Presentation on theme: "Psychological Science is Born Wundt and psychology’s first graduate students studied the “atoms of the mind” by conducting experiments at Leipzig, Germany,"— Presentation transcript:
Psychological Science is Born Wundt and psychology’s first graduate students studied the “atoms of the mind” by conducting experiments at Leipzig, Germany, in This work is considered the birth of psychology as we know it today. Wundt ( )
Psychological Science Develops Behaviorists Watson and later Skinner emphasized the study of overt behavior as the subject matter of scientific psychology. Watson ( ) Skinner ( )
Survey Random Sampling If each member of a population has an equal chance of inclusion into a sample, it is called a random sample (unbiased). The fastest way to know about the marble color ratio is to blindly transfer a few into a smaller jar and count them.
Correlation When one trait or behavior accompanies another, we say the two correlate. Correlation coefficient Indicates direction of relationship (positive or negative) Indicates strength of relationship (0.00 to 1.00) r = Correlation Coefficient is a statistical measure of the relationship between two variables.
Experimentation Experimentation is the backbone of psychological research. Experiments isolate causes and their effects.
Many factors influence our behavior. Experiments (1) manipulate factors that interest us, while other factors are kept under (2) control. Effects generated by manipulated factors isolate cause and effect relationships. Exploring Cause & Effect
Evaluating Therapies Double-blind Procedure Neither the participant nor the research assistant knows whether the participant is receiving the treatment or a placebo
An independent variable is a factor manipulated by the experimenter. The effect of the independent variable is the focus of the study. For example, when examining the effects of breast feeding upon intelligence, breast feeding is the independent variable. Independent Variable IV
A dependent variable is a factor that may change in response to an independent variable. In psychology, it is usually a behavior or a mental process. For example, in our study on the effect of breast feeding upon intelligence, intelligence is the dependent variable. Dependent Variable DV
FAQ Q1. Can laboratory experiments illuminate everyday life? Q2. Does behavior depend on one’s culture and gender? Q3. Why do psychologists study animals, and is it ethical to experiment on animals?
Neuron A nerve cell, or a neuron, consists of many different parts.
Myelin sheath Specialized Glial cells Acts as an electrical insulator Not present on all cells When present increases the speed of neural signals down the axon. Myelin Sheath
Action Potential A neural impulse. A brief electrical charge that travels down an axon and is generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the axon’s membrane.
Threshold Threshold: Each neuron receives excitatory and inhibitory signals from many neurons.
Action Potential Properties All-or-None Response: A strong stimulus can trigger more neurons to fire, and to fire more often, but it does not affect the action potentials strength or speed. Intensity of an action potential remains the same throughout the length of the axon.
Acetylcholine Found in neuromuscular junction Involved in muscle movements
Serotonin Serotonin pathways are involved with mood regulation.
Dopamine Important for movement, rewards & pleasure. Involved with diseases such as schizophrenia and Parkinson’s disease.
Endorphins Control pain and pleasure Released in response to pain Morphine and codeine work on endorphin receptors Involved in healing effects of acupuncture
Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) Sympathetic Nervous System: Division of the ANS that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations. Parasympathetic Nervous System: Division of the ANS that calms the body, conserving its energy.
PET Scan PET (positron emission tomography) Scan is a visual display of brain activity that detects a radioactive form of glucose while the brain performs a given task. Courtesy of National Brookhaven National Laboratories
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) A technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue; allows us to see structures within the brain
fMRI - Functional MRI Compares MRI scans taken less than a second apart Detects blood moving to active parts of the brain Shows brain function
Brain Stem The Thalamus is the brain’s sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem. It directs messages to the sensory areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla.
The Limbic System is a doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at the border of the brainstem and cerebrum, associated with emotions such as fear, aggression and drives for food and sex. It includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus. The Limbic System
Hypothalamus The Hypothalamus lies below (hypo) the thalamus. It directs several maintenance activities like eating, drinking, body temperature, and control of emotions. It helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland. "TALE of the hypothalamus": Temperature Appetite Libido Emotion
The Cerebral Cortex Cerebral Cortex –the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres –the body’s ultimate control and information processing center Glial Cells –cells in the nervous system that are not neurons but that support, nourish, and protect neurons
The Cerebral Cortex Frontal Lobes –involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments Parietal Lobes –include the sensory cortex Occipital Lobes –include the visual areas, which receive visual information from the opposite visual field Temporal Lobes –include the auditory areas
The Cerebral Cortex
Split Brain a condition in which the two hemispheres of the brain are isolated by cutting the corpus Callosum. Sperry and Gazzaniga are key researchers in this area.
Environmental Influence Culture the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next Norm an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior
Developmental Psychology IssueDetails Nature/Nurture How do genetic inheritance (our nature) and experience (the nurture we receive) influence our behavior? Continuity/Stages Is developmental a gradual, continuous process or a sequence of separate stages? Stability/Change Do our early personality traits persist through life, or do we become different persons as we age.
Infancy and Childhood Infancy and childhood span from birth to the teenage years. During these years, the individual grows physically, cognitively, and socially. StageSpan Infancy Newborn to toddler Childhood Toddler to teenager
Infancy and Childhood: Cognitive Development Schema a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information, they are building blocks of intellectual development
Typical Age Range Description of Stage Developmental Phenomena Sensorimotor Birth to nearly 2 years Experiencing the world through senses and actions (looking, touching, mouthing) Object permanence Stranger anxiety Some cause and effect Preoperational About 2 to 6 years Concrete operational About 7 to 11 years Formal operational About 12 through adulthood Representing things with words and images but lacking logical reasoning Pretend play Egocentrism Language development Think in symbols Thinking logically about concrete events; grasping concrete analogies and performing arithmetical operations Conservation Mathematical transformations Abstract reasoning, speculationAbstract logic Potential for moral reasoning Piaget’s Stages
Sensorimotor Stage In the sensorimotor stage, babies take in the world by looking, hearing, touching, mouthing, and grasping. Children younger than 6 months of age do not grasp object permanence, i.e., objects that are out of sight are also out of mind. Doug Goodman
Infancy and Childhood: Cognitive Development Conservation the principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects
Attachment Mary Ainsworth – Strange situation –Unfamiliar playroom –Mother and unfamilar woman –Women play with baby – leave briefly How to the babies respond?
Social Development: Parenting Styles Authoritarian parents impose rules and expect obedience “Don’t interrupt.” “Why? Because I said so.” Permissive submit to children’s desires, make few demands, use little punishment Authoritative both demanding and responsive set rules, but explain reasons and encourage open discussion Rejecting-Neglecting completely uninvolved; disengaged. Expect little and invest little
Developing Morality Kohlberg (1981, 1984) sought to describe the development of moral reasoning by posing moral dilemmas to children and adolescents, such as “Should a person steal medicine to save a loved one’s life?” He found stages of moral development. AP Photo/ Dave Martin
Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development Approximate ageStage Description of Task InfancyTrust vs. mistrust If needs are dependably met, infants (1st year) develop a sense of basic trust. ToddlerAutonomy vs. shame Toddlers learn to exercise will and (2nd year)and doubt do things for themselves, or they doubt their abilities. PreschoolerInitiative vs. guilt Preschoolers learn to initiate tasks (3-5 years) and carry out plans, or they feel guilty about efforts to be independent. ElementaryCompetence vs. Children learn the pleasure of applying (6 years-inferiority themselves to tasks, or they feel puberty) inferior. Mnemonic
Aging and Intelligence It is believed today that fluid intelligence (ability to reason speedily) declines with age, but crystalline intelligence (accumulated knowledge and skills) increases. We gain vocabulary and knowledge but lose recall memory and process more slowly.
Thresholds Absolute Threshold: Minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time. Proportion of “Yes” Responses Stimulus Intensity (lumens)
Why Does the “Absolute” Threshold Vary? - Signal Detection Sensitivity: –Intensity of the signal. –Capacity of sensory systems. –Amount of background stimulation, or “noise.” Response criterion reflects one’s willingness to respond to a stimulus. –Influenced by motivation and expectancies.
Judging Differences Between Stimuli Difference Threshold or Just-Noticeable Difference (JND) JND = Smallest detectable difference in stimulus energy. JND determined by two factors: –How much of a stimulus was there to begin with? –Which sense is being stimulated?
Sensory Adaptation Diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation. Put a band aid on your arm and after awhile you don’t sense it.
The Lens Lens: Transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to focus images on the retina. Accommodation: The process by which the eye’s lens changes shape to help focus near or far objects on the retina.
Retina Retina: The light- sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing receptor rods and cones in addition to layers of other neurons (bipolar, ganglion cells) that process visual information.
Optic Nerve, Blind Spot & Fovea Optic nerve: Carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain. Blind Spot: Point where the optic nerve leaves the eye because there are no receptor cells located there. Fovea: Central point in the retina around which the eye’s cones cluster.
Retina’s Reaction to Light- Receptors Rods peripheral retina detect black, white and gray twilight or low light Cones near center of retina fine detail and color vision daylight or well-lit conditions
Color Blindness Ishihara Test Genetic disorder in which people are blind to green or red colors. This supports the Trichromatic theory.
Opponent Process Theory Hering proposed that we process four primary colors combined in pairs of red-green, blue- yellow, and black-white.
The Ear Dr. Fred Hossler/ Visuals Unlimited
The Ear Outer Ear/Pinna: Collects and sends sounds to the eardrum. Middle Ear: Chamber between eardrum and cochlea containing three tiny bones (hammer, anvil, stirrup) that concentrate the vibrations of the eardrum on the cochlea’s oval window. Inner Ear: Innermost part of the ear, containing the cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibular sacs.
Cochlea Cochlea: Coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear that transforms sound vibrations to auditory signals.
Localization of Sounds Because we have two ears, sounds that reach one ear faster than the other ear cause us to localize the sound. 1. Intensity differences 2. Time differences
Taste Traditionally, taste sensations consisted of sweet, salty, sour, and bitter tastes. Recently, receptors for a fifth taste have been discovered called “Umami”. Sweet Sour Salty BitterUmami (Fresh Chicken) Taste link at Nova Blocking bitter taste at Nova
Chemical Senses: The Flavors and Aromas of Life Olfaction –Olfactory epithelium – top of nasal cavity –Pheromone detection of sweat and urine Vomeronasal organ Influence human female reproductive cycles Inhalation of male sex hormone and mood changes Males may respond to sex hormones
Perceptual Organization: Gestalt Gestalt--an organized whole tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes a school of psychology founded in Germany in the 1900s that maintained our sensations are processed according to consistent perceptual rules that result in meaningful whole perceptions, or gestalts.
Perceptual Organization: Gestalt Grouping Principles proximity--group nearby figures together similarity--group figures that are similar continuity--perceive continuous patterns closure--fill in gaps connectedness--spots, lines, and areas are seen as unit when connected
Depth Perception Visual Cliff Depth perception enables us to judge distances. Gibson and Walk (1960) suggested that human infants (crawling age) have depth perception. Even newborn animals show depth perception. Innervisions
Binocular Cues Retinal disparity: Images from the two eyes differ.
Monocular Cues Relative motion: Objects closer to a fixation point move faster and in opposing direction to those objects that are farther away from a fixation point, moving slower and in the same direction.
During early, light sleep (stages 1-2) the brain enters a high-amplitude, slow, regular wave form called theta waves (5-8 cps). A person who is daydreaming shows theta activity. Sleep Stages 1-2 Theta Waves
Stage 5: REM Sleep After reaching the deepest sleep stage (4), the sleep cycle starts moving backward towards stage 1. Although still asleep, the brain engages in low- amplitude, fast and regular beta waves (15-40 cps) much like awake-aroused state.
Hypnosis Hypnosis a social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur Posthypnotic Amnesia supposed inability to recall what one experienced during hypnosis induced by the hypnotist’s suggestion
Hypnosis: Pain Relief Dissociation (divided consciousness) a split in consciousness allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others Hidden Observer Hilgard’s term describing a hypnotized subject’s awareness of experiences, such as pain, that go unreported during hypnosis
Withdrawal & Dependence 1.Withdrawal: Upon stopping use of a drug users may experience undesirable side effects. 2.Dependence: Absence of a drug may lead to a feeling of physical pain, intense cravings (physical dependence), and negative emotions (psychological dependence).
Depressants 1.Alcohol affects motor skills, judgment, and memory…and increases aggressiveness while reducing self awareness. Daniel Hommer, NIAAA, NIH, HHS
Depressants 2.Barbiturates: Drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment. Nembutal, Seconal, and Amytal are some examples.
76 Hallucinogens Hallucinogens are psychedelic (mind- manifesting) drugs that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input. Housewife on Acid on CNNHousewife on Acid on CNN 5:01 Another person on AcidAnother person on Acid 8:46 Leary and kids who dropped acid…creepyLeary and kids who dropped acid…creepy 1:14
It was the Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov who elucidated classical conditioning. His work provided a basis for later behaviorists like John Watson. Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov ( ) Sovfoto
Classical Conditioning is learning that takes place when an originally neutral stimulus comes to produce a conditioned response because of its association with an unconditioned stimulus.
Pavlov’s Experiments Before conditioning, food (Unconditioned Stimulus, US) produces salivation (Unconditioned Response, UR). However, the tone (neutral stimulus) does not.
Pavlov’s Experiments During conditioning, the neutral stimulus (tone) and the US (food) are paired, resulting in salivation (UR). After conditioning, the neutral stimulus (now Conditioned Stimulus, CS) elicits salivation (now Conditioned Response, CR)
Acquisition The CS needs to come half a second before the US for acquisition to occur.
Extinction When the US (food) does not follow the CS (tone), CR (salivation) begins to decrease and eventually causes extinction. A disappeared CS is called extinguished, not extinct.
Stimulus Generalization Tendency to respond to stimuli similar to the CS is called generalization.
Stimulus Discrimination Discrimination is the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus.
Biological Predispositions John Garcia Conditioned taste aversions Not all neutral stimuli can become conditioned stimuli. Internal stimuli—associate better with taste External stimuli—associate better with pain Biological preparedness
Behaviorism John B. Watson viewed psychology as objective science generally agreed-upon consensus today recommended study of behavior without reference to unobservable mental processes not universally accepted by all schools of thought today
Mary Cover Jones used an early form of desensitization to prove that fears (phobias) could be unlearned. Peter, a young boy, had an extreme fear of rabbits. Jones gave Peter his favorite food while slowly bringing the rabbit closer and closer. Eventually Peter no longer panicked around rabbits. Mary Cover Jones
Shaping Shaping is the operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior towards the desired target behavior through successive approximations. A rat shaped to sniff mines. A manatee shaped to discriminate objects of different shapes, colors and sizes. Khamis Ramadhan/ Panapress/ Getty Images Fred Bavendam/ Peter Arnold, Inc.
Types of Reinforcers Reinforcement: Any event that strengthens the behavior it follows. A heat lamp positively reinforces a meerkat’s behavior in the cold. Reuters/ Corbis
Punishment An aversive event that decreases the behavior it follows.
Updating Skinner’s Understanding Skinner’s emphasis on external control of behavior made him an influential, but controversial figure. Many psychologists criticized Skinner for underestimating the importance of cognitive and biological constraints.
Modeling Violence Research shows that viewing media violence leads to an increased expression of aggression. Children modeling after pro wrestlers Bob Daemmrich/ The Image Works Glassman/ The Image Works
Studying Memory: Information Processing Models Keyboard (Encoding) Disk (Storage) Monitor (Retrieval) Sequential Process How Memory Works Nova
Encoding: Serial Position Effect 12 Percentage of words recalled Position of word in list
Chunking F-B-I-T-W-A-C-I-A-I-B-M You already know the capacity of the working memory may be increased by “chunking.” FBI TWA CIA IBM But you didn’t know that you can handle 4 chunks
Stress Hormones & Memory Flashbulb memories are clear memories of emotionally significant moments or events. Heightened emotions (stress-related or otherwise) make for stronger memories. Scott Barbour/ Getty Images
No New Memories Amnesias Anterograde Amnesia (HM) Retrograde amnesia Surgery After losing his hippocampus in surgery, patient Henry M. (HM) remembered everything before the operation but could not make new memories. We call this anterograde amnesia. Memory Intact How memory works at NovaHow memory works at Nova 10:15 Memory intact Surgery No old memories
Implicit & Explicit Memory HM is unable to make new memories that are declarative (explicit), but he can form new memories that are procedural (implicit). C B A Towers of Hanoi Link
Forgetting as Interference Learning some items may disrupt retrieval of other information Proactive (forward acting) Interference disruptive effect of prior learning on recall of new information Retroactive (backwards acting) Interference disruptive effect of new learning on recall of old information
Thinking Concept mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people Prototype mental image or best example of a category matching new items to the prototype provides a quick and easy method for including items in a category (as when comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical bird, such as a robin)
Algorithms Algorithms, which are very time consuming, exhaust all possibilities before arriving at a solution. Computers use algorithms. S P L O Y O C H Y G If we were to unscramble these letters to form a word using an algorithmic approach, we would face 907,200 possibilities.
Heuristics Heuristics are simple, thinking strategies that allow us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently. Heuristics are less time consuming, but more error-prone than algorithms. B2M Productions/Digital Version/Getty Images
Thought Puzzle #1 What got in the way of solving this problem? Mental Set - Old pattern of problem solving is applied to a new problem. Functional Fixedness – A tendency to think about familiar objects in familiar ways which may prevent more creative use of those objects to solve the problem.
Thinking Belief Bias the tendency for one’s preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning sometimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid or valid conclusions seem invalid Belief Perseverance clinging to one’s initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited Magic and the Brain at PBS
Language Structure Morpheme: The smallest unit that carries a meaning. It may be a word or part of a word. For example: Milk = milk Pumpkin = pump. kin Unforgettable = un · for · get · table
Language Semantics the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language also, the study of meaning Syntax the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language
Explaining Language Development cont. 2.Inborn Universal Grammar: Chomsky (1959, 1987) opposed Skinner’s ideas and suggested that the rate of language acquisition is so fast that it cannot be explained through learning principles, and thus most of it is inborn.
Language Influences Thinking Linguistic Determinism (Whorf hypothesis): language determines the way we think. For example, he noted that the Hopi people do not have the past tense for verbs. Therefore, the Hopi cannot think readily about the past. Link
Insight Chimpanzees show insightful behavior when solving problems. Sultan uses sticks to get food. Chimp Problem solving: mBi3cI&NR=1&safety_mode=true&persist _safety_mode=1 W9LnT4&feature=related&safety_mode=tr ue&persist_safety_mode=1
General Intelligence Spearman proposed that general intelligence (g) is linked to many clusters that can be analyzed by factor analysis. For example, people who do well on vocabulary examinations do well on paragraph comprehension examinations, a cluster that helps define verbal intelligence. Other factors include a spatial ability factor, and a reasoning ability factor.
Alfred Binet Alfred Binet practiced a modern form of intelligence testing by developing questions that would predict children’s future progress in the Paris school system.
Lewis Terman In the US, Lewis Terman adapted Binet’s test for American school children and named the test the Stanford-Binet Test. The following is the formula of Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
Normal Curve Standardized tests establish a normal distribution of scores on a tested population in a bell-shaped pattern called the normal curve.
Validity Reliability of a test does not ensure validity. Validity of a test refers to what the test is supposed to measure or predict. 1.Content Validity: Refers to the extent a test measures a particular behavior or trait. 2.Predictive Validity: Refers to the function of a test in predicting a particular behavior or trait.
Genetic Influences Studies of twins, family members, and adopted children together support the idea that there is a significant genetic contribution to intelligence.
Drive Reduction Theory Cont. Primary Drives –Unlearned Food Water Temperature regulation Food Drive Reduction Organism Stomach Full Empty Stomach (Food Deprived) Secondary Drives –Learned Money Shelter Job
Homeostasis -tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state -regulation of any aspect of body chemistry around a particular level
Hierarchy of Needs
Body Chemistry & the Brain Levels of glucose in the blood are monitored by receptors (neurons) in the stomach, liver, and intestines. They send signals to the hypothalamus in the brain. Rat Hypothalamus Glucose Molecule
Hypothalamus & Hormones The hypothalamus monitors a number of hormones that are related to hunger. HormoneTissueResponse Orexin increaseHypothalamusIncreases hunger Ghrelin increaseStomachIncreases hunger Insulin increasePancreasIncreases hunger Leptin increaseFat cellsDecreases hunger PPY increaseDigestive tractDecreases hunger
Motivation-Hunger Set Point the point at which an individual’s “weight thermostat” is supposedly set when the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight Basal Metabolic Rate body’s base rate of energy expenditure
Industrial-Organizational (I/O) Psychology Overview Applies psychological principles to the workplace. 1.Personnel Psychology: Studies the principles of selecting and evaluating workers. 2.Organizational Psychology: Studies how work environments and management styles influence worker motivation, satisfaction, and productivity. 3.Human Factors Psychology: Explores how machines and environments can be designed to fit our natural perception.
Sources of Achievement Motivation Why does one person become more motivated to achieve than another? Parents and teachers have an influence on the roots of motivation. Emotional roots: learning to associate achievement with positive emotions. Cognitive roots: learning to attribute achievements to one’s own competence, thus raising expectations of oneself.
Setting Specific, Challenging Goals Specific challenging goals motivate people to reach higher achievement levels, especially if there is feedback such as progress reports.
James-Lange Theory James-Lange Theory proposes that physiological activity precedes the emotional experience.
Schachter and Singer’s Two- Factor Theory Our physiology and cognitions create emotions. Emotions have two factors–physical arousal and cognitive label.
Culture and Emotional Expression When culturally diverse people were shown basic facial expressions, they did fairly well at recognizing them (Matsumoto & Ekman, 1989). Elkman & Matsumoto, Japanese and Caucasian Facial Expression of Emotion
Venting anger through action or fantasy ---- achieves an emotional release or “catharsis.” Opposing Theory-- Expressing anger breeds more anger, and through reinforcement it is habit- forming. Catharsis Hypothesis
General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) According to Selye, a stress response to any kind of stimulation is similar. The stressed individual goes through three phases. EPA/ Yuri Kochetkov/ Landov
Stress and the Heart Stress that leads to elevated blood pressure may result in coronary heart disease, a clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle. Plaque in coronary artery Artery clogged
Stress and Colds People with the highest life stress scores were also the most vulnerable when exposed to an experimental cold virus.
Dream Analysis Another method to analyze the unconscious mind is through interpreting manifest and latent contents of dreams.
Humanistic Perspective Focuses on mental capabilities that set humans apart; self awareness, creativity, planning, decision making, responsibility. Abraham Maslow ( ) Carl Rogers ( )
Self-Actualizing Person Maslow proposed that we as individuals are motivated by a hierarchy of needs. Beginning with physiological needs, we try to reach the state of self-actualization— fulfilling our potential.
Evaluating the Trait Perspective The Person-Situation Controversy Walter Mischel (1968, 1984, 2004) points out that traits may be enduring, but the resulting behavior in various situations is different. Therefore, traits are not good predictors of behavior.
Personal Control External locus of control refers to the perception that chance or outside forces beyond our personal control determine our fate. Internal locus of control refers to the perception that we can control our own fate. Self efficacy: learned expectations about probability of success
Learned Helplessness When unable/unwilling to avoid repeated adverse events an animal or human learns helplessness. Low self efficacy
Deviant, Distressful & Dysfunctional 1.Deviant behavior in one culture may be considered normal, while in others it may lead to arrest. 2.Deviant behavior must accompany distress. 3. If a behavior is dysfunctional it is clearly a disorder. Carol Beckwith Woodabe clipWoodabe clip at youtube
Goals of DSM 1.Describe (400) disorders. 2.Determine how prevalent the disorder is. Disorders outlined by DSM-IV are reliable. Therefore, diagnoses by different professionals are similar. Others criticize DSM-IV for “putting any kind of behavior within the compass of psychiatry.”
Anxiety Disorders Feelings of excessive apprehension and anxiety. 1.Generalized anxiety disorder 2.Panic disorder 3.Phobias 4.Obsessive-compulsive disorder 5.Post-traumatic stress disorder
Panic Disorder Minutes-long episodes of intense dread which may include feelings of terror, chest pains, choking, or other frightening sensations. Anxiety is a component of both disorders. It occurs more in the panic disorder, making people avoid situations that cause it. Symptoms
Kinds of Phobias Phobia of blood.Hemophobia Phobia of closed spaces Phobia of closed spaces Link. Claustrophobia Phobia of heights link.Acrophobia Phobia of open places.Agoraphobia Arachnophobia at National Geographic Link
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Persistence of repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and urges to engage in repetitive behaviors (compulsions) that cause distress.
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Four or more weeks of the following symptoms constitute post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): 1.Haunting memories 2.Nightmares 3.Social withdrawal 4.Jumpy anxiety 5.Sleep problems Bettmann/ Corbis
Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) A disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities, formerly called multiple personality disorder. Chris Sizemore (DID) Lois Bernstein/ Gamma Liason
Personality Disorders Personality disorders are characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning.
Antisocial Personality Disorder A disorder in which the person (usually men) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members. Formerly, this person was called a sociopath or psychopath.
Major Depressive Disorder Major depressive disorder occurs when signs of depression last two weeks or more and are not caused by drugs or medical conditions. 1.Lethargy and fatigue 2.Feelings of worthlessness 3.Loss of interest in family & friends 4.Loss of interest in activities Signs include:
Bipolar Disorder Many great writers, poets, and composers suffered from bipolar disorder. During their manic phase creativity surged, but not during their depressed phase. Whitman WolfeClemensHemingway Bettmann/ Corbis George C. Beresford/ Hulton Getty Pictures Library The Granger Collection Earl Theissen/ Hulton Getty Pictures Library
Social-Cognitive Perspective The social-cognitive perspective suggests that depression arises partly from self-defeating beliefs and negative explanatory styles.
Schizophrenia The literal translation is “split mind” which refers to a split from reality. A group of severe disorders characterized by the following: 1.Disorganized and delusional thinking. 2.Disturbed perceptions. 3.Inappropriate emotions and actions.
Disturbed Perceptions A schizophrenic person may perceive things that are not there (hallucinations). Most such hallucinations are auditory and lesser visual, somatosensory, olfactory, or gustatory. L. Berthold, Untitled. The Prinzhorn Collection, University of Heidelberg August Natter, Witches Head. The Prinzhorn Collection, University of Heidelberg Photos of paintings by Krannert Museum, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
156 Understanding Schizophrenia Schizophrenia is a disease of the brain exhibited by the symptoms of the mind. Dopamine Overactivity: Researchers found that schizophrenic patients express higher levels of dopamine D4 receptors in the brain. Drugs that block these sites help schizophrenic patients. Brain Abnormalities
157 Abnormal Brain Morphology Schizophrenia patients may exhibit morphological changes in the brain like enlargement of fluid-filled ventricles. Both Photos: Courtesy of Daniel R. Weinberger, M.D., NIH-NIMH/ NSC
The Psychological Therapies Module 40
Psychoanalysis: Methods During free association, the patient edits his thoughts, resisting his or her feelings to express emotions. Such resistance becomes important in the analysis of conflict-driven anxiety. Eventually the patient opens up and reveals his or her innermost private thoughts. Developing positive or negative feelings may be transference towards the therapist.
Behavior Therapy Therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors. To treat phobias or sexual disorders, behavior therapists do not delve deeply below the surface looking for inner causes.
Classical Conditioning Techniques Counterconditioning is a procedure that conditions new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors. It is based on classical conditioning and includes exposure therapy and aversive conditioning.
Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning procedures enable therapists to use behavior modification, in which desired behaviors are rewarded and undesired behaviors are either unrewarded or punished.
Drug Therapies Psychopharmacology is the study of drug effects on mind and behavior. With the advent of drugs, hospitalization in mental institutions has rapidly declined.
Brain Stimulation Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) ECT is used for severely depressed patients who do not respond to drugs.
Focuses in Social Psychology Social psychology scientifically studies how we think about, influence, and relate to one another. “We cannot live for ourselves alone.” Herman Melville
Attributing Behavior to Persons or to Situations Attribution Theory: Fritz Heider (1958) suggested that we have a tendency to give causal explanations for someone’s behavior, often by crediting either the situation or the person’s disposition. Fritz Heider
Fundamental Attribution Error Fundamental Attribution Error. The tendency to overestimate the impact of personal disposition and underestimate the impact of the situations in analyzing the behaviors of others. We see Joe as quiet, shy, and introverted most of the time, but with friends he is very talkative, loud, and extroverted.
Actions Can Affect Attitudes Why do actions affect attitudes? One explanation is that when our attitudes and actions are opposed, we experience tension. This is called cognitive dissonance. To relieve ourselves of this tension we bring our attitudes closer to our actions (Festinger, 1957).
170 Social Influence Module 44
Group Pressure & Conformity Suggestibility is a subtle type of conformity, adjusting our behavior or thinking toward some group standard.
Group Pressure & Conformity Informational Social Influence: An influence resulting from one’s willingness to accept others’ opinions about reality. William Vandivert/ Scientific American
Milgram’s Study: Results Milgram on Youtube
Lessons from the Conformity and Obedience Studies In both Asch's and Milgram's studies, participants were pressured to choose between following their standards and being responsive to others.
Individual Behavior in the Presence of Others Social facilitation: Refers to improved performance on tasks in the presence of others. Triplett (1898) noticed cyclists’ race times were faster when they competed against others than when they just raced against the clock. Michelle Agnis/ NYT Pictures
Social Loafing The tendency of an individual in a group to exert less effort toward attaining a common goal than when tested individually (Latané, 1981).
Deindividuation The loss of self-awareness and self-restraint in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity. Mob behavior
Psychology of Attraction 4.Similarity: Similar views among individuals causes the bond of attraction to strengthen. Similarity breeds content! The more people are alike the more their liking endures. (Byrne 1971)