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Published byDeasia Leonard
Modified over 2 years ago
Mr. Russo Beaumont High School
Divergent boundary Convergent boundary Transform fault boundary Oceanic Ridge Rift Valley Seafloor Spreading Subduction Zone Trench Continental Volcanic Arc Volcanic Island Arc Paleomagnetism Hot Spot
We will be able to describe the 4 pieces of evidence for the theory of continental drift.
Continental Drift – The continents had once been joined to form a single supercontinent ◦ Proposed by Alfred Wegner
Pangaea – The supercontinent (All Land) ◦ Continents broke apart and drifted to their current position
Continental Puzzle – Continents appear to form a puzzle that can be put together
Matching Fossils – Several of the same types of fossils on different landmasses
Rock Types and Structures – Mountain belts that end on one coastline seem to reappear on a landmass across the ocean
Ancient Climates – Found evidence of glacial ice in countries that shouldn’t have any glaciers
The upper mantle and the crust act like a strong rigid layer. ◦ This layer is called the lithosphere
The lithosphere lies on top of the weaker mantle called the ASTHENOSPHERE
Plate – Plates are sections of the lithosphere ◦ 7 Major plates ◦ Largest – Pacific Plate ◦ Plates move 5cm/yr
Convergent Divergent Transform
Divergent Boundary – Occur when two plates move apart Example – East African Rift Valley
Convergent boundary – Occur when two plates move together
Transform Boundary – When two plates grind past each other ◦ Example – San Andreas
Oceanic Ridge – Elevated area in the ocean, found along divergent boundaries
Rift Valley – Deep faults found along divergent boundaries
Seafloor Spreading – The process by which plate tectonics produce new lithosphere Oldest part of the ocean floor is 180 million years old.
Subduction Zone – When one plate is forced down beneath another plate. (Convergent Boundary)
Trench – Surface Feature produced during a subduction zone.
Continental Volcanic Arc – When a continental and ocean plate collide, they produce volcanoes on the land.
Volcanic Island Arc – When 2 ocean plates collide, they produce volcanoes in the middle of an ocean, forming islands
Mountains are formed when two continent plates collide. Example – Himalayas in South Asia
Transform Fault – Earthquakes – At Transform faults, plates grind past without destroying the lithosphere and produce earthquakes. Example – San Andreas Fault, CA
Convergent Boundaries – Lithosphere is destroyed Divergent Boundaries – Lithosphere is created Transform Boundaries– Lithosphere is neither created nor destroyed.
Paleomagnetism – Study of changes in Earth’s magnetic field
Normal Polarity – Same magnetism as present day magnetic field
Reverse Polarity – Rocks that show opposite magnetism then present day
The discovery of strips of rocks of alternating polarity across the ocean ridges.
The youngest crust (Seafloor) is at the ridge crest, the oldest crust is further away Oldest Youngest
Hot Spot – A rising plume of mantle that creates a volcanic area (Hawaii) Hot spot supports idea that the plates move over Earth’s surface
Shaded Region – Reverse Polarity White Region – Normal Polarity
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