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Roman Empire RomeRome, Villa Adriana, Villa d’Este, Ostia Antica, Pompeii, Erculano Villa AdrianaVilla d’Este Ostia AnticaPompeiiErculano RomeVilla AdrianaVilla.

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Presentation on theme: "Roman Empire RomeRome, Villa Adriana, Villa d’Este, Ostia Antica, Pompeii, Erculano Villa AdrianaVilla d’Este Ostia AnticaPompeiiErculano RomeVilla AdrianaVilla."— Presentation transcript:

1 Roman Empire RomeRome, Villa Adriana, Villa d’Este, Ostia Antica, Pompeii, Erculano Villa AdrianaVilla d’Este Ostia AnticaPompeiiErculano RomeVilla AdrianaVilla d’Este Ostia AnticaPompeiiErculano

2 Rome: The Coliseum ©Linda Moore 2001

3 Coliseum

4 Coliseum Animal Pits ©Linda Moore 2001

5 Coliseum Animal Pits ©Linda Moore 2001

6 Coliseum This plaque marks the time the Catholic Church assumed control of the Coliseum ©Linda Moore 2001

7 Arch of Constantine ©Linda Moore 2001

8 Arch of Titus ©Linda Moore 2001

9 Arch of Titus ©Linda Moore 2001

10 Forum The dark stones are the entrance to one of the first sewer systems built by the Romans. It emptied from the forum to the Tiber River. Dead gladiators from the Coliseum were carried to this point and thrown down the sewer to dispose of their bodies. ©Linda Moore 2001

11 Forum as seen from Arch of Titus ©Linda Moore 2001

12 Forum View from Arch of Titus ©Linda Moore 2001

13 Forum Columns are only surviving part of Temple for Romulus and Remus ©Linda Moore 2001

14 Forum The athletic grounds of the forum area located on front of the Arch of Severus. ©Linda Moore 2001

15 Arch of Severus ©Linda Moore 2001

16 Location of Marc Antony’s Eulogy Praising Julius Caesar ( Roof is in place to protect archeologists as they restore the ruins) ©Linda Moore 2001

17 Forum Columns of a Temple ©Linda Moore 2001

18 Forum Ruins ©Linda Moore 2001

19 Forum

20 Villa Adriana The spacious estate was designed by the emperor Hadrian around 120 AD. Hadrian was a “self-made” success story, having risen from a pauper to the Emperor of Rome. The villa was built to escape the hot, humid summers of Rome, and is thought to be mainly designed by Hadrian. It features two large pools as well as numerous buildings. The exterior walls have since fallen off leaving the brick interior framing as the remnants of the buildings

21 Villa Adriana ©Linda Moore 2001

22 Villa Adriana ©Linda Moore 2001

23 Villa Adriana ©Linda Moore 2001

24 Villa Adriana ©Linda Moore 2001

25 Villa Adriana ©Linda Moore 2001

26 Villa Adriana ©Linda Moore 2001

27 Villa Adriana Colonnade ©Linda Moore 2001

28 Villa Adriana (Arched area is like a “subway”, underground path for the chariots) ©Linda Moore 2001

29 Villa Adriana (Large arch is tunnel for chariots and small arch is pathway for pedestrians) ©Linda Moore 2001

30 Villa Adriana (Mosaic) ©Linda Moore 2001

31 Villa d’Este This villa was built around 1550 AD and features many fountains. The fountains are naturally driven using gravity and water pressure as the sole means of controlling the water flow. Engineers still come to Villa d’Este to study the methods employed.

32 Villa d’Este ©Linda Moore 2001

33 Villa d’Este ©Linda Moore 2001

34 Villa d’Este ©Linda Moore 2001

35 Villa d’Este ©Linda Moore 2001

36 Villa d’Este ©Linda Moore 2001

37 Villa d’Este ©Linda Moore 2001

38 Villa d’Este ©Linda Moore 2001

39 Ostia Antica Ostia was the main sea port for Rome. Ships from all over the Mediterranean visited the port to trade with the Romans. It also served as an escape for the hot Rome summers. The goods were taken up the Tiber River to Rome. A severe storm and subsequent flooding changed the flow of the river and made this area unable to be navigated by the ships. The modern city of Ostia stands where the sea port relocated. This was a large city and many structures remain. There is evidence of two and three story apartment buildings. The Upper Class Romans lived in these “condos” because they were located away from the mosquitoes and other pests of the river.

40 Ostia Antica The Sea Port of Rome Cemetery located just outside of city. ©Linda Moore 2001

41 Ostia Antica Shrines for worship by the chariot drivers ©Linda Moore 2001

42 Ostia Antica Shrine Close-up ©Linda Moore 2001

43 Ostia Antica Structural Remains of Shops ©Linda Moore 2001

44 Ostia Antica Central Area was meeting place for merchants. All trade regulations were created and enforced here. Stores lined the plaza. ©Linda Moore 2001

45 Ostia Antica Main thoroughfare lined with marble columns ©Linda Moore 2001

46 Ostia Antica Note the mosaics on the floors of these merchants’ homes. ©Linda Moore 2001

47 Ostia Antica Mosaic floors of sea merchants ©Linda Moore 2001

48 Ostia Antica Hot water was heated here and piped to the public baths nearby. ©Linda Moore 2001

49 Ostia Antica Not only were the baths public, but the toilets were also. They were split by sexes like we currently do (this is the women’s). ©Linda Moore 2001

50 Ostia Antica Flour Mill ©Linda Moore 2001

51 Ostia Antica Main Thoroughfare Leading to Theatre ©Linda Moore 2001

52 Ostia Antica Only remaining wall covering in Ostia. Located in tunnel leading into theatre ©Linda Moore 2001

53 Ostia Antica Theatre ©Linda Moore 2001

54 Ostia Antica Forum ©Linda Moore 2001

55 Pompeii & Erculano On August 24, 79 AD, Mt Vesuvius erupted in one of the most violent eruptions. A pyroclastic flow covered the port town of Pompeii, covering it in deadly gases and hot cinders. All organic material was destroyed as it burned under the covering of cinders. As the excavations took place in the late 1800’s air spaces were discovered in the cinder. Plaster molds were taken of the spaces, revealing the horror of the people of Pompeii as they took their last breaths. Erculano was a resort town located on the Bay of Naples. Most of the population were able to evacuate via the sea. Recently approximately 125 skeletons were uncovered in a cave. It is thought that these citizens were turned back by a tsunami generated by the ground movement of the eruption. The city of Erculano (Herculaneum), un like Pompeii, was covered by a mud flow from the eruption (lahars). The 79 AD Mt Vesuvius eruption marked the first recorded account of the eruption by Pliny the Younger. Two letters were written describing the eruption and the death of his uncle, Pliny the Elder, the chief of the Roman navy in the Bay of Naples.

56 Erculano View shows the depth of ancient Erculano as it sits below modern Erculano ©Linda Moore 2001

57 Erculano

58 Erculano

59 Erculano One of the first buildings within the walls of Erculano is this shrine of worship ©Linda Moore 2001

60 Erculano Public swimming pool with a statue to the goddess Hydra ©Linda Moore 2001

61 Erculano Mosaic tile of the swimming pool. Design shows swimmers, anchor and dolphins surrounded by a border of waves. ©Linda Moore 2001

62 Erculano Surviving wall fresco of a two story house ©Linda Moore 2001

63 Erculano

64 Erculano Well-preserved bakery. Wood handles would be inserted in holes of flour mills and slaves would walk around the mills, grinding the wheat into flour ©Linda Moore 2001

65 Erculano Each hole held a wine jug. This was the Roman version of a wine store. The water was not safe to drink, so the Romans used wine and other beverages to drink ©Linda Moore 2001

66 Erculano The original wood frames hold the ancient wine jars ©Linda Moore 2001

67 Erculano Amphora in corner and wine vat in foreground ©Linda Moore 2001

68 Erculano Best preserved mosaic known in Erculano ©Linda Moore 2001

69 Erculano Marble chariots ©Linda Moore 2001

70 Erculano Additional marble sculpture of chariots ©Linda Moore 2001

71 Erculano Outdoor Fountain, water would flow from lead pipe located in the hole of the mouth. ©Linda Moore 2001

72 Erculano Surviving columns with wood beams. Because Erculano was buried by mud, which hardened, some of the wood survived. ©Linda Moore 2001

73 Erculano Some of the original wood support beams are seen here. ©Linda Moore 2001

74 Erculano Original Exterior Door and Wood Beam ©Linda Moore 2001

75 Erculano The wood is all original as it appears above the largest piece of wood in Erculano (next slide) ©Linda Moore 2001

76 Erculano Original Interior Door ©Linda Moore 2001

77 Erculano More structural beams ©Linda Moore 2001

78 Erculano Mosaic of the hot bath in the public baths ©Linda Moore 2001

79 Erculano Mosaic in the cool bath ©Linda Moore 2001

80 Erculano Marble bench in bath house ©Linda Moore 2001

81 Erculano Wooden bed ©Linda Moore 2001

82 Erculano What is this? A printing press, grape press, instrument of torture? No it is the Roman version of an iron to press their togas! ©Linda Moore 2001

83 Pompeii Pompeii was covered by over 15 meters of hot ash and cinders in the 79 AD eruption of Mt Vesuvius. This pyroclastic flow, with its poisonous gases, covered all of the population and animals. Any organic substance was destroyed in the flow. During the late 1800’s the archeologists discovered air pockets in the cinder. They tried taking a mold of the pockets before they removed the ash. These molds revealed the horror of the death of the residents of Pompeii. Two of the molds are on display in Pompeii, the remaining molds can be found in the Archeological Museum in Naples. There remains over half of the city to excavate. Evidence of an elaborate plumbing system and billboards were revealed. Egyptian hieroglyphics have been uncovered as well. Pompeii was a major sea port of the Romans and was closer to the sea than it is today due to volcanic activity.

84 Pompeii Coliseum – Upper Class sat on concrete seat to the right and the rest of the populous sat on the grass. ©Linda Moore 2001

85 Pompeii Additional view of the coliseum showing the delineation of the seats for the classes ©Linda Moore 2001

86 Pompeii Athletic field. ©Linda Moore 2001

87 Pompeii Discoloration in center of picture is the remnants of a lead pipe. Pompeii had running water piped throughout the city. ©Linda Moore 2001

88 Pompeii Main thoroughfare of Pompeii. Ruts in the street are tracks worn into the basalt rocks by the chariots. ©Linda Moore 2001

89 Pompeii Atrium of an upper class home ©Linda Moore 2001

90 Pompeii Frescoes cover the walls. ©Linda Moore 2001

91 Pompeii Entrance to this home is bordered by two frescoes ©Linda Moore 2001

92 Pompeii Large pieces of basalt were placed in the street to act as stepping stones when it rained. They are spaced so that the chariots can pass through them. ©Linda Moore 2001

93 Pompeii Original wall of Pompeii (approximately 8 meters high). Area behind wall is unexcavated, but it is believed that more homes in the “suburbs” were buried in the eruption of 70 A.D. ©Linda Moore 2001

94 Pompeii Surviving “billboard” done in fresco. All exposed frescoes of value are protected by plexiglass. ©Linda Moore 2001

95 Pompeii Evidence of Egyptian Hieroglyphics indicate that the merchants of Pompeii traded with Egypt ©Linda Moore 2001

96 Pompeii Holes hold wine amphoras ©Linda Moore 2001

97 Pompeii Wine merchant’s display bar. People would come in with amphorae and fill them up with wine to carry home. ©Linda Moore 2001

98 Pompeii Common in homes with dogs. Basically says “beware of dog.” ©Linda Moore 2001

99 Pompeii Plaster casts of people who died in the 79 A,D, eruption ©Linda Moore 2001

100 Pompeii Imagine suffocating with hot cinders raining down on you. ©Linda Moore 2001

101 Pompeii Rare two story wall remaining in Pompeii ©Linda Moore 2001

102 Pompeii Fountain with original lead pipe ©Linda Moore 2001

103 Pompeii Mosaic in bath house ©Linda Moore 2001

104 Pompeii Main trade section of city. Closest to the “Marina Gate” ©Linda Moore 2001

105 Pompeii Main trade area with Mt Vesuvius in the background. Area on right side was used for livestock trade. ©Linda Moore 2001

106 Pompeii The Forum ©Linda Moore 2001

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