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**Common Core Standards – Mathematics**

Course Sequence and Placement Options for TUSD Middle Schools Kathie

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**The Big Ideas in Common Core**

Rigor Depth of Knowledge Taxonomy 1. Remember 2. Understand 3. Apply 4. Analyze 5. Evaluate 6. Create Relevance Perseverance

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**History of Common Core CCSS did not begin with President Obama.**

The shift began as a result of the first American comparative study by two educational researchers; Harold W. Stevenson and James Stigler.

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**By, Harold W. Stevenson & James W. Stigler 1992**

The Learning Gap By, Harold W. Stevenson & James W. Stigler 1992

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Purpose of Study 1970’s: concern that Math scores of American children were far below their Asian peers. What can we learn from the Asian cultures that will help the United States improve its educational system? Percentage of learning disabilities in Taiwan and Japan did not differ from US.

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**Academic Achievement in Mathematics**

United States Asia Cities used for study: Minneapolis Chicago Cities used for study: Sendai, Japan Taipei, Taiwan Beijing, China Sample: two cities from three countries in China, Japan, and the United States. To ensure validity, “Cities in different cultures were matched as closely as possible for size, economic, and cultural status within their countries” (p.33). U.S. cities chosen to sample: Minneapolis: to avoid an unusually large proportion of educationally disadvantaged. Ranks nationally in educational status. If they scored low on tests, it would be unlikely for other large urban areas to do better. Chicago: diverse population (private schools, inner-city schools, suburban schools) Results from study: In tests of Mathematics, for both grade levels, the scores of American children were far lower than Japanese and Chinese peers.

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**Behind the Study Harold W. Stevenson & James W. Stigler**

No prior comparative studies completed. Spent over a decade studying the development of children in the United States, China, and Japan. Based on findings, they conclude that changes must be made to educational system in America. America was the only nation to not have common national standards. “Studying other cultures can help us discover characteristics we fail to notice because we are so familiar with them” (p.16). Both professors of psychology Studied their professional lives studying the development of children

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Outcome of Study… Under the Bush Administration in 2001, the legislation for No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) in 2001 was enacted. California’s State Board of Education (SBE) adopted five Performance Goals: All students will reach high standards, at a minimum attaining proficiency or better in reading and mathematics, by All LEP students will become proficient in English and reach high academic standards in ELA and mathematics. By , all students will be taught by highly qualified teachers. All students will be educated in learning environments that are safe, drug free, and conducive to learning. All students will graduate from high school.

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**Hence…AYP, API & AMO’s: Mathematics**

All Elementary and Middle Schools in the Tustin Unified School District must reach these Goals!

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**Purpose of Today’s Meeting**

To provide information on California’s Common Core State Standards for Mathematics and our plans to adjust courses to align them with the new standards. To provide parents the opportunity to learn about our recommendations for course placement in mathematics, opportunities for acceleration, and what to do if you have concerns with your student’s placement recommendation.

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Background The implementation of the Common Core State Standards in Mathematics (CCSSM) requires rethinking not only course content, but also course sequencing. The CCSS-Mathematics are greatly accelerated, more rigorous, and contain more content than the 1997 Content Standards. In addition, the CCSS add an additional course (Grade 8 Math) at the Middle School level. Video…

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Video Common Core State Standards for Math

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Recent Events The CCSS – Mathematics were published by the CA Department of Education in final format in August 2013. The ELA and Math components of the STAR program (CSTs, CMA, CAPA) were suspended by the Governor and State Board of Education on October 2, 2013. Our students will take the new CalMAPP tests in Spring 2015 Therefore, we have the opportunity this year to align our mathematics curriculum to the CCSS and fill the content and depth of complexity gaps created by the more rigorous standards.

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**2013 California Framework Progression Sequence**

Progression of Mathematics Courses K - 5 Kindergarten Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 6 – 8 Grade 6 Grade 7 Grade 8 Higher Math (9 – 12) Algebra I Geometry Algebra II Advanced Math AP Probability & Statistics Calculus TUSD Additional Offerings: Intermediate Algebra II Pre-Calculus AP Calculus AB AP Calculus BC Applied Calculus IB Math SL

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**Comparing Old to New 1997 Framework On Grade Level: Grade 6 - Math**

Grade 7 - Pre-Algebra Grade 8 - Algebra I Not On Grade Level: Grade 8 - General Math (for students not enrolled in Algebra I, penalty on API for General Math test) 2013 CCSS Framework Grade 6 Math Grade 7 Math Grade 8 Math Algebra I moved to high school Grade 8 students in Algebra I take the Grade 8 Math CalMAPP test

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**Recommendation for TUSD**

Two Course Pathways for Students Traditional Course Pathway Grade 6 Math Grade 7 Math Grade 8 Math Accelerated Grade 6 First 1/2 of Grade 7 Math Grade 7 Second 1/2 of Grade 7 Math Grade 8 - Algebra I Packs Algebraic skills over 3 years to build strong conceptual skills.

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Why take this path?

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**Math Subject Area Council – Standards Analysis**

Teacher representatives from all schools, grade levels, and math courses participated Examined the CCSS standards and compared them to the 1997 standards Found great differences in the CCSS, particularly in middle school grades Differences were noted in an expanded curriculum, greater depth and complexity, significant content shifts, emphasis on literacy, and first instances of spiral curriculum for high school Geometry (6th grade)

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**CST vs. CCSS Standards 1997 Algebra I – 2.0 CCSS Algebra I - N-RN.1**

Students understand and use such operations as taking the opposite, finding the reciprocal, taking a root, and raising to a fractional power. They understand and use the rules of exponents. CCSS Algebra I - N-RN.1 Explain how the definition of the meaning of rational exponents follows from extending the properties of integer exponents to those values, allowing for a notation for radicals in terms of rational exponents. For example, we define 51/3 to be the cube root of 5 because we want (51/3)3 = 5(1/3)3 to hold, so (51/3)3 must equal 5.

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**Corresponding 1997 Standard**

Rigor New CCSS Standard Algebra I – IF-F.4 For a function that models a relationship between two quantities, interpret key features of graphs and tables in terms of the quantities, and sketch graphs showing key features given a verbal description of the relationship. Key features include: intercepts; intervals where the function is increasing, decreasing, positive, or negative; relative maximums and minimums; symmetries; end behavior; and periodicity. Corresponding 1997 Standard Trigonometry Students know the definition of sine and cosine as y-and x-coordinates of points on the unit circle and are familiar with the graphs of the sine and cosine functions. Calculus Students use differentiation to sketch, by hand, graphs of functions. They can identify maxima, minima, inflection points, and intervals in which the function is increasing and decreasing.

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**Grade 8 CCSS Mathematics**

The Grade 8 CCSS Math contain a large number of accelerated 1997 Content Standards: Algebra I (26) Geometry (11) Statistics, Data Analysis, and Probability (5) Plus 6 Completely New Math Standards

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**Algebra 1 Analysis Results**

The CCSS for Algebra I contain a large number of accelerated 1997 Content Standards and Sub-standards: Algebra II (15) AP Probability and Statistics (6) Probability and Statistics (5) Pre-Calculus (1) Calculus (2) Trigonometry (3) Algebra I (60) Plus 19 Completely New Algebra I Standards

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**Addressing acceleration**

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Goals Increase the number of students taking four years of high school mathematics. Maintain or increase the number of students taking Advanced Placement and other advanced high school mathematics courses.

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Any acceleration should take into consideration a commitment of four years of high school mathematics. Successful transitions beyond high school, without the need for remediation, are in part dependent on students’ consistent math enrollment throughout high school. (WestEd, 2013) Irrespective of students’ math performance, taking four years of high-school math strengthens their postsecondary and employment opportunities in STEM-related fields. (WestEd, 2013)

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**Challenges to Acceleration**

42% of TUSD’s students in Grade 12 are currently enrolled in an advanced math course in their 4th year of high school math. (AP Calculus AB/BC, IB Math SL, Applied Calculus, AP Statistics, Pre-Calculus) 57% their 4th year of high school math.

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**Two Pathways – Four Years of High School Math**

5th Grade Year 6th Grade Year 7th Grade Year 8th Grade Year Freshmen Year Sophomore Year Junior Year Senior Year IB Math SL AP Calc AB Accelerated Path Honors Option Courses AP Calc BC Math 6A* Math 7A* Algebra 1* Geometry Algebra 2 Pre-Calc Applied Calculus Math 5* AP Statistics Math 6 Math 7 Math 8 Algebra 1 Geometry Algebra 2 Finite Math Traditional Path Pre-Calc * Signifies a course with an end of year mastery exam.

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**Is Middle School Acceleration Possible?**

1 Advancing students through the sequence requires compacted courses without omitting content. 2 Skipping standards is not recommended, as students will miss foundational skills. 3 The creation of compacted courses must include all standards (i.e. covering and mastering content for more than one grade level in one school year).

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**Challenges to Acceleration**

42-minute class periods in middle school equate to one lost class period per week as compared to high school length periods. More content needs to be covered in these 42 minutes. Acceleration may require a two-period math structure, before or after school tutorials, or summer school to accommodate the sheer amount of content involved with compacting 1.5 years of content into one school year. Although accelerated Grade 8 students may take Algebra I, at this time Grade 8 students will take the Grade 8 Mathematics CalMAPP Assessment.

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**Decisions to accelerate students, especially in middle school, should be carefully considered.**

Solid evidence of mastery of prerequisite standards should be required; diagnostic testing can help identify strengths and challenges in particular areas of math content (WestEd, 2013).

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**Three Pathways – Four Years of High School Math**

5th Grade Year 6th Grade Year 7th Grade Year 8th Grade Year Enrichment Summer School 9th Grade Year 10th Grade Year 11th Grade Year 12th Grade Year IB Math SL Super Accelerated Path AP Calc BC Math 6A* Math 7A* Algebra 1* Geometry Algebra 2 Pre-Calc AP Calc AB AP Calc BC Accelerated Path Honors Option Courses AP Calc AB Math 6A* Math 7A* Algebra 1* Geometry Algebra 2 Pre-Calc Applied Calculus Math 5* AP Statistics Super Accelerated Track for highly gifted Math students will be discussed on an individual basis. Finite Math Math 6 Math 7 Math 8 Algebra 1 Geometry Algebra 2 Pre-Calc Traditional Path * Signifies a course with an end of year mastery exam.

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**Two Course Pathways for Students**

Recommendation Two Course Pathways for Students Traditional Course Pathway Grade 6 Math Grade 7 Math Grade 8 Math Accelerated Grade 6 First 1/2 of Grade 7 Math Grade 7 Second 1/2 of Grade 7 Math Grade 8 - Algebra I Packs Algebraic skills over 3 years to build strong conceptual skills.

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**Questions? Please pass your cards to the outside of your rows.**

Pioneer teachers will look for patterns of frequently asked questions and we will address them tonight.

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NEXT STEPS… Teachers will be making recommendations based upon multiple measures: CCSS Math 8 End of Year Assessment Current performance and grades Teacher observation Results of current common assessments Student’s recommendations will be submitted to parent portal no later than Wednesday, November 13 at 4:30 p.m. In the event your family does not agree with the recommendation please complete the placement letter that will be going home next week and we will schedule a meeting with either Mrs. Koski or Mrs. Miranda.

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**Questions? Please complete a card with your question(s).**

We will have them posted on the Pioneer website within the next 48 hours on a FAQ sheet titled “CCSS Math”. Thank you very much for attending and please know that your Wildcat is our number one priority at Pioneer Middle School!

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