2What You Should LearnFind the domains and ranges of functions and use the Vertical Line Test for functionsDetermine intervals on which functions are increasing, decreasing, or constantDetermine relative maximum and relative minimum values of functionsIdentify and graph piecewise-defined functionsIdentify even and odd functions
4Example 1 – Finding the Domain and Range of a Function Use the graph of the function f shown below to find:(a) the domain of f, (b) the function values f (–1) and f (2), and (c) the range of f.Figure 1.18
5Example 1 – Solutiona. The closed dot at (–1, –5) indicates that x = –1 is in thedomain of f, whereas the open dot at (4, 0) indicates that x = 4 is not in the domain. So, the domain of f is all x in the interval [–1, 4).Therefore, Domain = [-1,4) which includes -1, but not 4.b. Because (–1, –5) is a point on the graph of f, it follows thatf (–1) = –5.
6Example 1 – Solutioncont’dSimilarly, because (2, 4) is a point on the graph of f, it follows thatf (2) = 4.c. Because the graph does not extend below f (–1) = –5or above f (2) = 4, the range of is the interval [–5, 4].Therefore, Range = [-5,4] which includes -5 and 4.
7The Graph of a FunctionBy the definition of a function, each x value may only correspond to one y value. It follows, then, that a vertical line can intersect the graph of a function at most once. This leads to the Vertical Line Test for functions.
8Example 3 – Vertical Line Test for Functions Use the Vertical Line Test to decide whether the graphs inFigure 1.19 represent y as a function of x.(a)(b)Figure 1.19
9Example 3 – Solutiona. This is not a graph of y as a function of x because you can find a vertical line that intersects the graph twice.b. This is a graph of y as a function of x because every vertical line intersects the graph at most once.
11Increasing and Decreasing Functions Consider the graph shown below.Moving from left to right, this graph falls from x = –2 to x = 0, is constant from x = 0 to x = 2, and rises from x = 2 to x = 4.Figure 1.20
13Example 4 – Increasing and Decreasing Functions In Figure 1.21, determine the open intervals on which each function is increasing, decreasing, or constant.(a)(b)(c)Figure 1.21
14Example 4 – SolutionAlthough it might appear that there is an interval in which this function is constant, you can see that if x1 < x2, then (x1)3 < (x2)3, which implies that f (x1) < f (x2).This means that the cube of a larger number is bigger than the cube of a smaller number. So, the function is increasing over the entire real line.
15Example 4 – Solutioncont’db. This function is increasing on the interval ( , –1),decreasing on the interval (–1, 1), and increasing on theinterval (1, ).c. This function is increasing on the interval ( , 0), constant on the interval (0, 2), and decreasing on the interval (2, ).
17Relative Minimum and Maximum Values The points at which a function changes its increasing, decreasing, or constant behavior are helpful in determining the relative maximum or relative minimum values of the function.
18Relative Minimum and Maximum Values Figure 1.22 shows several different examples of relative minima and relative maxima.Figure 1.22
20Example 8 – Sketching a Piecewise-Defined Function Sketch the graph of2x + 3, x ≤ 1–x + 4, x > 1by hand.f (x) =
21Example 8 – SolutionSolution: This piecewise-defined function is composed of two linear functions. At and to the left of x = 1, the graph is the line given by y = 2x + 3. To the right of x = 1, the graph is the line given by y = –x + 4
22Example 8 – Solution The two linear functions are combined and below. cont’dThe two linear functions are combined and below.Notice that the point (1, 5) is a solid dot and the point (1, 3) is an open dot. This is because f (1) = 5.Figure 1.29
24Even and Odd FunctionsA graph has symmetry with respect to the y-axis if whenever (x, y) is on the graph, then so is the point (–x, y).A graph has symmetry with respect to the origin if whenever (x, y) is on the graph, then so is the point (–x, –y).A graph has symmetry with respect to the x-axis if whenever (x, y) is on the graph, then so is the point (x, –y).
25Even and Odd FunctionsA function whose graph is symmetric with respect to the y -axis is an even function. A function whose graph is symmetric with respect to the origin is an odd function.
26Even and Odd FunctionsA graph that is symmetric with respect to the x-axis is not the graph of a function (except for the graph of y = 0). These three types of symmetry are illustrated in Figure 1.30.Symmetric to y-axis Even functionSymmetric to origin Odd functionSymmetric to x-axis Not a functionFigure 1.30
28Example 10 – Even and Odd Functions Determine whether each function is even, odd, or neither.a. g(x) = x3 – xb. h(x) = x2 + 1c. f (x) = x3 – 1Solution:a. This function is odd becauseg (–x) = (–x)3+ (–x)= –x3 + x= –(x3 – x)= –g(x).
29Example 10 – Solution b. This function is even because h (–x) = (–x)2 + 1= x2 + 1= h (x).c. Substituting –x for x producesf (–x) = (–x)3 – 1= –x3 – 1.
30Example 10 – Solution Because f (x) = x3 – 1 and –f (x) = –x3 + 1 cont’dBecausef (x) = x3 – 1and–f (x) = –x3 + 1you can conclude thatf (–x) f (x)f (–x) –f (x).So, the function is neither even nor odd.