Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Ch 25 Microbial Diseases of the Digestive System.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Ch 25 Microbial Diseases of the Digestive System."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ch 25 Microbial Diseases of the Digestive System

2 SLOs List examples of normal microbiota for each part of the gastrointestinal tract Describe the events that lead to dental caries and periodontal disease List the causative agents, suspect foods, signs and symptoms, and treatments for staphylococcal food poisoning, shigellosis, salmonellosis, typhoid fever, cholera, gastroenteritis, and peptic ulcer disease Differentiate between hepatitis A, hepatitis B, hepatitis C List the causative agents, mode of transmission, and symptoms of viral gastroenteritis List the causative agent, modes of transmission, symptoms, and treatment for giardiasis List the causative agents, modes of transmission, symptoms, and treatments for tapeworms, pinworm, and ascariasis

3 Intro and Normal Microbiota
Diseases of the digestive system are the 2nd most common illnesses in the US. Diseases of the digestive system usually result from the ingestion of microorganisms or their toxins in food and water Fecal–oral transmission can be interrupted by proper disposal of sewage disinfection of drinking water proper food preparation and storage >700 bacterial species in mouth Stomach and small intestine have few resident microbes Up to 40% of fecal mass is microbial cells Bacteria in large intestine assist in degrading food and synthesizing vitamins. They also competitively inhibit pathogens, chemically alter medications, and produce carcinogens

4 Dental Caries (Tooth Decay)
S. mutans is 1 causative agent Cariogenic plaque binds to receptors on tooth pellicle Sucrose  glucose + fructose Glucose polymerization  dextran Fructose fermentation  lactic acid  cavity formation Starch, mannitol, xylitol, etc. are not used by cariogenic bacteria Dental Calculus or Tartar  old calcified plaque Control: fluoride and restricting dietary sucrose Dietary sucrose changes both the thickness and the chemical nature of plaque. Mutans streptococci and some other plaque bacteria use the monosaccharide components (glucose and fructose) and the energy of the disaccharide bond of sucrose to assemble extracellular polysaccharides. These increase the thickness of plaque substantially, and also change the chemical nature of its extracellular space from liquid to gel. The gel limits movement of some ions. Thick gel-plaque allows the development of an acid environment against the tooth surface, protected from salivary buffering. Plaque which has not had contact with sucrose is both thinner and better buffered. A diet with a high proportion of sucrose therefore increases caries risk. Thicker plaque occurs in pits and fissures (which is why Site 1 lesions begin there), just beneath the contact area (Site 2) and, in patients with poor oral hygiene, near the gingival margin (Site 3).

5 Mutans streptococci participate in the formation of biofilms on tooth surfaces. These biofilms are known as dental plaque(s). Sucrose is required for the accumulation of mutans streptococci. Also required for this accumulation are the enzymes glucosyltransferases (GTFs), which are constitutively synthesized by all mutans streptococci. a | Initial attachment of mutans streptococci to tooth surfaces. This attachment is thought to be the first event in the formation of dental plaque. The mutans streptococcal adhesin (known as antigen I/II) interacts with -galactosides in the saliva-derived glycoprotein constituents of the tooth pellicle. Other moieties at the surface of mutans streptococci include glucan-binding protein (GBP), serotype carbohydrate and GTFs. b | Accumulation of mutans streptococci on tooth surfaces in the presence of sucrose. In the presence of sucrose, GTFs synthesize extracellular glucans from glucose (after the breakdown of sucrose into glucose and fructose), and this is thought to be the second event in the formation of dental plaque. The mutans streptococcal protein GBP is a receptor-like protein that is distinct from GTFs, and it specifically binds glucans. GTFs themselves also have a glucan-binding domain and can therefore also function as receptors for glucans. So, mutans streptococci bind pre-formed glucans through GBP and GTFs, and this gives rise to aggregates of mutans streptococci. c | Acid production by mutans streptococci. The metabolism of various saccharides (including glucose and fructose) by the accumulated bacterial biofilm results in the production and secretion of considerable amounts of the metabolic end-product lactic acid, which can cause demineralization of the tooth structure when present in sufficient amounts in close proximity to the tooth surface. This is thought to be the third event in the formation of dental plaque, and it eventually results in a carious lesion (that is, in dental caries).

6 Periodontal Disease Ginigivitis: Inflammation of gums. Due to inflammatory response to a variety of bacteria growing on gums Gingivitis can progress to periodontitis Chronic periodontitis can cause bone destruction and tooth loss in older people Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG) – Trench mouth

7 The Stages of Tooth Decay
Fig 25.4 The Stages of Periodontal Disease Fig 25.5

8 Bacterial Diseases of the Lower Digestive System
Infection is caused by the growth of a pathogen in the intestines. Incubation times range from 12 hours to 2 weeks. Symptoms of infection generally include a fever. Intoxication due to ingestion of preformed bacterial toxins. Symptoms appear 1–48 hours after ingestion of the toxin. Fever is not usually a symptom of intoxication. Infections and intoxications cause diarrhea and dysentery (some gastroenteritis) Usually treated with fluid and electrolyte replacement. Dysentery: diarrhea containing mucus and blood in the feces.

9 Staphylococcal Food Poisoning
Staphylococcus aureus – inoculated into foods during preparation 2nd most reported food borne disease Heat resistant exotoxin acts as enterotoxin – boiling for 30 mins not sufficient to denature the exotoxin! Incubation period 1 – 6 hours; rapid recovery Contaminated meats (ham!), fish, potato salad, custards, etc. Mode of transmission: Human reservoir (nose); skin abscesses

10 Events in Staphylococcal Food Poisoning
Fig 25.6

11 Bacterial Infections Longer incubation periods than intoxication (2 days to 2 weeks) Shigellosis (Bacillary Dysentery) Toxin. Severe diarrhea or dysentery; 20,000 – 30,000 cases /year in US Salmonellosis (Salmonella enterica) - Gastroenteritis Most reported of foodborne diseases in US Typhoid Fever (Salmonella typhi) Only in humans (carriers); enteroinvasive  blood; Symptoms last 2–3 weeks, antibiotics Cholera (Vibrio cholerae) Primarily third world problem. Toxin. Severe diarrhea (rice water stool), extreme dehydration  Antibiotics plus ORS or iv fluids

12 Oral (ORS) or i.v. rehydration reduces mortality rate from ~70% to < 1%
(additional: tetracycline) ORS - Oral Rehydration Salts : The most effective, least expensive way to manage diarrhoeal dehydration. Cholera:  Even though cholera is still endemic in many countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America, its death toll has been reduced dramatically over the past 50 years. Through inexpensive, effective case management, WHO has made it possible to decrease the global cholera case fatality rate to the current 1.8% from more than 50% in the early 1950s. The disease remains a public health problem and requires constant attention both at national and international levels.

13 Escherichia coli Gastroenteritis
Traveler’s diarrhea may be caused by Enterotoxigenic strains (ETEC)  present like mild form of cholera Enteroinvasive strains (EIEC)  Shigella like dysentery Generally self-limiting, ORS but no chemotherapy. Enterohemorrhagic strains produce Shiga toxins (STEC) that cause inflammation and bleeding of the colon, including hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). E.g.: E. coli O157:H7

14 Clostridium difficile–associated diarrhea
C. difficile growth following antibiotic therapy Exotoxin production From mild diarrhea to life threatening colitis Millions of cases per year Nosocomial disease, associated with hospitalized patients and nursing home residents

15 Helicobacter pylori Gastritis
Inflammatory response to bacteria  Peptic ulcer disease (gastric and duodenal ulcers) % of people in US infected – only ~ 15% develop ulcers. (Blood type O more susceptible) Bacteria produces urease (urea  ammonia) – neutralizes stomach acid Antibiotic treatment is effective

16 Fig 25.13

Trans-mission Causative agent Chronic liver disease? Vaccine? Hepatitis A Fecal-oral Picornaviridae No Inactivated virus Hepatitis B Parenteral, STD Hepadnaviridae Yes Recombinant Hepatitis C Parenteral Filoviridae Hepatitis D Pareteral, HBV coinfection Deltaviridae HBV vaccine Hepatitis E Caliciviridae

18 Viral Gastroenteritis
Rotavirus: 3 million cases annually Main diarrheal illness of infants and children 1-2 day incubation; 1 week illness Norovirus: 50% of U.S. adults have antibodies 1-2 day incubation; 1-3 day illness Treated with rehydration

19 Protozoan GI Diseases Giardiasis – caused by Giardia lamblia
Drinking feces contami- nated water (camping, swimming) Type of traveler’s diarrhea Symptoms: malaise, nausea, flatulence, weakness, and abdominal cramps that persist for weeks. Diagnosis is based on identification of the protozoa in the small intestine.  7% of population healthy carriers


21 Tapeworms contracted by consumption of undercooked beef, pork, or fish containing encysted larvae Scolex attaches to the intestinal mucosa of humans (definitive host)  matures into adult tapeworm Eggs shed in feces and must be ingested by an intermediate host Adult tapeworms may be undiagnosed in a human Diagnosis based on observation of proglottids and eggs in feces. Dipylidium caninum vs. Echinococcus granulosus (hydatid disease) Fig 12.27

22 THE COMMON TAPEWORM (Dipylidium caninum)
Tapeworm segment breaks, releasing eggs Tapeworm segments and flea dirt are found together in Rover’s dog bed. Rover licks himself and swallows fleas Eggs eaten by grazing flea larvae Tapeworm segments break releasing eggs Flea larvae pupate

23 Pinworm Disease / Enterobiasis
Enterobius vermicularis, up to 10 mm long Most common worm infection in US (30% of children, 16% of adults infected) Live in human rectum. While infected person sleeps, female pinworms leave intestines through anus and deposit eggs on surrounding skin. Diagnosis with cellophane tape (scotch-tape test) first thing in the morning. Self limiting, but treatment of all family members recommended.

24 Diagnosing Pinworm Disease
pinworm paddle Do test immediately after waking up. Several samples might need to be examined. Since scratching of the anal area is common, samples taken from under the fingernails may also contain eggs. Fig 17.9

25 ova Pinworm (Enterobius vermicularis) in sigmoid colon

26 Ascariasis Ascaris lumbricoides up to 20 cm long
Lives in human intestines After pinworm 2nd most common worm infection in US. (Most prevalent in tropics and subtropics) ~85% infections are asymptomatic, however “general failure to thrive” as in many intestinal parasites. Transmitted by ingesting Ascaris eggs Figure 25.25

27 The End

Download ppt "Ch 25 Microbial Diseases of the Digestive System."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google