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Cyberbullying: A Literature Review Buffy Sue Fegenbush University of Louisiana at Lafayette St. Mary Parish School System

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Presentation on theme: "Cyberbullying: A Literature Review Buffy Sue Fegenbush University of Louisiana at Lafayette St. Mary Parish School System"— Presentation transcript:

1 Cyberbullying: A Literature Review Buffy Sue Fegenbush University of Louisiana at Lafayette St. Mary Parish School System Presented by: Dianne F. Olivier Department of Educational Foundations and Leadership University of Louisiana at Lafayette

2 Purpose and Framework  Purpose: to provide a comprehensive analysis of the current research on cyberbullying and the implications of the issues that surround it in order to develop future researchable hypotheses in the area of cyberbullying as it relates to school policy and practice  Research framework was developed around the works of Aftab, Hinduja & Patchin, Olweus, Shariff, and Willard

3 Cyberbullying - defined  Belsey (2001) and Willard (2001 & 2003)  Aftab – (2006) Cyberbullying is when a child, preteen or teen is tormented, threatened, harassed, humiliated, embarrassed or otherwise targeted by another child, preteen or teen using the Internet, interactive and digital technologies or mobile phones. It has to have a minor on both sides, or at least have been instigated by a minor against another minor. Once adults become involved, it is plain and simple cyber-harassment or cyberstalking. Adult cyber-harassment or cyberstalking is NEVER called cyberbullying.

4 From Traditional to Cyber: Our Kids Are Totally Wired  42% - 72% bullied online - up from the 20% for traditional bullying (Juvonen & Gross, 2008) PEW research 93% of teens are online 62% are online daily 71% own phones  Social Networks are booming for teens Persistence Searchability Replicability Invisible Audiences  Goodstein, (2007); PEW Researchers (2000 & 2006); Boyd (2008)

5 The Cyberbully (the medium changes the profile of the traditional bully) 4 types:  Vengeful Angel  Power Hungry / Revenge of the Nerds  Mean Girls  The Inadvertent Aftab, (2008); Trolley, (2006); Willard, (2007)

6 The Cyberbullied  Related issues: Depression Lack of friends To “themselves” High absenteeism Low school performance 6% - 10% sink into severe depression  Additional issues due to medium: Trust Home Safety

7 Cyberbystander and Stakeholders Cyberbystander:  Frequently left out of cyberbullying studies  Hard to define Other Stakeholders:  Parents  School Officials  School Boards

8 Cyberlaw and Legal Response  Cyberlaw: application of basic rights and legal precedents to cyber issues  Bullying is not a crime. The components that contribute to bully and cyberbullying are crimes, if proven. Intimidation, harassment, slander, etc. Remember child on child

9 Avenues for Cyberbullying Flaming Harassment Cyberstalking Denigration Masquerading Outing & Trickery Exclusion Language that moves dialogue to a new level Consistent messaging and repeating the action – harassment Harassment that is more serious in nature; this is a threat of impending harm This is the art of putting someone down - slander This is a person who poses as someone else to retrieve sensitive or private information - fraud This person is pretending to be a friend. It includes collecting private information and them sharing and mocking the individual Not allowing someone to be part of a group; intentionally leaving them or and not allow them to participate in electronic communication - exclusion Trolley, et al., (2006)

10 Cyberbullying: The Law Federal:  No formal decision thus far  2001 Children’s Internet Protection Act – revised State:  36 states with 10 addressing cyberbullying  2006, Florida: Jeff’s Law: obliges school systems to address the issues of bullying, including cyber  2007, Arkansas: Public Act 115: defined material and substantial disruption as it applied to bullying  2001, Louisiana Response: ACT 230

11 Policy Implications  NASSP Recommendations (2007) Considerations for how policy should be changed Guidelines for all stakeholders  California School Boards Association (2007) Outlined possible revisions to cover school systems Outlined specific, current policies to be addressed

12 Guiding Questions for Policy and Response?  Did the incident happen on campus or off? (nexus)  Can the school place restrictions on off-campus student free speech?  Does the student speech create a school climate that is not conducive to student well-being? (materially and substantially disruptive)  Were search and seizure measures followed? (reasonable suspicion)  Did the school act in a reasonable and prudent manner? (in loco parentis)  Mason, 2008

13 Willard’s Framework  Steps to review and respond to cyberbullying incidents for school administrators Review Process Actions and Options Form Incident Report and Evaluation  Recommends ongoing training and proactive measures to response

14 Discussion  Change of mindset needs to occur  Proactive measures are best for both  Reactive measures must be grounded in law  Acts of bullying and cyberbullying are not mutually exclusive  Research is limited in broader perspectives

15 Gaps and Future Research Gaps:  Limited Perception Data from all stakeholders  Limited SES and Racial Information  Limited legal application to cyberbullying  More research in the area of bystanders  More research connecting proactive measures to bullying – not exclusive measures  Digital Gap and understanding/response

16 Thank You! Questions?


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