4Some students prefer to skim through a course. If you really want to succeed you need to go deep!
5Learning Skills Take Responsibility (it’s your education) Have Confidence (you can do it!)Don‘t Procrastinate (study for final now)Read/Listen Precisely (ignore things that just aren’t there)Practice (use practice tests)Persistence (get up one more time than you fall down)Recognize Patterns (most things are done the same way)Use Pictures (outline problem)Think Sequentially (one step at a time)Do Neat work (so you can check it)Group Study (explain things to each other)Try Something New (don’t keep repeating failures)Get HelpRCPSNGHLearning Skills Power Point
6Using This BookConcept check problems are found within the chapter with the solutions right there with the problem.Exercise problems are found within the chapter with select answers in the back of the book.Homework is assigned from the Internet. You should check the Eduspace link from my Main Web site under Chemistry 1a for instructions.
7Using This BookA CD comes with the book that has tutorials, practice quizzes and other aids. Those not doing well in the class should consider using some of these aids.There is also a web site. It has practice tests, flash cards, animations, etc.(http://college.hmco.com/chemistry/general/ebbing/general_chem/8e/students/index.html )
8Chemistry and Measurement 1.1 Modern Chemistry1.2 Experiment and Explanation1.3 Law of Conservation of Mass1.4 Matter2
10Democritus ( BC)Greek Philosopher who first coined the word “atomos”.
11What Is Chemistry?Chemistry is the study of the composition, structure, and properties of matter and energy and changes that matter undergoes.Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass.Energy is the “ability to do work.”2
12ArchimedesArchimedes lived in Syracuse on the island of Sicily.
13Archimedes A comparison of Archimedes’ Pulleys and Study! Big Study! Little Study!
14Father of the Scientific Method Galileo GalileiFather of the Scientific MethodHeavy things fall faster than light things????Aristotle
15Experiment and Explanation Experiment and explanation are the heart of chemical research.An experiment is an observation of natural phenomena carried out in a controlled manner so that the results can be duplicated and rational conclusions obtained.After a series of experiments, a researcher may See some relationship or regularity in the results.2
16Experiment and Explanation If the regularity or relationship is fundamental and we can state it simply, we call it a law.A law is a concise statement or mathematical equation about a fundamental relationship or regularity of nature.An example is the law of conservation of mass, which says that mass, or quantity of matter, remains constant during any chemical change.2
17Experiment and Explanation Explanations help us organize knowledge and predict future events.A hypothesis is a tentative explanation of some regularity of nature.If a hypothesis successfully passes many tests, it becomes known as a theory.A theory is a tested explanation of basic natural phenomena.2
18Experiment and Explanation The general process of advancing scientific knowledge through observation, laws, hypotheses, or theories is called the scientific method.2
19The Scientific Method Examples: Pons and Fleishman, Univ. of Utah. HoroscopeWeather.Your Assignment:Formulate a Problem.Observe and collect Data.Interpret Data.Test your Interpretation.
20Matter: Physical State and Chemical Constitution There are two principal ways of classifying matter:By its physical state as a solid, liquid, or gas.By its chemical constitution as an element, compound, or mixture.2
21Solids, Liquids, and Gases Solid: the form of matter characterized by rigidity; a solid is relatively incompressible and has a fixed shape and volume.Liquid: the form of matter that is a relatively incompressible fluid; liquid has a fixed volume but no fixed shape.Gas: the form of matter that is an easily compressible fluid; a given quantity of gas will fit into a container of almost any size in shape.2
22Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures To understand how matter is classified by its chemical constitution we must first look at physical and chemical changes.A physical change is a change in the form of matter but not in its chemical identity.Physical changes are usually reversible.No new compounds are formed during a physical change.Melting ice is an example of a physical change.2
23Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures (cont’d) A chemical change, or chemical reaction, is a change in which one or more kinds of matter are transformed into a new kind of matter or several new kinds of matter.Chemical changes are usually irreversible.New compounds are formed during a chemical change.The rusting of iron is an example of a chemical change.2
24Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures (cont’d) A physical property is a characteristic that can be observed for material without changing its chemical identity.Examples are physical state (solid, liquid,or gas), melting point, and color.A chemical property is a characteristic of a material involving its chemical change.A chemical property of iron is its ability to react with oxygen to produce rust.2
25Matter Pure Substances Mixtures Classification of Matter Separate by Chemical Processes -burning -fermentation -rustingSeparate by Physical Processes -filtering -distillation -centrifugingMatterPure SubstancesMixturesElements (atoms)Compounds (molecules)Homogeneous (solutions)Heterogeneous (most things)AirSodasOcean WaterAlcoholic drinksGraniteSandWoodOrange JuiceHydrogenOxygenCopperZincWaterAlcoholSugarSalt
31Chemistry and Measurement 1.5 Measurement and Significant Figures1.6 SI Units1.7 Derived Units1.8 Units and Dimensional Analysis
32Measurement and Significant Figures Measurement is the comparison of a physical quantity to be measured with a unit of measurement -- that is, with a fixed standard of measurement.The term precision refers to the closeness of the set of values obtained from identical measurements of a quantity.Accuracy is a related term; it refers to the closeness of a single measurements to its true value.2
34Measurement and Significant Figures (cont’d) To indicate the precision of a measured number (or result of calculations on measured numbers), we often use the concept of significant figures.Significant figures are those digits in a measured number (or result of the calculation with a measured number) that include all certain digits plus a final one having some uncertainty.2
35Scientific Notation Useful with very large and very small numbers. Decimal always after first digit.Use x 10n where n is the number of decimal places you must move the decimal to get it just after the first digit.Positive exponents represent large numbers.2,340,000,000,000,000 = 2.34 x 1015Negative exponents represent small numbers.= 2.34 x 10-15
36Measurement Accuracy How long is this steel rod? There is no such thing as a totally accurate measurement!
37Significant FiguresNumbers that measure or contribute to our accuracy.The more significant figures we have the more accurate our measurement.Significant figures are determined by our measurement device or technique.
38Rules of Determining the Number of Significant Figures 1. All non-zero digits are significant.234 = 3 sig figs = 4 sig figs ,234.2 = 5 sig figs2. All zeros between non-zero digits are significant.203 = 3 sig figs = 4 sig figs ,030.2 = 5 sig figs
39Rules of Determining the Number of Significant Figures 3. All zeros to the right of the decimal and to the right of the last non-zero digit are significant.2.30 = 3 sig figs = 4 sig figs = 5 sig figs4. All zeros to the left of the first non-zero digit are NOT significant.= 3 sig figs = 4 sig figs = 5 sig figs
40Rules of Determining the Number of Significant Figures Zeros to the right of the first non-zero digit and to the left of the decimal may or may not be significant. They must be written in scientific notation.2300 = 2.3 x 103 or 2.30 x 103 or x 1032 sig figs sig figs sig figs
41Rules of Determining the Number of Significant Figures 6. Some numbers have infinite significant figures or are exact numbers.233 people cats (unless in biology lab)7 cars on the highway schools in town
42How many significant figures are in each of the following? 1)4 significant figures2)5 significant figures3)4 significant figures4) 2102 or 3 significant figures5) 200 studentsinfinite significant figures1, 2, 3, or 4 significant figures6) 3000
43Using Significant Figures in Calculations Addition and SubtractionLine up the decimals.Add or subtract.Round of to first full column.= ?= 38.4 or three significant fingures
44Using Significant Figures in Calculations Multiplication and DivisionDo the multiplication or division.Round answer off to the same number of significant figures as the least number in the data.(23.345)(14.5)(0.523) = ?= 177 or three significant figures
45Measurement in Chemistry Length Mass Volume Timemeter gram Liter secondKm=1000m Kg=1000g KL=1000L 1min=60sec100cm=1m 1000mg=1 g 1000mL=1L 60min=1hr1000mm=1mSI SystemFoot pound gallon secondBritish12in=1ft 16oz=1 lb 4qt=1gal (same)3ft=1yd 2000 lb=1 ton 2pts=1qt5280ft=1mile
46Table 1.5 Relationships of Some U.S. and Metric Units LengthMassVolume1 in = 2.54 cm1 lb = kg1 qt = L1 yd = m1 lb = 16 oz4 qt = 1 gal1 mi = km1 oz = g1 mi = 5280 ft1 L = 1.06 qt1 lb = 454 g2
47Table 1.3 SI Prefixes Multiple Prefix Symbol 106 mega M 103 kilo k 10-1deciD10-2centiC10-3millim10-6micro10-9nanon10-12picop2
48Units: Dimensional Analysis In performing numerical calculations, it is good practice to associate units with each quantity.The advantage of this approach is that the units for the answer will come out of the calculation.And, if you make an error in arranging factors in the calculation, it will be apparent because the final units will be nonsense.2
49Unit ConversionSodium hydrogen carbonate (baking soda) reacts with acidic materials such as vinegar to release carbon dioxide gas. Given an experiment calling for kg of sodium hydrogen carbonate, express this mass in milligrams.x0.348 kg x103 g1 kg103 mg1 g= x 105 mg
50Units: Dimensional Analysis Dimensional analysis (or the factor-label method) is the method of calculation in which one carries along the units for quantities.Suppose you simply wish to convert 20 yards to feet.Note that the units have cancelled properly to give the final unit of feet.2
51Units: Dimensional Analysis The ratio (3 feet/1 yard) is called a conversion factor.The conversion-factor method may be used to convert any unit to another, provided a conversion equation exists.Relationships between certain U.S. units and metric units are given in Table 1.5.2
52Unit Conversion Suppose you wish to convert 0.547 lb to grams. From Table 1.5, note that 1 lb = g, so the conversion factor from pounds to grams is g/1 lb. Therefore,
53TemperatureThe Celsius scale (formerly the Centigrade scale) is the temperature scale in general scientific use.However, the SI base unit of temperature is the kelvin (K), a unit based on the absolute temperature scale.The conversion from Celsius to Kelvin is simple since the two scales are simply offset by o.2
55TemperatureThe Fahrenheit scale is at present the common temperature scale in the United States.The conversion of Fahrenheit to Celsius, and vice versa, can be accomplished with the following formulas2
56Derived Units The SI unit for speed is meters per second, or m/s. This is an example of an SI derived unit, created by combining SI base units.Volume is defined as length cubed and has an SI unit of cubic meters (m3).Traditionally, chemists have used the liter (L), which is a unit of volume equal to one cubic decimeter.2
57Derived Units The density of an object is its mass per unit volume, where d is the density, m is the mass, and V is the volume. Generally the unit of mass is the gram. The unit of volume is the mL for liquids; cm3 for solids; and L for gases.2
58A Density ExampleA sample of the mineral galena (lead sulfide) weighs 12.4 g and has a volume of 1.64 cm3. What is the density of galena?Density =massvolume=12.4 g1.64 cm3= = 7.56 g/cm3