Presentation on theme: "D10: Mind-Altering Drugs. Example 10.1 Describe the effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), mescaline, psilocybin and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)."— Presentation transcript:
D10: Mind-Altering Drugs
10.1 Describe the effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), mescaline, psilocybin and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).
Brief Info: Lysergic Acid Diethylamide Taken Orally Can be mixed with gelatin and put in the eyes AKA: Acid Derived from ergot, a grain fungus that typically grows on rye
Effects of LSD Short-term: 1- Restlessness 2- Dizziness 3- Desire to Laugh 4- Distortions in sound and visual perception 5- Unpleasant hallucinations: lead to despair and suicide 6- Takers might believe that they can “fly”
Effects of LSD contd. Long-term: 1- Severe Depression 2- Psychosis: radical changes in personality, impaired functioning, and a distorted or non- existent sense of objective reality. 3- Dramatic mood swings 4- Loss of communication skills 5- Loss of appetite
Brief info: Psilocybin Substance obtained from certain types of mushrooms : 1- Such as the “Psilocybe Semilanceata”, AKA: (Magic Mushroom). 2- Mushrooms typically contain 0. 2 to 0.4 percent psilocybin. Can be produced synthetically. Ingested orally
Effects of Psilocybin Short-term: 1- Hallucinations 2- Inability to distinguish between reality and fantasy 3- Panic reactions 4- Alteration of perception 5- Dilated pupils 6- Muscle weakness 7- Feeling of insight
Brief info: Mescaline Dark-brown powder ground from "buttons" of the Mexican cactus,“peyote”. Taken orally Bitter taste
Effects of Mescaline Short-term: 1- Headaches 2- Anxiety 3- Feeling of dying or annihilation 4- Euphoria 5- Hallucinations 6- Alters visual and auditory perception
Effects of Mescaline cont. Long-term: 1- Fear of not being able to return to normal consciousness 2- Hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (HPPD) 3- Alteration of Perception 4- Distortion of Senses 5- Liver damage
Brief info: tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) Active ingredient in Marijuana: 1-AKA weed or cannabis 2- Intake: A- Smoked in a Joint B- Mixed with water and inhaled using a Bong C- Baked into brownies 3- Made from the flowering tops, stems, leaves, and seeds of the Hemp plant
Effects of THC Short-term: 1- Feeling of relaxation 2- Enhanced auditory and visual perception 3- Loss of sense of time 4- Confusion 5- Emotional distress 6- Anxiety
Effects of THC cont. Long-term: 1- Apathy: feeling of indifference and suppression of emotions 2- Lethargy: Fatigue 3- Lowering of fertility 4- Risk of cancer
10.2 Discuss the structural similarities and differences between LSD, mescaline and psilocybin.
LSD Formula C 20 H 25 N 3 O -Indole ring -Amide group -2 Ether groups - Amine
Indole ring six-membered benzene ring fused to a five- membered nitrogen-containing pyrrole ring Molecular formula :C 8 H 7 N 1- Pyrrole ring: five-membered ring with the formula C 4 H 4 NH
Psilocybin Formula C 12 H 17 N 2 O 4 P - 2 Ether groups - Phosphoric acid group - Hydroxyl group - Indole ring
Mescaline Formula C 11 H 17 NO 3 -Three Ether groups -Partial indole ring -Amine group
Compare and Contrast LSDPsilocybinMescaline Indole ringYes No Benzene ringYes Ether groupYes Phosphoric acid group NoYesNo Amide groupYesNo AmineYesNoYes Secondary and tertiary amine Primary
10.3 Discuss the arguments for and against the legalization of cannabis.
Legalization of Marijuana Arguments with: 1.Marijuana is available medically to many terminally ill patients as well as for some other conditions: cancer, epilepsy 2.Legalization would allow police to focus there efforts on more important matters 3.also taxes on marijuana would possibly generate large amounts of revenue
Legalization of Marijuana Arguments Against: 1-Increased costs to society: especially from cancer and heart disease from smoking 1.Increased danger from people driving under the influence, 2.Marijuana abuse would increase 3.Marijuana’s status as a gateway drug would lead to increased addiction to more dangerous drugs such as cocaine, methamphetamines, and heroin