2Our Goal todayYou will be able to explain How Imperialist European powers claim control over most of Africa by the end of the 1800s by
3VocabularyImperialismProtectorateSphere of Influence
4ImperialismImperialism – the domination by one country of the political, economic, or cultural life of another country or region – Aggressive expansionWhere have we seen Imperialism so far in history?
5Imperialism Causes of Imperialism Economic Interests The more area you own the more money you makePolitical and Military InterestsNationalism demanded that nations conquer around the worldHumanitarian GoalsMany felt it their duty to spread the ways of Western CivilizationSocial DarwinismMany embraced the idea of racial superiorityRudyard Kipling – Author of “The Jungle Book” and the poem “White Man’s Burden”
6Why did Imperialism spread? Many older civilizations were in decline and not strong enough to resist the Westerners.Europeans had strong economies, powerful militaries, technology, and improved medical knowledge.Advanced weapons
7The maxim gun.. The real reason Europeans were able to defeat African and Asian forces
8Forms of imperial ruleThe French – direct rule – they sent French leaders to administer the colonies and impose French culture on the coloniesBritish – indirect rule- or protectorate. they used local leaders and educated the children of ruling classes in Britain.Sphere of Influence – outside power claims exclusive investment or trading privileges.
9Review What is Imperialism? What were the 4 causes of Imperialism during the period of ?How did western imperialist spread though Africa and Asia so quicklyCompare and contrast how Britain and France ruled their colonies
10Imperialism Egypt Seeks to Modernize Muhammad Ali – Governor of Egypt (1805)Known as the “Father of Modern Egypt”Improved tax collection, reorganized the landholding system, and backed large irrigation projectsAlso brought in western military experts to modernize Egypt’s armyDies in 1849Successors build the Suez Canal
13ImperialismIranRun by the Qajar Shahs from 1794 to Pahlavi Shahs from 1925 to 1979Russia and Britain came into Iran and discovered oilBoth Russia and Britain convinced Iran to grant them access to the oilRussian and Britain send in troops to protect their oil interestsIranian nationalists and Muslim religious leaders were outragedHow does this fit into today’s current events?
14Imperialism The British take over India India was home of many cultures and peoplesWhen Britain came in they could not unite to prevent itBritish were in India to make moneyThey tried to convert Indians to ChristianityBritish also worked to end slavery and improve women’s rightsBritish also sought to end the Hindu custom of “sati” – widows were expected to join their husbands in death by throwing themselves on the funeral fireGanesha – God in HinduismSati
15Warm Up What is Sati? What did Russia and Britain want in Iran? Who was Muhammad Ali? What did his successors do?Why is the Suez Canal important?What is a Shah?This governor of New Mexico was already asked to step down from his Obama cabinet position because of corruption charges.
16ImperialismBritish required “sepoys”, or Indian soldiers to serve Britain anywhere in the worldAlso allowed widows to remarryFinally the British issued new rifles to the sepoys that required soldiers to bite off the tips of cartridgesThe cartridges were greased with animal fat either from cows (sacred) or pigs (forbidden)All three acts were against the Hindu religion
17Imperialism Sepoy Rebellion (1857) Sepoys massacre British men, women and childrenBritish send in more troops and crush the rebellionTook revenge for the uprising by torching villages and killing thousands of unarmed IndiansBritish Parliament makes India British owned territoryThe appoint a British viceroy to rule India for the crown
18ImperialismAmritsar Massacre (1919) – 1,100 Indians gathered into a walled field – Indian meetings were prohibited so the British commander ordered his troops to open fire, killing 379 men, women and childrenMany Indians had to fight for the British in WWIIndia sought self-rule
19Imperialism Mohandas Gandhi (1869-1948) Studied law in England Joined a law firm in South AfricaAdopted the weapon of nonviolent protest and resistanceAlso known as civil disobedience or refusal to obey unjust lawsEmbraced Hindu traditionsInspired India to protest against British ruleGandhi inspired Indians to protest for their freedom from British Colonial RuleMohandas Gandhi
21Warm UpWhat country was Gandhi from? Where did he study law? Where was he a lawyer?What happened in the Amritsar Massacre/Massacre at the Golden Temple?What is a sepoy?What were 3 ways that the English violated the Hindu religion?What is a sati?Who is the father of Modern Egypt?Why is the Suez Canal important?What country was the “Underwear Bomber” from?A 7.0 earthquake just hit this country.
22Imperialism in China The Opium War - 1839 Chinese become addicted to OpiumBritain was supplying Opium to the Chinese even though it was illegal in EnglandChinese outlaw Opium and execute drug dealersBritish refuse to stop supplying China with OpiumChinese ships clash with British ships but are outgunned and defeatedBritish force Chinese to sign the Treaty of NanjingBritish gain Hong Kong in the treaty
23Imperialism in China In early 1800’s the Qing dynasty was in decline Irrigation systems and canals were poorly maintained which caused massive floodingThis leads to the Taiping Rebellion20 – 30 million die in this rebellionQing dynasty remains intact, but is severely weakened
24Imperialism in China War with Japan Qing Dynasty Falls Sino-Japanese WarJapan is industrialized; China is notChina is crushed – Western nations move swiftly to carve out areas of ChinaBritish - Yangzi River ValleyFrench – IndochinaGermany/Russia – Northern ChinaUS – Stayed awayQing Dynasty Falls
25Japan modernizes Japan had a policy of isolation Everything they did was internal from 1600 to 1853This is also the time of the Shogun and SamuraiJapan was scared by the fact that Western Powers carved up ChinaJapan were worried that they would be nextIn 1853 the United States sailed for JapanLed by Matthew Perry, they landed in Tokyo Bay and brought a letter from President Franklin Pierce demanding that they open it’s ports for diplomatic and commercial change
26Japan ModernizesJapan realizes that it can not defeat the United States so it gives inJapan signs the lopsided Treaty of KanagawaThe Samurai revolt and appoint a new emperorThis is known as the Meiji RestorationThe Emperor sends his samurai to Western nations to learn the ways of Industrialized nationsTheir goal was to beat the West at their own gameTheir motto was, “A rich country, a strong military”
27Japan Modernizes Reforms under the Meiji GovernmentJapan adopts the German form of government – Democracy with a ruler (emperor) having the final sayEliminated the special rights of the Samurai – all men were now able to be warriors in the militaryEconomicJapan moves to modernize and build industryCapitalismJapan becomes one of the most powerful nations in the world and forces Western Nations to revise lopsided treaties
28Japan Modernizes Japan begins to seek Imperialistic goals Japan easily defeats China in the Sino-Japanese warJapan eventually defeats the Russians in the Russo-Japanese WarThis marks the first time in history that an Asian power defeated a European nation
29Warm Up What was the fighting about in the Opium War? What two nations were fighting?Who won?What treaty did they sign as a result?Who did it favor?What dynasty ruled during the Opium War?What is the Taiping Rebellion? How many died?What causes the Qing Dynasty to fall?What nations carve up parts of China?What was the Samurai Revolt about?Who is Matthew Perry and what did he do?A 7.0 earthquake just hit this country.
30Japan Modernizes China, Russia and Japan compete for control of Korea Japan wins and ultimately makes Korea sign a lopsided treatyJapan ruled Korea from 1910 to 1945Japan industrialized KoreaJapan becomes the strongest nation in the East
32Southeast Asia and the pacific Western nations fight over this areaFrench seize Vietnam, Laos, and CambodiaRename it French IndochinaDutch take IndonesiaBritish take Burma (modern day Myanmar), the city of Singapore and MalayaSiam (Thailand) survived European Imperialism – Provided a buffer zone between French and British Territories
34Southeast Asia and the pacific United States makes Samoa sign an unequal treatyUnited States is also interested in the sugar plantations of Hawaii – The United States annex HawaiiThe United States takes the Philippines under control after the Spanish-American War