasm (the semi fluid substance inside the membrane.A cytoskeleton – gives it shape, and allows for the cell’s motion.Has membrane enclosed organelles.
10the plasma membrane fluid mosaic model Lipid bilayer with embedded proteins
28Vesicles and vacuolesThe function and importance of vacuoles varies greatly according to the type of cell in which they are present.
29functions of the vacuole include: Isolating materials that might be harmful or a threat to the cell.Breaking down products taken into the cell to be used in metabolism.Exporting unwanted substances from the cell.Allows plants to support structures such as leaves and flowers.Exporting manufactured products from the cell.
30endocytosis and exocytosis taking inexpellingpinocytosisphagocytosisUses energyEncloses material in vesicles
33special vesicles and vacuoles lysosomescontain hydrolytic enzymes - break down cellular waste products, fats, carbohydrates, proteins, and other macromolecules into simple compounds, which are then transferred back into the cytoplasm as new cell-building materials
34autophagy - recycles the cell's organic material
35special vesicles and vacuoles peroxisomesthe most common vesicle in cellsfound in all eukaryotescontain enzymes to rid the cell of hydrogen peroxide (convert the hydrogen peroxide to water)some detoxify alcohol and other harmful compounds by transferring hydrogen from the poisons to molecules of oxygen (oxidation).others initiate production of phospholipids
36special vesicles and vacuoles Helps maintain homeostasis for water balance (osmotic equilibrium)central vacuolecontractile vacuole
37central vacuole (plants ONLY) Maintaining internal hydrostatic pressure or turgor within the cell
49microfilaments - actin intermediate filaments – protein polymers such as keratin
50microtubules - conveyer belts inside the cells They move vesicles, granules and organelles via special attachment proteins. They also serve a cytoskeletal role.Structurally, they are linear polymers of tubulin (a globular protein).The tubulin molecules are the bead like structures. Microtubules may work alone, or join with other proteins to form cilia, flagella or centrioles.