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Ch 25 Microbial Diseases of the Digestive System.

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Presentation on theme: "Ch 25 Microbial Diseases of the Digestive System."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ch 25 Microbial Diseases of the Digestive System

2 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings SLOs List examples of normal microbiota for each part of the gastrointestinal tract Describe the events that lead to dental caries and periodontal disease List the causative agents, suspect foods, signs and symptoms, and treatments for staphylococcal food poisoning, shigellosis, salmonellosis, typhoid fever, cholera, gastroenteritis, and peptic ulcer disease Differentiate between hepatitis A, hepatitis B, hepatitis C List the causative agents, mode of transmission, and symptoms of viral gastroenteritis List the causative agent, modes of transmission, symptoms, and treatment for giardiasis List the causative agents, modes of transmission, symptoms, and treatments for tapeworms, pinworm, and ascariasis

3 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Intro and Normal Microbiota  Diseases of the digestive system are the 2 nd most common illnesses in the US.  Diseases of the digestive system usually result from the ingestion of microorganisms or their toxins in food and water  Fecal–oral transmission can be interrupted by  proper disposal of sewage  disinfection of drinking water  proper food preparation and storage  >700 bacterial species in mouth  Stomach and small intestine have few resident microbes  Up to 40% of fecal mass is microbial cells  Bacteria in large intestine assist in degrading food and synthesizing vitamins. They also competitively inhibit pathogens, chemically alter medications, and produce carcinogens

4 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings  S. mutans is 1  causative agent  Cariogenic plaque binds to receptors on tooth pellicle  Sucrose  glucose + fructose  Glucose polymerization  dextran  Fructose fermentation  lactic acid  cavity formation  Starch, mannitol, xylitol, etc. are not used by cariogenic bacteria  Dental Calculus or Tartar  old calcified plaque  Control: fluoride and restricting dietary sucrose Dental Caries (Tooth Decay)

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6 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Periodontal Disease  Ginigivitis: Inflammation of gums. Due to inflammatory response to a variety of bacteria growing on gums  Gingivitis can progress to periodontitis  Chronic periodontitis can cause bone destruction and tooth loss in older people  Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG ) – Trench mouth

7 The Stages of Tooth Decay Fig 25.4 The Stages of Periodontal Disease Fig 25.5

8 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Bacterial Diseases of the Lower Digestive System  Infection is caused by the growth of a pathogen in the intestines.  Incubation times range from 12 hours to 2 weeks. Symptoms of infection generally include a fever.  Intoxication due to ingestion of preformed bacterial toxins.  Symptoms appear 1–48 hours after ingestion of the toxin. Fever is not usually a symptom of intoxication.  Infections and intoxications cause diarrhea and dysentery (some gastroenteritis)  Usually treated with fluid and electrolyte replacement.

9 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Staphylococcal Food Poisoning  Staphylococcus aureus – inoculated into foods during preparation  2 nd most reported food borne disease  Heat resistant exotoxin acts as enterotoxin – boiling for 30 mins not sufficient to denature the exotoxin!  Incubation period 1 – 6 hours; rapid recovery  Contaminated meats (ham!), fish, potato salad, custards, etc.  Mode of transmission: Human reservoir (nose); skin abscesses

10 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Events in Staphylococcal Food Poisoning Fig 25.6

11 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Bacterial Infections  Longer incubation periods than intoxication (2 days to 2 weeks)  Shigellosis (Bacillary Dysentery)  Toxin. Severe diarrhea or dysentery; 20,000 – 30,000 cases /year in US  Salmonellosis (Salmonella enterica) - Gastroenteritis  Most reported of foodborne diseases in US  Typhoid Fever (Salmonella typhi)  Only in humans (carriers); enteroinvasive  blood; Symptoms last 2–3 weeks, antibiotics  Cholera (Vibrio cholerae)  Primarily third world problem. Toxin. Severe diarrhea (rice water stool), extreme dehydration  Antibiotics plus ORS or iv fluids

12 Oral (ORS) or i.v. rehydration reduces mortality rate from ~70% to < 1% (additional: tetracycline)

13 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Escherichia coli Gastroenteritis  Traveler’s diarrhea may be caused by  Enterotoxigenic strains (ETEC)  present like mild form of cholera  Enteroinvasive strains (EIEC)  Shigella like dysentery  Generally self-limiting, ORS but no chemotherapy.  Enterohemorrhagic strains produce Shiga toxins (STEC) that cause inflammation and bleeding of the colon, including hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). E.g.: E. coli O157:H7

14 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Clostridium difficile–associated diarrhea  C. difficile growth following antibiotic therapy  Exotoxin production  From mild diarrhea to life threatening colitis  Millions of cases per year  Nosocomial disease, associated with hospitalized patients and nursing home residents

15 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Helicobacter pylori Gastritis  Inflammatory response to bacteria  Peptic ulcer disease (gastric and duodenal ulcers)  % of people in US infected – only ~ 15% develop ulcers. (Blood type O more susceptible)  Bacteria produces urease (urea  ammonia) – neutralizes stomach acid  Antibiotic treatment is effective

16 Fig 25.13

17 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Trans- mission Causative agent Chronic liver disease? Vaccine? Hepatitis A Fecal-oralPicornaviridaeNo Inactivated virus Hepatitis B Parenteral, STD Hepadnaviridae Yes Recombinant Hepatitis C ParenteralFiloviridaeYesNo Hepatitis D Pareteral, HBV coinfection DeltaviridaeYesHBV vaccine Hepatitis EFecal-oralCaliciviridaeNo VIRAL DISEASES OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM : Hepatitis

18 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Viral Gastroenteritis  Rotavirus:  3 million cases annually  Main diarrheal illness of infants and children  1-2 day incubation; 1 week illness  Norovirus:  50% of U.S. adults have antibodies  1-2 day incubation; 1-3 day illness  Treated with rehydration

19 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Protozoan GI Diseases  Giardiasis – caused by Giardia lamblia  Drinking feces contami- nated water (camping, swimming)  Type of traveler’s diarrhea  Symptoms: malaise, nausea, flatulence, weakness, and abdominal cramps that persist for weeks.  Diagnosis is based on identification of the protozoa in the small intestine.   7% of population healthy carriers

20 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings HELMINTHIC DISEASES OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

21 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Tapeworms  contracted by consumption of undercooked beef, pork, or fish containing encysted larvae  Scolex attaches to the intestinal mucosa of humans (definitive host)  matures into adult tapeworm  Eggs shed in feces and must be ingested by an intermediate host  Adult tapeworms may be undiagnosed in a human  Diagnosis based on observation of proglottids and eggs in feces.  Dipylidium caninum vs. Echinococcus granulosus (hydatid disease) Fig 12.27

22 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Tapeworm segments and flea dirt are found together in Rover’s dog bed. Rover licks himself and swallows fleas Tapeworm segmentbreaks,releasing eggsTapeworm segmentbreaks,releasing eggs Tapeworm segments break releasing eggs Eggs eaten by grazing flea larvae Flea larvae pupate THE COMMON TAPEWORM (Dipylidium caninum)

23 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Pinworm Disease / Enterobiasis  Enterobius vermicularis, up to 10 mm long  Most common worm infection in US (30% of children, 16% of adults infected)  Live in human rectum. While infected person sleeps, female pinworms leave intestines through anus and deposit eggs on surrounding skin.  Diagnosis with cellophane tape (scotch-tape test) first thing in the morning.  Self limiting, but treatment of all family members recommended.

24 Diagnosing Pinworm Disease pinworm paddle Do test immediately after waking up. Several samples might need to be examined. Since scratching of the anal area is common, samples taken from under the fingernails may also contain eggs. Fig 17.9

25 Pinworm (Enterobius vermicularis) in sigmoid colon ova

26 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Ascariasis  Ascaris lumbricoides up to 20 cm long  Lives in human intestines  After pinworm 2 nd most common worm infection in US. (Most prevalent in tropics and subtropics)  ~85% infections are asymptomatic, however “general failure to thrive” as in many intestinal parasites.  Transmitted by ingesting Ascaris eggs Figure 25.25

27 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


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