Presentation on theme: "D10: Mind-Altering Drugs. Example 10.1 Describe the effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), mescaline, psilocybin and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)."— Presentation transcript:
10.1 Describe the effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), mescaline, psilocybin and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).
Brief Info: Lysergic Acid Diethylamide Taken Orally Can be mixed with gelatin and put in the eyes AKA: Acid Derived from ergot, a grain fungus that typically grows on rye
Effects of LSD Short-term: 1- Restlessness 2- Dizziness 3- Desire to Laugh 4- Distortions in sound and visual perception 5- Unpleasant hallucinations: lead to despair and suicide 6- Takers might believe that they can “fly”
Effects of LSD contd. Long-term: 1- Severe Depression 2- Psychosis: radical changes in personality, impaired functioning, and a distorted or non- existent sense of objective reality. 3- Dramatic mood swings 4- Loss of communication skills 5- Loss of appetite
Brief info: Psilocybin Substance obtained from certain types of mushrooms : 1- Such as the “Psilocybe Semilanceata”, AKA: (Magic Mushroom). 2- Mushrooms typically contain 0. 2 to 0.4 percent psilocybin. Can be produced synthetically. Ingested orally
Effects of Psilocybin Short-term: 1- Hallucinations 2- Inability to distinguish between reality and fantasy 3- Panic reactions 4- Alteration of perception 5- Dilated pupils 6- Muscle weakness 7- Feeling of insight
Feeling of insight, example http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7YYHOdQ G9Fw http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7YYHOdQ G9Fw
Brief info: Mescaline Dark-brown powder ground from "buttons" of the Mexican cactus,“peyote”. Taken orally Bitter taste
Effects of Mescaline Short-term: 1- Headaches 2- Anxiety 3- Feeling of dying or annihilation 4- Euphoria 5- Hallucinations 6- Alters visual and auditory perception
Effects of Mescaline cont. Long-term: 1- Fear of not being able to return to normal consciousness 2- Hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (HPPD) 3- Alteration of Perception 4- Distortion of Senses 5- Liver damage
Brief info: tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) Active ingredient in Marijuana: 1-AKA weed or cannabis 2- Intake: A- Smoked in a Joint B- Mixed with water and inhaled using a Bong C- Baked into brownies 3- Made from the flowering tops, stems, leaves, and seeds of the Hemp plant
Effects of THC Short-term: 1- Feeling of relaxation 2- Enhanced auditory and visual perception 3- Loss of sense of time 4- Confusion 5- Emotional distress 6- Anxiety
Effects of THC cont. Long-term: 1- Apathy: feeling of indifference and suppression of emotions 2- Lethargy: Fatigue 3- Lowering of fertility 4- Risk of cancer
10.2 Discuss the structural similarities and differences between LSD, mescaline and psilocybin.
LSD Formula C 20 H 25 N 3 O -Indole ring -Amide group -2 Ether groups - Amine
Indole ring six-membered benzene ring fused to a five- membered nitrogen-containing pyrrole ring Molecular formula :C 8 H 7 N 1- Pyrrole ring: five-membered ring with the formula C 4 H 4 NH
Psilocybin Formula C 12 H 17 N 2 O 4 P - 2 Ether groups - Phosphoric acid group - Hydroxyl group - Indole ring
Mescaline Formula C 11 H 17 NO 3 -Three Ether groups -Partial indole ring -Amine group
Compare and Contrast LSDPsilocybinMescaline Indole ringYes No Benzene ringYes Ether groupYes Phosphoric acid group NoYesNo Amide groupYesNo AmineYesNoYes Secondary and tertiary amine ------Primary
10.3 Discuss the arguments for and against the legalization of cannabis.
Legalization of Marijuana Arguments with: 1.Marijuana is available medically to many terminally ill patients as well as for some other conditions: cancer, epilepsy 2.Legalization would allow police to focus there efforts on more important matters 3.also taxes on marijuana would possibly generate large amounts of revenue
Legalization of Marijuana Arguments Against: 1-Increased costs to society: especially from cancer and heart disease from smoking 1.Increased danger from people driving under the influence, 2.Marijuana abuse would increase 3.Marijuana’s status as a gateway drug would lead to increased addiction to more dangerous drugs such as cocaine, methamphetamines, and heroin