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10.2.1 Comparar las ideas principales de filósofs y sus efectos en las revoluciones en Inglaterra, los EEUU, Francia y Latinoamérica.

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Presentation on theme: "10.2.1 Comparar las ideas principales de filósofs y sus efectos en las revoluciones en Inglaterra, los EEUU, Francia y Latinoamérica."— Presentation transcript:

1 Comparar las ideas principales de filósofs y sus efectos en las revoluciones en Inglaterra, los EEUU, Francia y Latinoamérica.

2  Paisaje Paisaje  Paisaje 2 (:50) Paisaje 2  Música (21:00) Música (21:00)  Música 2 Música 2

3  Video Video

4 Después de la revolución científica, nuevas maneras de pensar se propagaron Los académicos y filósofos empezaron a reevaluar las ideas viejas sobre la sociedad Se buscaba una comprensión nueva a las creencias sobre el gobierno, la religión, la economía, y la educación

5 La Ilustración: siglos XVII y XVIII, movimiento intelectual que estresaba la razón y el pensamiento Conocida como la edad de la razón Trajo grandes cambios a muchos aspectos de la civilización occidental Filósofo: alguien que procura entender y explicar los principios de la existencia y realidad

6 ¿Qué es la Ilustración? - Un movimiento intelectual que estresaba la razón y el pensamiento -Conocido como la edad de la razón

7 John Locke Thomas Hobbes Voltaire Baron de Montesquieu Jean-Jacques Rousseau

8  1. La razón  2. La naturaleza  3. La felicidad  4. El progreso  5. La libertad

9 Creía que todo ser humano tenía el derecho a la vida, la libertad, y la propiedad [los derechos naturales) Para proteger estos derechos naturales formaron gobiernos El poder del gobierno viene del pueblo no de Dios (La Declaración de Independencia fue influenciada por las ideas de Locke) Si un líder violaba estos derechos el pueblo se justificaban rebelarse

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11 What are John Locke’s Natural Rights? -Life, Liberty, & Property

12 Believed people were by nature selfish and ambitious in his book Leviathan Hobbes stated, “war… of every man against every man,” and life would be “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.” He argued that to avoid chaos, people had to hand over their rights to a strong ruler (absolute monarch) in exchange for law & order This agreement by which people created a government the Social Contract

13 What did Hobbes write in Leviathan? - People are selfish and ambitious so they need to be ruled by an absolute ruler in a social contract

14 Voltaire was the pen name for Frenchmen Francois Marie Arouet Published more than 70 writings Exiled to England after being jailed for targeting clergy, aristocrats, and the government He argued for tolerance, reason, freedom of religion, and freedom of speech Influenced the U.S. Bill of Rights

15 “I do not agree with a word you say but will defend to the death your right to say it” - Voltaire

16 Where is Voltaire’s influence seen in the American government? Bill of Rights

17 French writer who devoted himself to the study of political liberty Believed Britain was the best governed politically balanced country Wrote his famous book, On the Spirit of Laws to proposed the separation of powers would keep any one person from gaining too much power “Power”, he wrote, “should be a check to power.” This idea would be called checks & balances Believed in Separation of Powers

18  Video Video

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20 How did Montesquieu’s beliefs influence the United States? -Separation of Powers -Checks & Balances

21 Swiss philosopher who was passionately committed to individual freedom Disagreed with most other philosophers that reason and science would improve people’s lives Rousseau argued that civilization corrupted people’s natural goodness. “Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains.” Argued that a direct democracy is the only good government that is freely formed by the people and guided by the general will of society Under such a government, people would agree to give up some of their freedom in favor of the common good He explained this political philosophy in his book called The Social Contract

22 What is Rousseau’s Social Contract? Agreement that citizens will give up some of their freedom for the general will

23  THOMAS HOBBES -Era un acuerdo entre la sociedad y su gobierno -Insistía en que un líder absoluto gobernara  JEAN-JACQUES ROUSSEAU - Era un acuerdo entre individuos libres a crear una sociedad y un gobierno -Insistía en que un gobierno legítimo venía del permiso los gobernados

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25 Creía que las leyes existían para preservar el orden social, no para vengar crímenes En contra de los abusos de la justicia: la tortura y los castigos crueles Grado del castigo debe coincidir con el delito (crimen) Un juicio rápido El castigo capital debe ser abolido

26 Why did Beccaria believe laws existed? Laws existed to preserve social order, not to avenge crimes

27 Compuso A Vindication of the Rights of Woman Insistía en que la educación de las mujeres no fuera segunda a la de los hombres Creía que las mujeres necesitaban la educación para ser virtuosas y útiles Alentaba a las mujeres a que entraran en los campos de los hombres (medicina, política)

28 What did Mary Wollstonecraft believe women should get? -Rights & Education

29 Challenged long held ideas of: Divine right Union of church and state Existence of unequal social classes Need for reform: Scientific Revolution Secular outlook-non- religious Importance of individual’s ability to reason

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35 believed in tolerance, reason, and freedom of thought, expression, and religious belief; fought against prejudice and superstition advocated separation of powers and checks and balances to keep any individual or group from gaining complete control of government committed to individual freedom; viewed government as an agreement among free individuals to create a society guided by the “general will” believed laws existed to preserve social order; advocated a criminal justice system based on fairness and reason believed that women, like men, need education to become virtuous and useful; argued for women’s rights to become educated and to participate in politics

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38 Each student will receive two sheets of paper with bold and dotted lines Cut ONLY the BOLD lines Fold the dotted lines You will have 8 folded pieces of paper (7 philosophers and 1 core beliefs) The 7 philosophers are from your worksheet: John Locke Jean Jacques Rousseau Mary Wollstonecraft Cesare Beccaria Baron de Montesquieu Voltaire On the front of the folded paper, you will color a picture of each philosopher. In the inside (right side) you will write each philosopher’s main ideas and significance. The last foldable will be the philosophes 5 core beliefs. You will write each belief on the front and then write their definition on the right inside page. (located on pg 196) After you have colored and written all the information you may glue your folded papers to the main page.


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