Presentation on theme: "The Age of Revolutions How did the Enlightenment influence the formation of modern governments?"— Presentation transcript:
The Age of Revolutions How did the Enlightenment influence the formation of modern governments?
I. Background A.Calls for Revolution - As Enlightenment thinkers made new ideas bout human nature and the best forms of government, people began to reflect on their own governments and were dissatisfied. B. Enlightened Despots – Some European monarchs like Frederick the Great of Prussia, and Catherine the Great of Russia tried to apply Enlightenment ideas to their own rule: 1.Establish universities and scientific societies. 2.Reforms to end capital punishment, increase religious tolerance, and end torture. 3.But they did not want to decrease power of government or nobles
II. England A.Civil War begings in Parliament led by Oliver Cromwell takes over the country and beheads Charles I (Henry VIII’s son) in 1649 because he wasn’t respecting their rights and powers. 1.Cromwell becomes a violent dictator. Rules until Parliament asks Charles II to rule as long as Parliament can keep its new powers including the right to approve new taxes 3.James II takes over after Charles II death but he is an unpopular Catholic that pushes Catholicism. 4.William Of Orange and wife Mary asked to take over in 1688 but have to agree to the English Bill of Rights before taking the crown. They are Protestant.
II. England B. English Bill of Rights – written to limit the power of the King. 1.Protects British parliament rights to: A.Trial by jury B.Petition the king for change2. 2. The king must consult Parliament before: a. Raising an army b.Taxing the people c.Suspending laws d. establishing a state religion. 3. The US modeled our Constitution after some of these ideas.
III. American Revolution 1776 A.Colonists in North America were not happy with their English King (King George III) because they had no representation in Parliament and no protection of their individual rights. B.Colonists rebel by writing the Declaration of Independence (Thomas Jefferson) which was based on Enlightenment Ideas from Rousseau, Locke (natural rights), Montesquieu (separation of powers), Becerra (rights of accused), and Voltaire (Freedom of Speech). C.Americans create a government that fails, Articles of Confederation. Then create the U.S. Constitution with three parts (Montesquieu's idea) of government. 1.Executive Branch headed by president 2.Legislative Branch (Congress) to make laws 3.Judicial Branch (Supreme Court) to interpret/enforce laws.
IV. French Revolution 1789 A.Inspired by American Revolution and Enlightenment ideas. B.National Assembly adopted the Declartion of the Rights of Man and Citizen which protected liberty, equality, freedom of speech, freedom of religion, and right to own property. C.National Assembly overthrows King Louis XVI starting the Reign of Terror, the king his wife Marie Antoinette, the royal family, the upper class, and anyone who questioned the National Assembly (beheading thousands on the guillotine). D.Napoleon Bonaparte takes over as dictator and expands the nation. E.Eventually their for a democratic government.