2SLOsList examples of normal microbiota for each part of the gastrointestinal tractDescribe the events that lead to dental caries and periodontal diseaseList the causative agents, suspect foods, signs and symptoms, and treatments for staphylococcal food poisoning, shigellosis, salmonellosis, typhoid fever, cholera, gastroenteritis, and peptic ulcer diseaseDifferentiate between hepatitis A, hepatitis B, hepatitis CList the causative agents, mode of transmission, and symptoms of viral gastroenteritisList the causative agent, modes of transmission, symptoms, and treatment for giardiasisList the causative agents, modes of transmission, symptoms, and treatments for tapeworms, pinworm, and ascariasis
3Intro and Normal Microbiota Diseases of the digestive system are the 2nd most common illnesses in the US.Diseases of the digestive system usually result from the ingestion of microorganisms or their toxins in food and waterFecal–oral transmission can be interrupted byproper disposal of sewagedisinfection of drinking waterproper food preparation and storage>700 bacterial species in mouthStomach and small intestine have few resident microbesUp to 40% of fecal mass is microbial cellsBacteria in large intestine assist in degrading food and synthesizing vitamins. They also competitively inhibit pathogens, chemically alter medications, and produce carcinogens
4Dental Caries (Tooth Decay) S. mutans is 1 causative agentCariogenic plaque binds to receptors on tooth pellicleSucrose glucose + fructoseGlucose polymerization dextranFructose fermentation lactic acid cavity formationStarch, mannitol, xylitol, etc. are not used by cariogenic bacteriaDental Calculus or Tartar old calcified plaqueControl: fluoride and restricting dietary sucroseDietary sucrose changes both the thickness and the chemical nature of plaque. Mutans streptococci and some other plaque bacteria use the monosaccharide components (glucose and fructose) and the energy of the disaccharide bond of sucrose to assemble extracellular polysaccharides. These increase the thickness of plaque substantially, and also change the chemical nature of its extracellular space from liquid to gel. The gel limits movement of some ions. Thick gel-plaque allows the development of an acid environment against the tooth surface, protected from salivary buffering. Plaque which has not had contact with sucrose is both thinner and better buffered. A diet with a high proportion of sucrose therefore increases caries risk. Thicker plaque occurs in pits and fissures (which is why Site 1 lesions begin there), just beneath the contact area (Site 2) and, in patients with poor oral hygiene, near the gingival margin (Site 3).
5Mutans streptococci participate in the formation of biofilms on tooth surfaces. These biofilms are known as dental plaque(s). Sucrose is required for the accumulation of mutans streptococci. Also required for this accumulation are the enzymes glucosyltransferases (GTFs), which are constitutively synthesized by all mutans streptococci. a | Initial attachment of mutans streptococci to tooth surfaces. This attachment is thought to be the first event in the formation of dental plaque. The mutans streptococcal adhesin (known as antigen I/II) interacts with -galactosides in the saliva-derived glycoprotein constituents of the tooth pellicle. Other moieties at the surface of mutans streptococci include glucan-binding protein (GBP), serotype carbohydrate and GTFs. b | Accumulation of mutans streptococci on tooth surfaces in the presence of sucrose. In the presence of sucrose, GTFs synthesize extracellular glucans from glucose (after the breakdown of sucrose into glucose and fructose), and this is thought to be the second event in the formation of dental plaque. The mutans streptococcal protein GBP is a receptor-like protein that is distinct from GTFs, and it specifically binds glucans. GTFs themselves also have a glucan-binding domain and can therefore also function as receptors for glucans. So, mutans streptococci bind pre-formed glucans through GBP and GTFs, and this gives rise to aggregates of mutans streptococci. c | Acid production by mutans streptococci. The metabolism of various saccharides (including glucose and fructose) by the accumulated bacterial biofilm results in the production and secretion of considerable amounts of the metabolic end-product lactic acid, which can cause demineralization of the tooth structure when present in sufficient amounts in close proximity to the tooth surface. This is thought to be the third event in the formation of dental plaque, and it eventually results in a carious lesion (that is, in dental caries).
6Periodontal DiseaseGinigivitis: Inflammation of gums. Due to inflammatory response to a variety of bacteria growing on gumsGingivitis can progress to periodontitisChronic periodontitis can cause bone destruction and tooth loss in older peopleAcute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG) – Trench mouth
7The Stages of Tooth Decay Fig 25.4The Stages of Periodontal DiseaseFig 25.5
8Bacterial Diseases of the Lower Digestive System Infection is caused by the growth of a pathogen in the intestines.Incubation times range from 12 hours to 2 weeks. Symptoms of infection generally include a fever.Intoxication due to ingestion of preformed bacterial toxins.Symptoms appear 1–48 hours after ingestion of the toxin. Fever is not usually a symptom of intoxication.Infections and intoxications cause diarrhea and dysentery (some gastroenteritis)Usually treated with fluid and electrolyte replacement.Dysentery: diarrhea containing mucus and blood in the feces.
9Staphylococcal Food Poisoning Staphylococcus aureus – inoculated into foods during preparation2nd most reported food borne diseaseHeat resistant exotoxin acts as enterotoxin – boiling for 30 mins not sufficient to denature the exotoxin!Incubation period 1 – 6 hours; rapid recoveryContaminated meats (ham!), fish, potato salad, custards, etc.Mode of transmission: Human reservoir (nose); skin abscesses
10Events in Staphylococcal Food Poisoning Fig 25.6
11Bacterial InfectionsLonger incubation periods than intoxication (2 days to 2 weeks)Shigellosis (Bacillary Dysentery)Toxin. Severe diarrhea or dysentery; 20,000 – 30,000 cases /year in USSalmonellosis (Salmonella enterica) - GastroenteritisMost reported of foodborne diseases in USTyphoid Fever (Salmonella typhi)Only in humans (carriers); enteroinvasive blood; Symptoms last 2–3 weeks, antibioticsCholera (Vibrio cholerae)Primarily third world problem. Toxin. Severe diarrhea (rice water stool), extreme dehydration Antibiotics plus ORS or iv fluids
12Oral (ORS) or i.v. rehydration reduces mortality rate from ~70% to < 1% (additional: tetracycline)ORS - Oral Rehydration Salts : The most effective, least expensive way to manage diarrhoeal dehydration.Cholera: Even though cholera is still endemic in many countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America, its death toll has been reduced dramatically over the past 50 years. Through inexpensive, effective case management, WHO has made it possible to decrease the global cholera case fatality rate to the current 1.8% from more than 50% in the early 1950s. The disease remains a public health problem and requires constant attention both at national and international levels.
13Escherichia coli Gastroenteritis Traveler’s diarrhea may be caused byEnterotoxigenic strains (ETEC) present like mild form of choleraEnteroinvasive strains (EIEC) Shigella like dysenteryGenerally self-limiting, ORS but no chemotherapy.Enterohemorrhagic strains produce Shiga toxins (STEC) that cause inflammation and bleeding of the colon, including hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). E.g.: E. coli O157:H7
14Clostridium difficile–associated diarrhea C. difficile growth following antibiotic therapyExotoxin productionFrom mild diarrhea to life threatening colitisMillions of cases per yearNosocomial disease, associated with hospitalized patients and nursing home residents
15Helicobacter pylori Gastritis Inflammatory response to bacteria Peptic ulcer disease (gastric and duodenal ulcers)% of people in US infected – only ~ 15% develop ulcers. (Blood type O more susceptible)Bacteria produces urease (urea ammonia) – neutralizes stomach acidAntibiotic treatment is effective
18Viral Gastroenteritis Rotavirus:3 million cases annuallyMain diarrheal illness of infants and children1-2 day incubation; 1 week illnessNorovirus:50% of U.S. adults have antibodies1-2 day incubation; 1-3 day illnessTreated with rehydration
19Protozoan GI Diseases Giardiasis – caused by Giardia lamblia Drinking feces contami- nated water (camping, swimming)Type of traveler’s diarrheaSymptoms: malaise, nausea, flatulence, weakness, and abdominal cramps that persist for weeks.Diagnosis is based on identification of the protozoa in the small intestine. 7% of population healthy carriers
21Tapewormscontracted by consumption of undercooked beef, pork, or fish containing encysted larvaeScolex attaches to the intestinal mucosa of humans (definitive host) matures into adult tapewormEggs shed in feces and must be ingested by an intermediate hostAdult tapeworms may be undiagnosed in a humanDiagnosis based on observation of proglottids and eggs in feces.Dipylidium caninum vs. Echinococcus granulosus (hydatid disease)Fig 12.27
22THE COMMON TAPEWORM (Dipylidium caninum) Tapeworm segment breaks, releasing eggsTapeworm segments and flea dirt are found together in Rover’s dog bed.Rover licks himself and swallows fleasEggs eaten by grazing flea larvaeTapeworm segments break releasing eggsFlea larvae pupate
23Pinworm Disease / Enterobiasis Enterobius vermicularis, up to 10 mm longMost common worm infection in US (30% of children, 16% of adults infected)Live in human rectum. While infected person sleeps, female pinworms leave intestines through anus and deposit eggs on surrounding skin.Diagnosis with cellophane tape (scotch-tape test) first thing in the morning.Self limiting, but treatment of all family members recommended.
24Diagnosing Pinworm Disease pinworm paddleDo test immediately after waking up. Several samples might need to be examined.Since scratching of the anal area is common, samples taken from under the fingernails may also contain eggs.Fig 17.9
25ovaPinworm (Enterobius vermicularis) in sigmoid colon
26Ascariasis Ascaris lumbricoides up to 20 cm long Lives in human intestinesAfter pinworm 2nd most common worm infection in US. (Most prevalent in tropics and subtropics)~85% infections are asymptomatic, however “general failure to thrive” as in many intestinal parasites.Transmitted by ingesting Ascaris eggsFigure 25.25