9 What is Truth? Truth: Matches its object. Corresponds to reality. Is “telling it like it is.”
10 A true statement matches its object “This object is a table.”
11 The Law of Non-Contradiction First Principle of All KnowledgeIt Is As Elementary As:In / Out - OppositesBig / Small - OppositesUp / Down - OppositesBack / Forth- OppositesTrue / False- OppositesTwo Examples:Call PEF - meet student w/ problem!Princeton Senior - Philosophy MajorThe law is false - No you believe it’s true!Krakov Professor (Anxious!!!)Very narrow minded - Western logic = Aristotelianlimited - You need to learn about Eastern logicOkay explain it to me!Opposites cannot both be trueat the same time and in the same sense.The Earth is RoundThe Earth is NOT Round
12 The Opposite of True is False Sure-Fire Way to Convince a Skeptic!“Anyone who denies the law of non-contradiction should be beaten and burned until he admits that to be beaten is not the same as not to be beaten, and to be burned is not the same as not to be burned.”(Avicenna, Great Muslim Philosopher)
13 A Self-Defeating Statement “The opposite of true is not false?“Is the opposite of that true?”
14 Summary The Truth About Truth Contrary beliefs are possible, but contrary truths are not possible.We can believe everything is true, but everything can’t be true.
15 Outline What is truth? Can all religions be true? What do major religions teach about salvation?Is there only one way?Questions Answered
16 JUDAISM HINDUISM ISLAM TAOISM CHRISTIANITY BUDDHISM ARE ALL RELIGIONS TRUE?JUDAISMHINDUISMISLAMTAOISMCHRISTIANITYBUDDHISM
17 The truth is that this is really an elephant! Once I was BlindBut Now I See!All view are not trueAll the blind men were mistaken.The truth is that this is really an elephant!
18 The Parable Fails In fact, It Proves the Opposite: The blind men are mistaken; they do NOT have the truth. Their perspectives are wrong (even so, one’s perspective about religion can be wrong).The pluralist claims to have the one true perspective. If the others were not blind, they would see the objective truth as well.To claim that each religion has only part of the truth, the pluralist must know the whole truth.You can’t see that someone is wrong unless you know what right is.
19 The Bottom Line:1. The pluralist is an exclusivist, since he believes all views contrary to his are false.2. He believes everyone is blind but him.
20 If one is true, the other two are false Zen BuddhismHinduismNew AgeGod made allTheismPantheismGod is allAtheismNo God at allJudaismChristianityIslamReligiousHumanism
21 All Religions Can’t Be True: They Teach Opposites Islam with ChristianityLet’s contrast:
22 ISLAM CHRISTIANITY GOD: absolute one GOD: 3 persons in 1 essence HUMANITY: good by natureHUMANITY: sinful by natureJESUS: major prophet who performed miracles but was not GodJESUS: second person of eternal Trinity; added humanity in the incarnationDEATH OF CHRIST: he didn’t die or riseDEATH OF CHRIST: died and rose in same physical bodyBIBLE: corruptedBIBLE: not corruptedSALVATION: Work toward salvation; good deeds must outweigh bad onesSALVATION: Free gift of forgiveness and physical resurrection via faith in Christ’s atoning work
23 Can All Religions Be True? SummaryCan All Religions Be True?Can all religions be true: No, they teach opposites!Can one religion be true: Yes, if we take off our blinders and see which religion corresponds to reality.Do other religions have some truth? Yes, but since the opposite of true is false, if one religion is true, then all opposing beliefs in other religions are false.
24 Outline What is truth? Can all religions be true? What do major religions teach about salvation?Is there only one way?Questions answered
25 Contradictory Truth Claims Regarding “Salvation” Christianity– by faith alone in Christ aloneIslam– by belief in Allah, his prophet Muhammad, and good worksHinduism– by overcoming karma and reincarnations with good worksBuddhism– by cessation of desire through eight-fold pathHumanism– by education in this life (no afterlife)
26 Summary: What Do Major Religions Teach About Salvation? Since the major religions make contradictory truth claims about salvation, they cannot all be true.
27 Outline What is Truth? Can all religions be True? What do major religions teach about salvation?Is there only one way?Questions answered
28 Is There Only One Way?Are All Religions True?byDr. Norman Geisler
30 Is There Only One Way? Christianity says “yes” because: Jesus Claimed ItJesus Proved It
31 Jesus Claimed ItJohn 14:6 “I am the way and the truth and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me.”John 10:1,9 “I tell you the truth, the man who does not enter the sheep pen by the gate, but climbs in by some other way, is a thief and a robber…. I am the gate; whoever enters through me will be saved.”
32 His Disciples Affirmed It Acts 4:12 “Salvation is found in no one else, for there is no other name under heaven given to men by which we must be saved.”1Tim 2:5 “For there is one God and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus….”
33 Jesus Proved It By: Fulfilling Prophecies; But is the Bible True? His Sinless and Miraculous Life;His Death and ResurrectionBut is the Bible True?
34 Human Race Ethnic Group Tribe Dynasty How Where When Woman, Gen 3:15 Abraham, Gen 12:1TribeJudah, Gen 49:10DynastyDavid, 2 Sam 7:12HowVirgin, Isa 7:14WhereBethlehem, Mic 5:2When33 A.D., Dan 9:24
35 To say Christianity is true because the Bible is true and to say that the Bible is true because it is God’s word based upon what he has said in it - is circular reasoning.Why believe Bible - B/C God’s Word.Why believe God’s word - B/C Bible says soMuslims - same claims for Qu’ranJehovah’s Witnesses same claims for NWTMormons- Book of Mormon - Angel MoroniWhere do we start?How do we begin to communicate?
36 The Reliability of the Witnesses There are more manuscripts.They are earlier manuscripts.They are more accurately copied manuscripts.They are confirmed by more translations and quotations.
38 The Reliability of the Witnesses There were more witnesses.They were contemporary witnesses.They were honest witnesses.They were confirmed by history.
39 Jesus Proved It By: Fulfilling Prophecies His Sinless and Miraculous Lifea. No other religious leader was sinless.b. No other religious leader was miraculous.
40 Jesus Proved It By: Fulfilling Prophecies; His Sinless and Miraculous Life;His Death and Resurrection
41 Evidence Jesus DiedNature of his wounds (whipping, crucifixion and spear in side) ensured death.His mother, friends and closest disciple witnessed his death.Romans, who were professional executioners, pronounced him dead.
42 Evidence Jesus Died Pilate double-checked to make sure Jesus was dead. The Jews never denied the account of Jesus being buried in the tomb of Joseph of Arimathea (a member of the Sanhedrin).
43 Evidence Jesus DiedNon-Christian writers from the first and second centuries recorded the death of Jesus (e.g. Josephus, Tacitus, Thallus, Lucian, Phelgon, The Jewish Talmud.)In light of the historical evidence, modern medical authorities have verified his death.
44 JAMA March 21,1986, p. 1463“Clearly, the weight of historical and medical evidence indicates that Jesus was dead before the wound to his side was inflicted and supports the traditional view that the spear, thrust between his right rib, probably perforated not only the right lung but also the pericardium and heart and thereby ensured his death. Accordingly, interpretations based on the assumption that Jesus did not die on the cross appear to be at odds with modern medical knowledge."
46 Evidence Jesus RoseThe Jews admitted the tomb was empty and no one could produce the body.Jesus made 12 different physical appearances over 40 days to over 500 people.Many Jewish priests were converted (Acts 6:7, cf. Acts 15:5) and thousands of unbelievers were converted (Acts 2:41).
47 Evidence Jesus RoseJesus’ unbelieving brother James, and Saul, an ardent opponent of Christianity, were converted.Scared, scattered, skeptical disciples were transformed into the world’s greatest missionary martyrs overnight.
48 But why is Jesus the Only Way? ConclusionIs There Only One Way?If Jesus claimed to be the only way-- and proved his claims by three sets of miracles-- then Jesus really is the only way.But why is Jesus the Only Way?
49 Why is Jesus the Only Way? Because:God’s unchanging justice must be satisfiedSinful man can’t satisfy itOnly the perfect God-man can satisfy it
50 Why is Jesus the Only Way? Because:God’s unchanging justice must be satisfiedSinful man can’t satisfy itOnly the perfect God-man can satisfy it
51 Why is Jesus the Only Way? Because:God’s unchanging justice must be satisfiedSinful man can’t satisfy itOnly the perfect God-man can satisfy it
52 Why is Jesus the Only Way? God-ManGodManBecause only the God-Mancan bridge between God and Man
54 Outline What is truth? Can all religions be true? What do major religions teach about salvation?Is there only one way?Questions answered
55 What About Those Who have Never Heard? We know that God is just and wants everyone to be saved (Gen 18:25, 1 Tim 2:4, 2 Pet 3:9).Everyone has heard there is a Creator God (Psalm 19, Rom 1).Everyone knows of sin because of the Moral Law/Conscience (Rom 2).
56 What About Those Who have Never Heard? Are they lost?Yes, everyone is lost because everyone has sinned (Rom 3:19, 23).Is this fair?Yes, because they have chosen to suppress the lights of Creation and Conscience (Rom 1, 2), and it would be unloving of God to force himself on those who have rejected the light they’ve been given.
57 What About Those Who have Never Heard? Can they be saved apart from the work of Christ?No, because Christ’s sacrificial atonement is the only way God could reconcile his infinite love and infinite justice (Rom 3:26, John 14:6, 1Tim 2:5).
58 What About Those Who have Never Heard? Can they be saved apart from the knowledge of Christ?The New Testament seems to say “no” (Acts 4:12, Rom 10:14).Is this fair?Yes: because those that diligently seek God will get the knowledge of Him (Heb 11:6, Acts 10:35)
59 What About Those Who have Never Heard? But what if the missionary fails to get there?God has other means of communication (radio, Bible, tact, etc.)We may fail God, but doesn’t fail us (Acts 10:35; Heb. 11:6).
60 What About Those Who have Never Heard? Other important considerations:God could have prearranged events so that all those who don’t hear would not have believed anyway (Acts 17:26-27).All who die in infancy go to heaven (Isaiah 7:15; 2 Sam 12:23; Mark 10:14; Rom. 5:19).The bottom line is that, since God is just, no one will go to Hell who should go to Heaven (and vice versa).
61 What About Those Who Are Sincere? Sincerity is not a test for truth.You can be sincerely wrong (Prov. 14:12).Sincere Belief:“This ship is unsinkable!”
62 What About Those Who Are Sincere? Sincerity is not a test for truth.You can be sincerely wrong (Prov. 14:12).Sincere Belief:“This is a two- way street!”
63 What About Those Who Are Sincere? Sincerity is not a test for truth.You can be sincerely wrong (Prov. 14:12).You must be sincerely right.
64 What About Those Who Are Sincere? A truly sincere seeker of God:Wants God to save them (Heb. 11:6)Wants God to save them God’s way:Jesus said, “If anyone chooses to do God’s will, he will find out whether my teaching comes from God or whether I speak on my own.” (John 7:17)Paul said, “For they being ignorant of God’s righteousness, and seeking to establish their own righteousness, have not submitted to the righteousness of God.” (Rom. 10:3)
65 Summary Objections to Christian exclusivity falsely assume that: Only Christianity is exclusive in its claimsChristians believe there’s no truth in other religionsJesus’ claim to be the only way is arbitraryMore than one way to God is possibleThose in non-Christian cultures have no know-ledge of God and no chance to accept ChristGod can only use missionaries to get the Gospel to people
66 Is There Truth in Other Religions? Yes, they have some truth, but—They don’t have the whole truth;They don’t have saving truth;They are a system of error.
67 E T System of Error System of Truth e t t t e e e t t e t e with some truthwith some error
68 Why is Jesus the Only Way? God-ManGodManBecause only the God-Mancan bridge between God and Man
69 Jesus said: “Unless you believe in me, you will die in your sins.” The EndJesus said: “Unless you believe in me, you will die in your sins.”Paul said: “If you believe in your heart and confess with your mouth that God raised him [Jesus] from the dead you will be saved.”