Presentation on theme: "Micronutrients & Water This material was funded by USDA’s Food Stamp Program through the California Department of Public Health’s Network for a Healthy."— Presentation transcript:
Micronutrients & Water This material was funded by USDA’s Food Stamp Program through the California Department of Public Health’s Network for a Healthy California. These institutions are equal opportunity providers and employers. The Food Stamp Program provides nutrition assistance to people with low income. It can help buy nutritious foods for a better diet. For information on the Food Stamp Program, call 1-888-328-3483. Presented By: Network for a Healthy California Huntington Beach Union High School District
What are Micronutrients?
Essential elements only needed in small quantities. Vitamins & Minerals
A Look at Vitamins Vitamins are: Nutrients that are made by living things Required in small amounts Assist in many chemical reactions Do not directly supply you with calories Fat soluble or water soluble vitamin a vitamin c thiamin folic acid niacin thiamin
What are the fat soluble vitamins? & Why do these vitamins require fat to be included in our diets?
Fat Soluble Vitamins Fat soluble – absorbed with the help of fat; stored in fatty tissues and liver Vitamin A Vitamin D Vitamin E Vitamin K
Why is Vitamin A important? & What foods provide Vitamin A?
Vitamin A Function- helps maintain skin and eyes; helps protect against infection Food Sources Animal: liver, eggs, cheese, milk Plant (beta carotene): yellow, orange and dark green vegetables & fruit – carrots, apricots, sweet potatoes, kale & collard greens vitamin a beta carotene zeaxanthin carotenoids alpha carotene lutein vitamin a
Why is Vitamin D important? & What foods provide Vitamin D?
Vitamin D Function – helps maintain bones & teeth; helps control calcium levels in our blood, prevents rickets Sources: milk, eggs, butter, liver, fortified cereals, oily fish (salmon) & exposing our skin to the sunlight vitamin d ergocalciferol cholecalciferol sunshine vitamin vitamin d 1 vitamin d 10
Why is Vitamin E important? & What foods provide Vitamin E?
Vitamin E Function – helps maintain red blood cells and is an antioxidant Sources – margarine, vegetable oil, salad dressing with vegetable oil, wheat germ, sunflower seeds, almonds, whole grains, legumes, leafy green vegetables vitamin e alpha tocotrienol beta tocopherol gamma delta vitamin e
Why is Vitamin K important? & What foods provide Vitamin K?
Vitamin K Function – helps blood to clot, helps in forming bones Sources – leafy green vegetables, broccoli, canola & olive oils, cabbage vitamin k phyllopquinone menaquinones menadione vitamin k 1 vitamin k 2
Water soluble – dissolves in water Thiamin (B1) Riboflavin (B2) Niacin (B3) Pyridoxine (B6) Cobalamin (B12) Pantothenic acid Folic Acid (Folate) Biotin Vitamin C Water Soluble Vitamins
Why are the B Vitamins important? & What foods provide the B Vitamins?
B Vitamins Function: help metabolize carbohydrates, fats & proteins Folic Acid helps form red blood cells Thiamin & B12 helps in nervous system function Sources: meat, whole grains, leafy green vegetables, eggs, dairy thiamin riboflavin niacin pantothenic acid pyridoxine biotin vitamin b 12
Why is Vitamin C important? & What foods provide Vitamin C?
Vitamin C Function: helps produce connective tissue, repairs, helps absorb iron, protects from bruising, keeps gums healthy, helps heal cuts, protects from infection Source : citrus fruits, broccoli, kiwi, cantaloupe, red peppers, tomatoes vitamin c ascorbic acid dehydroascorbic acid
A Closer Look at Minerals Minerals: Naturally occur in rock or soil Help trigger or regulate body processes Give our bodies structure
What minerals are needed by the body?
A Closer Look at Minerals Calcium Chlorine Chromium Cobalt Copper Fluoride Iodine Iron Magnesium Manganese Molybdenum Phosphorus Potassium Selenium Sodium Sulfur Vanadium Zinc
Key Nutrients for Teens? Let’s highlight three key nutrients: Calcium Iron Folic Acid
Structural component of bones & teeth Helps muscle contract Helps blood clot Transmits nervous system messages Calcium Hello!!
How many of you think you get enough calcium?
U.S. Teens & Calcium Consumption 9 out of 10 girls are NOT getting enough calcium 7 out of 10 boys are NOT getting enough calcium
Why be concerned about calcium intake during teen years? Other than infancy, this is most rapid growth period 15-20% of adult height is acquired 50-80% of adult weight Approximately 45% of total skeletal mass is acquired
Amount of calcium in our bodies at different stages Newborn: 27 grams 10 years old: 400 grams 15 years old: 800 grams Adult: 1200 grams Adult with Osteoporosis: 750 grams
Weight Bearing Exercise and Bone Health Running, walking, and weight-lifting add to the strength of bones Consume calcium-rich foods and keep moving!
How much calcium should a teen get? Ages 9-18 1,300 mg of calcium per day
What food groups contain calcium?
Sources of Calcium Milk, cheese, yogurt Leafy green vegetables Some fish with bones (sardines) and shellfish Tofu Sesame seeds, beans Fortified foods
Calcium/Vitamin D Link Need vitamin D for absorption of calcium Most milk products are fortified with vitamin D Exposure to sunlight activates vitamin D production in the body Calcium Bone Vitamin D
Lactose Intolerance Decreased production of enzyme lactase Very common problem among many ethnic groups
Lactose Intolerance Lactose reduced or lactose free dairy products Add lactase enzyme to fluid milk Take lactase supplement Consume small quantities of lactose foods
Iron Component of red blood cells that carries oxygen Immune system function Helps vitamin A function Helps produce collagen
Iron Foods Lean Meats Shellfish Sardines Spinach Enriched and Whole Grain Foods Dried Fruits
Symptoms of Iron Deficiency Get tired quickly Shortness of breath Dizziness Severe - anemia headaches sleeplessness feeling cold pale
U.S. Teens and Iron Deficiency More teen girls are iron deficient than teen boys Diagnosis made via blood test Easily reversible by consuming iron rich diet
Why are more girls iron deficient than boys?
Recommended Iron Intake Teen Girls: 15 mg/day Teen Boys: 10-12 mg/day
Iron Absorption Foods that increase absorption: Vitamin C foods combined with iron containing foods Foods that decrease absorption: Coffee, tea High fiber foods
Which foods would you combine to enhance iron absorption?
Folic Acid Cell building B vitamin Helps to produce DNA and RNA Plays a role in reducing spina bifida May have role in protecting against heart disease Works with vitamin B12 in forming hemoglobin in red blood cells
Folic Acid Recommended for Teens 400 mcg folic acid per day This recommendation is largely based upon reduction of spina bifida Current recommendations are the same for both genders
Good Food Sources of Folic Acid Orange Juice Leafy Green Vegetables Legumes Fortified Grain Products cereals pastas breads flour
Nutrients Macronutrients- Carbohydrates, Protein, and Fat Micronutrients- Vitamins and Minerals What is the one essential nutrient we have not discussed?
Water About 65% of our body is water Almost all of our body’s chemical reactions need water Blood and tissue have high water content
Water Carries away waste material Maintains body temperature– sweating Carries electrolytes sodium/ potassium– regulate many processes in cells (nerves and muscles)
How much fluid do we need each day?
Fluid Needs We need about 6 – 8 eight ounce cups of fluid or about ½ gallon
General Guidelines Eat a variety of foods to make sure you are consuming all the micronutrients Refer to www.MyPyramid.gov for guidelines on nutrition and physical activity www.MyPyramid.gov