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Psychological Science is Born Wundt and psychology’s first graduate students studied the “atoms of the mind” by conducting experiments at Leipzig, Germany,

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2 Psychological Science is Born Wundt and psychology’s first graduate students studied the “atoms of the mind” by conducting experiments at Leipzig, Germany, in This work is considered the birth of psychology as we know it today. Wundt ( )

3 Psychological Science Develops Behaviorists Watson and later Skinner emphasized the study of overt behavior as the subject matter of scientific psychology. Watson ( ) Skinner ( )

4 Survey Random Sampling If each member of a population has an equal chance of inclusion into a sample, it is called a random sample (unbiased). The fastest way to know about the marble color ratio is to blindly transfer a few into a smaller jar and count them.

5 Correlation When one trait or behavior accompanies another, we say the two correlate. Correlation coefficient Indicates direction of relationship (positive or negative) Indicates strength of relationship (0.00 to 1.00) r = Correlation Coefficient is a statistical measure of the relationship between two variables.

6 Experimentation Experimentation is the backbone of psychological research. Experiments isolate causes and their effects.

7 Many factors influence our behavior. Experiments (1) manipulate factors that interest us, while other factors are kept under (2) control. Effects generated by manipulated factors isolate cause and effect relationships. Exploring Cause & Effect

8 Evaluating Therapies Double-blind Procedure Neither the participant nor the research assistant knows whether the participant is receiving the treatment or a placebo

9 An independent variable is a factor manipulated by the experimenter. The effect of the independent variable is the focus of the study. For example, when examining the effects of breast feeding upon intelligence, breast feeding is the independent variable. Independent Variable IV

10 A dependent variable is a factor that may change in response to an independent variable. In psychology, it is usually a behavior or a mental process. For example, in our study on the effect of breast feeding upon intelligence, intelligence is the dependent variable. Dependent Variable DV

11 FAQ Q1. Can laboratory experiments illuminate everyday life? Q2. Does behavior depend on one’s culture and gender? Q3. Why do psychologists study animals, and is it ethical to experiment on animals?

12 Neuron A nerve cell, or a neuron, consists of many different parts.

13 Myelin sheath Specialized Glial cells Acts as an electrical insulator Not present on all cells When present increases the speed of neural signals down the axon. Myelin Sheath

14 Action Potential A neural impulse. A brief electrical charge that travels down an axon and is generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the axon’s membrane.

15 Threshold Threshold: Each neuron receives excitatory and inhibitory signals from many neurons.

16 Action Potential Properties All-or-None Response: A strong stimulus can trigger more neurons to fire, and to fire more often, but it does not affect the action potentials strength or speed. Intensity of an action potential remains the same throughout the length of the axon.

17 Types of Neurotransmitters Acetylcholine Serotonin Norepinephrine Dopamine Endorphins GABA Glutamate

18 Acetylcholine Found in neuromuscular junction Involved in muscle movements

19 Serotonin Serotonin pathways are involved with mood regulation.

20 Dopamine Important for movement, rewards & pleasure. Involved with diseases such as schizophrenia and Parkinson’s disease.

21 Endorphins Control pain and pleasure Released in response to pain Morphine and codeine work on endorphin receptors Involved in healing effects of acupuncture

22 Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) Sympathetic Nervous System: Division of the ANS that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations. Parasympathetic Nervous System: Division of the ANS that calms the body, conserving its energy.

23 PET Scan PET (positron emission tomography) Scan is a visual display of brain activity that detects a radioactive form of glucose while the brain performs a given task. Courtesy of National Brookhaven National Laboratories

24 MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) A technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue; allows us to see structures within the brain

25 fMRI - Functional MRI Compares MRI scans taken less than a second apart Detects blood moving to active parts of the brain Shows brain function

26 Brain Stem The Thalamus is the brain’s sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem. It directs messages to the sensory areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla.

27 The Limbic System is a doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at the border of the brainstem and cerebrum, associated with emotions such as fear, aggression and drives for food and sex. It includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus. The Limbic System

28 Hypothalamus The Hypothalamus lies below (hypo) the thalamus. It directs several maintenance activities like eating, drinking, body temperature, and control of emotions. It helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland. "TALE of the hypothalamus": Temperature Appetite Libido Emotion

29 The Cerebral Cortex Cerebral Cortex –the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres –the body’s ultimate control and information processing center Glial Cells –cells in the nervous system that are not neurons but that support, nourish, and protect neurons

30 Figure 2.24 The cerebral cortex Myers: Psychology, Eighth Edition Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers

31 The Cerebral Cortex Frontal Lobes –involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments Parietal Lobes –include the sensory cortex Occipital Lobes –include the visual areas, which receive visual information from the opposite visual field Temporal Lobes –include the auditory areas

32 The Cerebral Cortex


34 Split Brain  a condition in which the two hemispheres of the brain are isolated by cutting the corpus Callosum.  Sperry and Gazzaniga are key researchers in this area.

35 Environmental Influence  Culture  the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next  Norm  an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior

36 Developmental Psychology IssueDetails Nature/Nurture How do genetic inheritance (our nature) and experience (the nurture we receive) influence our behavior? Continuity/Stages Is developmental a gradual, continuous process or a sequence of separate stages? Stability/Change Do our early personality traits persist through life, or do we become different persons as we age.

37 Infancy and Childhood Infancy and childhood span from birth to the teenage years. During these years, the individual grows physically, cognitively, and socially. StageSpan Infancy Newborn to toddler Childhood Toddler to teenager

38 Infancy and Childhood: Cognitive Development  Schema  a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information, they are building blocks of intellectual development

39 Typical Age Range Description of Stage Developmental Phenomena Sensorimotor Birth to nearly 2 years Experiencing the world through senses and actions (looking, touching, mouthing) Object permanence Stranger anxiety Some cause and effect Preoperational About 2 to 6 years Concrete operational About 7 to 11 years Formal operational About 12 through adulthood Representing things with words and images but lacking logical reasoning Pretend play Egocentrism Language development Think in symbols Thinking logically about concrete events; grasping concrete analogies and performing arithmetical operations Conservation Mathematical transformations Abstract reasoning, speculationAbstract logic Potential for moral reasoning Piaget’s Stages

40 Sensorimotor Stage In the sensorimotor stage, babies take in the world by looking, hearing, touching, mouthing, and grasping. Children younger than 6 months of age do not grasp object permanence, i.e., objects that are out of sight are also out of mind. Doug Goodman

41 Infancy and Childhood: Cognitive Development  Conservation  the principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects

42 Attachment Mary Ainsworth – Strange situation –Unfamiliar playroom –Mother and unfamilar woman –Women play with baby – leave briefly How to the babies respond?

43 Social Development: Parenting Styles  Authoritarian  parents impose rules and expect obedience  “Don’t interrupt.” “Why? Because I said so.”  Permissive  submit to children’s desires, make few demands, use little punishment  Authoritative  both demanding and responsive  set rules, but explain reasons and encourage open discussion  Rejecting-Neglecting  completely uninvolved; disengaged. Expect little and invest little

44 Developing Morality Kohlberg (1981, 1984) sought to describe the development of moral reasoning by posing moral dilemmas to children and adolescents, such as “Should a person steal medicine to save a loved one’s life?” He found stages of moral development. AP Photo/ Dave Martin

45 Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development Approximate ageStage Description of Task InfancyTrust vs. mistrust If needs are dependably met, infants (1st year) develop a sense of basic trust. ToddlerAutonomy vs. shame Toddlers learn to exercise will and (2nd year)and doubt do things for themselves, or they doubt their abilities. PreschoolerInitiative vs. guilt Preschoolers learn to initiate tasks (3-5 years) and carry out plans, or they feel guilty about efforts to be independent. ElementaryCompetence vs. Children learn the pleasure of applying (6 years-inferiority themselves to tasks, or they feel puberty) inferior. Mnemonic

46 Aging and Intelligence It is believed today that fluid intelligence (ability to reason speedily) declines with age, but crystalline intelligence (accumulated knowledge and skills) increases. We gain vocabulary and knowledge but lose recall memory and process more slowly.

47 Thresholds Absolute Threshold: Minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time. Proportion of “Yes” Responses Stimulus Intensity (lumens)

48 Why Does the “Absolute” Threshold Vary? - Signal Detection Sensitivity: –Intensity of the signal. –Capacity of sensory systems. –Amount of background stimulation, or “noise.” Response criterion reflects one’s willingness to respond to a stimulus. –Influenced by motivation and expectancies.

49 Judging Differences Between Stimuli Difference Threshold or Just-Noticeable Difference (JND) JND = Smallest detectable difference in stimulus energy. JND determined by two factors: –How much of a stimulus was there to begin with? –Which sense is being stimulated?

50 Sensory Adaptation Diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation. Put a band aid on your arm and after awhile you don’t sense it.

51 The Lens Lens: Transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to focus images on the retina. Accommodation: The process by which the eye’s lens changes shape to help focus near or far objects on the retina.

52 Retina Retina: The light- sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing receptor rods and cones in addition to layers of other neurons (bipolar, ganglion cells) that process visual information.

53 Optic Nerve, Blind Spot & Fovea Optic nerve: Carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain. Blind Spot: Point where the optic nerve leaves the eye because there are no receptor cells located there. Fovea: Central point in the retina around which the eye’s cones cluster.

54 Retina’s Reaction to Light- Receptors  Rods  peripheral retina  detect black, white and gray  twilight or low light  Cones  near center of retina  fine detail and color vision  daylight or well-lit conditions

55 Color Blindness Ishihara Test Genetic disorder in which people are blind to green or red colors. This supports the Trichromatic theory.

56 Opponent Process Theory Hering proposed that we process four primary colors combined in pairs of red-green, blue- yellow, and black-white.

57 The Ear Dr. Fred Hossler/ Visuals Unlimited

58 The Ear Outer Ear/Pinna: Collects and sends sounds to the eardrum. Middle Ear: Chamber between eardrum and cochlea containing three tiny bones (hammer, anvil, stirrup) that concentrate the vibrations of the eardrum on the cochlea’s oval window. Inner Ear: Innermost part of the ear, containing the cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibular sacs.

59 Cochlea Cochlea: Coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear that transforms sound vibrations to auditory signals.

60 Localization of Sounds Because we have two ears, sounds that reach one ear faster than the other ear cause us to localize the sound. 1. Intensity differences 2. Time differences

61 Taste Traditionally, taste sensations consisted of sweet, salty, sour, and bitter tastes. Recently, receptors for a fifth taste have been discovered called “Umami”. Sweet Sour Salty BitterUmami (Fresh Chicken) Taste link at Nova Blocking bitter taste at Nova

62 Chemical Senses: The Flavors and Aromas of Life Olfaction –Olfactory epithelium – top of nasal cavity –Pheromone detection of sweat and urine Vomeronasal organ Influence human female reproductive cycles Inhalation of male sex hormone and mood changes Males may respond to sex hormones

63 Perceptual Organization: Gestalt  Gestalt--an organized whole  tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes  a school of psychology founded in Germany in the 1900s that maintained our sensations are processed according to consistent perceptual rules that result in meaningful whole perceptions, or gestalts.

64 Perceptual Organization: Gestalt  Grouping Principles  proximity--group nearby figures together  similarity--group figures that are similar  continuity--perceive continuous patterns  closure--fill in gaps  connectedness--spots, lines, and areas are seen as unit when connected

65 Depth Perception Visual Cliff Depth perception enables us to judge distances. Gibson and Walk (1960) suggested that human infants (crawling age) have depth perception. Even newborn animals show depth perception. Innervisions

66 Binocular Cues Retinal disparity: Images from the two eyes differ.

67 Monocular Cues Relative motion: Objects closer to a fixation point move faster and in opposing direction to those objects that are farther away from a fixation point, moving slower and in the same direction.

68 Biological Rhythms and Sleep Circadian Rhythms occur on a 24-hour cycle and include sleep and wakefulness. Termed our “biological clock,” it can be altered by artificial light. Light triggers the suprachiasmatic nucleus to decrease (morning) melatonin from the pineal gland and increase (evening) it at nightfall. Illustration © Cynthia Turner 2003

69 During early, light sleep (stages 1-2) the brain enters a high-amplitude, slow, regular wave form called theta waves (5-8 cps). A person who is daydreaming shows theta activity. Sleep Stages 1-2 Theta Waves

70 Stage 5: REM Sleep After reaching the deepest sleep stage (4), the sleep cycle starts moving backward towards stage 1. Although still asleep, the brain engages in low- amplitude, fast and regular beta waves (15-40 cps) much like awake-aroused state.

71 Hypnosis  Hypnosis  a social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur  Posthypnotic Amnesia  supposed inability to recall what one experienced during hypnosis  induced by the hypnotist’s suggestion

72 Hypnosis: Pain Relief  Dissociation (divided consciousness)  a split in consciousness  allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others  Hidden Observer  Hilgard’s term describing a hypnotized subject’s awareness of experiences, such as pain, that go unreported during hypnosis

73 Withdrawal & Dependence 1.Withdrawal: Upon stopping use of a drug users may experience undesirable side effects. 2.Dependence: Absence of a drug may lead to a feeling of physical pain, intense cravings (physical dependence), and negative emotions (psychological dependence).

74 Depressants 1.Alcohol affects motor skills, judgment, and memory…and increases aggressiveness while reducing self awareness. Daniel Hommer, NIAAA, NIH, HHS

75 Depressants 2.Barbiturates: Drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment. Nembutal, Seconal, and Amytal are some examples.

76 76 Hallucinogens Hallucinogens are psychedelic (mind- manifesting) drugs that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input. Housewife on Acid on CNNHousewife on Acid on CNN 5:01 Another person on AcidAnother person on Acid 8:46 Leary and kids who dropped acid…creepyLeary and kids who dropped acid…creepy 1:14

77 It was the Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov who elucidated classical conditioning. His work provided a basis for later behaviorists like John Watson. Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov ( ) Sovfoto

78 Classical Conditioning is learning that takes place when an originally neutral stimulus comes to produce a conditioned response because of its association with an unconditioned stimulus.

79 Pavlov’s Experiments Before conditioning, food (Unconditioned Stimulus, US) produces salivation (Unconditioned Response, UR). However, the tone (neutral stimulus) does not.

80 Pavlov’s Experiments During conditioning, the neutral stimulus (tone) and the US (food) are paired, resulting in salivation (UR). After conditioning, the neutral stimulus (now Conditioned Stimulus, CS) elicits salivation (now Conditioned Response, CR)

81 Acquisition The CS needs to come half a second before the US for acquisition to occur.

82 Extinction When the US (food) does not follow the CS (tone), CR (salivation) begins to decrease and eventually causes extinction. A disappeared CS is called extinguished, not extinct.

83 Stimulus Generalization Tendency to respond to stimuli similar to the CS is called generalization.

84 Stimulus Discrimination Discrimination is the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus.

85 Biological Predispositions John Garcia Conditioned taste aversions Not all neutral stimuli can become conditioned stimuli. Internal stimuli—associate better with taste External stimuli—associate better with pain Biological preparedness

86 Behaviorism  John B. Watson  viewed psychology as objective science  generally agreed-upon consensus today  recommended study of behavior without reference to unobservable mental processes  not universally accepted by all schools of thought today

87 Mary Cover Jones used an early form of desensitization to prove that fears (phobias) could be unlearned. Peter, a young boy, had an extreme fear of rabbits. Jones gave Peter his favorite food while slowly bringing the rabbit closer and closer. Eventually Peter no longer panicked around rabbits. Mary Cover Jones

88 Shaping Shaping is the operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior towards the desired target behavior through successive approximations. A rat shaped to sniff mines. A manatee shaped to discriminate objects of different shapes, colors and sizes. Khamis Ramadhan/ Panapress/ Getty Images Fred Bavendam/ Peter Arnold, Inc.

89 Types of Reinforcers Reinforcement: Any event that strengthens the behavior it follows. A heat lamp positively reinforces a meerkat’s behavior in the cold. Reuters/ Corbis

90 Punishment An aversive event that decreases the behavior it follows.

91 Updating Skinner’s Understanding Skinner’s emphasis on external control of behavior made him an influential, but controversial figure. Many psychologists criticized Skinner for underestimating the importance of cognitive and biological constraints.

92 Learning by Observation Higher animals, especially humans, learn through observing and imitating others. The monkey on the right imitates the monkey on the left in touching the pictures in a certain order to obtain a reward. © Herb Terrace

93 Modeling Violence Research shows that viewing media violence leads to an increased expression of aggression. Children modeling after pro wrestlers Bob Daemmrich/ The Image Works Glassman/ The Image Works

94 Studying Memory: Information Processing Models Keyboard (Encoding) Disk (Storage) Monitor (Retrieval) Sequential Process How Memory Works Nova

95 Encoding: Serial Position Effect 12 Percentage of words recalled Position of word in list

96 Chunking F-B-I-T-W-A-C-I-A-I-B-M You already know the capacity of the working memory may be increased by “chunking.” FBI TWA CIA IBM But you didn’t know that you can handle 4 chunks

97 Stress Hormones & Memory Flashbulb memories are clear memories of emotionally significant moments or events. Heightened emotions (stress-related or otherwise) make for stronger memories. Scott Barbour/ Getty Images

98 No New Memories Amnesias Anterograde Amnesia (HM) Retrograde amnesia Surgery After losing his hippocampus in surgery, patient Henry M. (HM) remembered everything before the operation but could not make new memories. We call this anterograde amnesia. Memory Intact How memory works at NovaHow memory works at Nova 10:15 Memory intact Surgery No old memories

99 Implicit & Explicit Memory HM is unable to make new memories that are declarative (explicit), but he can form new memories that are procedural (implicit). C B A Towers of Hanoi Link

100 Forgetting as Interference  Learning some items may disrupt retrieval of other information  Proactive (forward acting) Interference  disruptive effect of prior learning on recall of new information  Retroactive (backwards acting) Interference  disruptive effect of new learning on recall of old information

101 Thinking  Concept  mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people  Prototype  mental image or best example of a category  matching new items to the prototype provides a quick and easy method for including items in a category (as when comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical bird, such as a robin)

102 Algorithms Algorithms, which are very time consuming, exhaust all possibilities before arriving at a solution. Computers use algorithms. S P L O Y O C H Y G If we were to unscramble these letters to form a word using an algorithmic approach, we would face 907,200 possibilities.

103 Heuristics Heuristics are simple, thinking strategies that allow us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently. Heuristics are less time consuming, but more error-prone than algorithms. B2M Productions/Digital Version/Getty Images

104 Thought Puzzle #1 What got in the way of solving this problem? Mental Set - Old pattern of problem solving is applied to a new problem. Functional Fixedness – A tendency to think about familiar objects in familiar ways which may prevent more creative use of those objects to solve the problem.

105 Fixation Fixation: An inability to see a problem from a fresh perspective. This impedes problem solving. An example of fixation is functional fixedness. The Matchstick Problem: How would you arrange six matches to form four equilateral triangles? From “Problem Solving” by M. Scheerer. Copyright © 1963 by Scientific American, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

106 Thinking  Belief Bias  the tendency for one’s preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning  sometimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid or valid conclusions seem invalid  Belief Perseverance  clinging to one’s initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited Magic and the Brain at PBS

107 Language Structure Morpheme: The smallest unit that carries a meaning. It may be a word or part of a word. For example: Milk = milk Pumpkin = pump. kin Unforgettable = un · for · get · table

108 Language  Semantics  the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language  also, the study of meaning  Syntax  the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language

109 Explaining Language Development cont. 2.Inborn Universal Grammar: Chomsky (1959, 1987) opposed Skinner’s ideas and suggested that the rate of language acquisition is so fast that it cannot be explained through learning principles, and thus most of it is inborn.

110 Language Influences Thinking Linguistic Determinism (Whorf hypothesis): language determines the way we think. For example, he noted that the Hopi people do not have the past tense for verbs. Therefore, the Hopi cannot think readily about the past. Link

111 Insight Chimpanzees show insightful behavior when solving problems. Sultan uses sticks to get food. Chimp Problem solving: mBi3cI&NR=1&safety_mode=true&persist _safety_mode=1 W9LnT4&feature=related&safety_mode=tr ue&persist_safety_mode=1

112 General Intelligence Spearman proposed that general intelligence (g) is linked to many clusters that can be analyzed by factor analysis. For example, people who do well on vocabulary examinations do well on paragraph comprehension examinations, a cluster that helps define verbal intelligence. Other factors include a spatial ability factor, and a reasoning ability factor.

113 Alfred Binet Alfred Binet practiced a modern form of intelligence testing by developing questions that would predict children’s future progress in the Paris school system.

114 Lewis Terman In the US, Lewis Terman adapted Binet’s test for American school children and named the test the Stanford-Binet Test. The following is the formula of Intelligence Quotient (IQ)

115 Normal Curve Standardized tests establish a normal distribution of scores on a tested population in a bell-shaped pattern called the normal curve.

116 Validity Reliability of a test does not ensure validity. Validity of a test refers to what the test is supposed to measure or predict. 1.Content Validity: Refers to the extent a test measures a particular behavior or trait. 2.Predictive Validity: Refers to the function of a test in predicting a particular behavior or trait.

117 Genetic Influences Studies of twins, family members, and adopted children together support the idea that there is a significant genetic contribution to intelligence.

118 Drive Reduction Theory Cont. Primary Drives –Unlearned Food Water Temperature regulation Food Drive Reduction Organism Stomach Full Empty Stomach (Food Deprived) Secondary Drives –Learned Money Shelter Job

119 Homeostasis -tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state -regulation of any aspect of body chemistry around a particular level

120 Hierarchy of Needs

121 Body Chemistry & the Brain Levels of glucose in the blood are monitored by receptors (neurons) in the stomach, liver, and intestines. They send signals to the hypothalamus in the brain. Rat Hypothalamus Glucose Molecule

122 Hypothalamus & Hormones The hypothalamus monitors a number of hormones that are related to hunger. HormoneTissueResponse Orexin increaseHypothalamusIncreases hunger Ghrelin increaseStomachIncreases hunger Insulin increasePancreasIncreases hunger Leptin increaseFat cellsDecreases hunger PPY increaseDigestive tractDecreases hunger

123 Motivation-Hunger  Set Point  the point at which an individual’s “weight thermostat” is supposedly set  when the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight  Basal Metabolic Rate  body’s base rate of energy expenditure

124 Industrial-Organizational (I/O) Psychology Overview Applies psychological principles to the workplace. 1.Personnel Psychology: Studies the principles of selecting and evaluating workers. 2.Organizational Psychology: Studies how work environments and management styles influence worker motivation, satisfaction, and productivity. 3.Human Factors Psychology: Explores how machines and environments can be designed to fit our natural perception.

125 Sources of Achievement Motivation Why does one person become more motivated to achieve than another? Parents and teachers have an influence on the roots of motivation. Emotional roots: learning to associate achievement with positive emotions. Cognitive roots: learning to attribute achievements to one’s own competence, thus raising expectations of oneself.

126 Setting Specific, Challenging Goals Specific challenging goals motivate people to reach higher achievement levels, especially if there is feedback such as progress reports.

127 James-Lange Theory James-Lange Theory proposes that physiological activity precedes the emotional experience.

128 Schachter and Singer’s Two- Factor Theory Our physiology and cognitions create emotions. Emotions have two factors–physical arousal and cognitive label.

129 Culture and Emotional Expression When culturally diverse people were shown basic facial expressions, they did fairly well at recognizing them (Matsumoto & Ekman, 1989). Elkman & Matsumoto, Japanese and Caucasian Facial Expression of Emotion

130 Venting anger through action or fantasy ---- achieves an emotional release or “catharsis.” Opposing Theory-- Expressing anger breeds more anger, and through reinforcement it is habit- forming. Catharsis Hypothesis

131 General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) According to Selye, a stress response to any kind of stimulation is similar. The stressed individual goes through three phases. EPA/ Yuri Kochetkov/ Landov

132 Stress and the Heart Stress that leads to elevated blood pressure may result in coronary heart disease, a clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle. Plaque in coronary artery Artery clogged

133 Stress and Colds People with the highest life stress scores were also the most vulnerable when exposed to an experimental cold virus.

134 Dream Analysis Another method to analyze the unconscious mind is through interpreting manifest and latent contents of dreams.

135 Humanistic Perspective Focuses on mental capabilities that set humans apart; self awareness, creativity, planning, decision making, responsibility. Abraham Maslow ( ) Carl Rogers ( )

136 Self-Actualizing Person Maslow proposed that we as individuals are motivated by a hierarchy of needs. Beginning with physiological needs, we try to reach the state of self-actualization— fulfilling our potential.

137 Person-Centered Perspective Carl Rogers also believed in an individual's self- actualization tendencies. He said that Unconditional Positive Regard is an attitude of acceptance of others despite their failings. Michael Rougier/ Life Magazine © Time Warner, Inc.

138 Evaluating the Trait Perspective The Person-Situation Controversy Walter Mischel (1968, 1984, 2004) points out that traits may be enduring, but the resulting behavior in various situations is different. Therefore, traits are not good predictors of behavior.

139 Personal Control External locus of control refers to the perception that chance or outside forces beyond our personal control determine our fate. Internal locus of control refers to the perception that we can control our own fate. Self efficacy: learned expectations about probability of success

140 Learned Helplessness When unable/unwilling to avoid repeated adverse events an animal or human learns helplessness. Low self efficacy

141 Deviant, Distressful & Dysfunctional 1.Deviant behavior in one culture may be considered normal, while in others it may lead to arrest. 2.Deviant behavior must accompany distress. 3. If a behavior is dysfunctional it is clearly a disorder. Carol Beckwith Woodabe clipWoodabe clip at youtube

142 Goals of DSM 1.Describe (400) disorders. 2.Determine how prevalent the disorder is. Disorders outlined by DSM-IV are reliable. Therefore, diagnoses by different professionals are similar. Others criticize DSM-IV for “putting any kind of behavior within the compass of psychiatry.”

143 Anxiety Disorders Feelings of excessive apprehension and anxiety. 1.Generalized anxiety disorder 2.Panic disorder 3.Phobias 4.Obsessive-compulsive disorder 5.Post-traumatic stress disorder

144 Panic Disorder Minutes-long episodes of intense dread which may include feelings of terror, chest pains, choking, or other frightening sensations. Anxiety is a component of both disorders. It occurs more in the panic disorder, making people avoid situations that cause it. Symptoms

145 Kinds of Phobias Phobia of blood.Hemophobia Phobia of closed spaces Phobia of closed spaces Link. Claustrophobia Phobia of heights link.Acrophobia Phobia of open places.Agoraphobia Arachnophobia at National Geographic Link

146 Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Persistence of repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and urges to engage in repetitive behaviors (compulsions) that cause distress.

147 Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Four or more weeks of the following symptoms constitute post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): 1.Haunting memories 2.Nightmares 3.Social withdrawal 4.Jumpy anxiety 5.Sleep problems Bettmann/ Corbis

148 Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) A disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities, formerly called multiple personality disorder. Chris Sizemore (DID) Lois Bernstein/ Gamma Liason

149 Personality Disorders Personality disorders are characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning.

150 Antisocial Personality Disorder A disorder in which the person (usually men) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members. Formerly, this person was called a sociopath or psychopath.

151 Major Depressive Disorder Major depressive disorder occurs when signs of depression last two weeks or more and are not caused by drugs or medical conditions. 1.Lethargy and fatigue 2.Feelings of worthlessness 3.Loss of interest in family & friends 4.Loss of interest in activities Signs include:

152 Bipolar Disorder Many great writers, poets, and composers suffered from bipolar disorder. During their manic phase creativity surged, but not during their depressed phase. Whitman WolfeClemensHemingway Bettmann/ Corbis George C. Beresford/ Hulton Getty Pictures Library The Granger Collection Earl Theissen/ Hulton Getty Pictures Library

153 Social-Cognitive Perspective The social-cognitive perspective suggests that depression arises partly from self-defeating beliefs and negative explanatory styles.

154 Schizophrenia The literal translation is “split mind” which refers to a split from reality. A group of severe disorders characterized by the following: 1.Disorganized and delusional thinking. 2.Disturbed perceptions. 3.Inappropriate emotions and actions.

155 Disturbed Perceptions A schizophrenic person may perceive things that are not there (hallucinations). Most such hallucinations are auditory and lesser visual, somatosensory, olfactory, or gustatory. L. Berthold, Untitled. The Prinzhorn Collection, University of Heidelberg August Natter, Witches Head. The Prinzhorn Collection, University of Heidelberg Photos of paintings by Krannert Museum, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

156 156 Understanding Schizophrenia Schizophrenia is a disease of the brain exhibited by the symptoms of the mind. Dopamine Overactivity: Researchers found that schizophrenic patients express higher levels of dopamine D4 receptors in the brain. Drugs that block these sites help schizophrenic patients. Brain Abnormalities

157 157 Abnormal Brain Morphology Schizophrenia patients may exhibit morphological changes in the brain like enlargement of fluid-filled ventricles. Both Photos: Courtesy of Daniel R. Weinberger, M.D., NIH-NIMH/ NSC

158 The Psychological Therapies Module 40

159 Psychoanalysis: Methods During free association, the patient edits his thoughts, resisting his or her feelings to express emotions. Such resistance becomes important in the analysis of conflict-driven anxiety. Eventually the patient opens up and reveals his or her innermost private thoughts. Developing positive or negative feelings may be transference towards the therapist.

160 Behavior Therapy Therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors. To treat phobias or sexual disorders, behavior therapists do not delve deeply below the surface looking for inner causes.

161 Classical Conditioning Techniques Counterconditioning is a procedure that conditions new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors. It is based on classical conditioning and includes exposure therapy and aversive conditioning.

162 Exposure Therapy Expose patients to things they fear and avoid. Through repeated exposures, anxiety lessens because they habituate to the things feared. The Far Side © 1986 FARWORKS. Reprinted with Permission. All Rights Reserved.

163 Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning procedures enable therapists to use behavior modification, in which desired behaviors are rewarded and undesired behaviors are either unrewarded or punished.

164 Drug Therapies Psychopharmacology is the study of drug effects on mind and behavior. With the advent of drugs, hospitalization in mental institutions has rapidly declined.

165 Brain Stimulation Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) ECT is used for severely depressed patients who do not respond to drugs.

166 Focuses in Social Psychology Social psychology scientifically studies how we think about, influence, and relate to one another. “We cannot live for ourselves alone.” Herman Melville

167 Attributing Behavior to Persons or to Situations Attribution Theory: Fritz Heider (1958) suggested that we have a tendency to give causal explanations for someone’s behavior, often by crediting either the situation or the person’s disposition. Fritz Heider

168 Fundamental Attribution Error Fundamental Attribution Error. The tendency to overestimate the impact of personal disposition and underestimate the impact of the situations in analyzing the behaviors of others. We see Joe as quiet, shy, and introverted most of the time, but with friends he is very talkative, loud, and extroverted.

169 Actions Can Affect Attitudes Why do actions affect attitudes? One explanation is that when our attitudes and actions are opposed, we experience tension. This is called cognitive dissonance. To relieve ourselves of this tension we bring our attitudes closer to our actions (Festinger, 1957).

170 170 Social Influence Module 44

171 Group Pressure & Conformity Suggestibility is a subtle type of conformity, adjusting our behavior or thinking toward some group standard.

172 Group Pressure & Conformity Informational Social Influence: An influence resulting from one’s willingness to accept others’ opinions about reality. William Vandivert/ Scientific American

173 Milgram’s Study: Results Milgram on Youtube

174 Lessons from the Conformity and Obedience Studies In both Asch's and Milgram's studies, participants were pressured to choose between following their standards and being responsive to others.

175 Individual Behavior in the Presence of Others Social facilitation: Refers to improved performance on tasks in the presence of others. Triplett (1898) noticed cyclists’ race times were faster when they competed against others than when they just raced against the clock. Michelle Agnis/ NYT Pictures

176 Social Loafing The tendency of an individual in a group to exert less effort toward attaining a common goal than when tested individually (Latané, 1981).

177 Deindividuation The loss of self-awareness and self-restraint in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity. Mob behavior

178 Psychology of Attraction 4.Similarity: Similar views among individuals causes the bond of attraction to strengthen. Similarity breeds content! The more people are alike the more their liking endures. (Byrne 1971)

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