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AP Biology 2007-2008 Biology is the only subject in which multiplication is the same thing as division…

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Presentation on theme: "AP Biology 2007-2008 Biology is the only subject in which multiplication is the same thing as division…"— Presentation transcript:

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2 AP Biology Biology is the only subject in which multiplication is the same thing as division…

3 AP Biology The Cell Cycle: Cell Growth, Cell Division

4 AP Biology Where it all began… You started as a cell smaller than a period at the end of a sentence…

5 AP Biology And now look at you… How did you get from there to here?

6 AP Biology  Going from egg to baby…. the original fertilized egg has to divide… and divide… Getting from there to here…

7 AP Biology  For reproduction  asexual reproduction  one-celled organisms  For growth  from fertilized egg to multi-celled organism  For repair & renewal  replace cells that die from normal wear & tear or from injury Why do cells divide? amoeba

8 AP Biology Making new cells  Nucleus  chromosomes  DNA  Cytoskeleton  centrioles  in animals  microtubule spindle fibers

9 AP Biology nuclear pores nuclear pore nuclear envelope nucleolus histone protein chromosome DNA  Function  protects DNA  Structure  nuclear envelope  double membrane  membrane fused in spots to create pores  allows large macromolecules to pass through Nucleus What kind of molecules need to pass through?

10 AP Biology

11 Cytoskeleton  Function  structural support  maintains shape of cell  provides anchorage for organelles  protein fibers microfilaments, intermediate filaments, microtubules  motility  cell locomotion  cilia, flagella, etc.  regulation  organizes structures & activities of cell

12 AP Biology  actin  microtubule  nuclei Cytoskeleton

13 AP Biology Centrioles  Cell division  in animal cells, pair of centrioles organize microtubules  spindle fibers  guide chromosomes in mitosis

14 AP Biology End of the Tour

15 AP Biology Getting the right stuff  What is passed on to daughter cells?  exact copy of genetic material = DNA  mitosis  organelles, cytoplasm, cell membrane, enzymes  cytokinesis chromosomes (stained orange) in kangaroo rat epithelial cell  notice cytoskeleton fibers

16 AP Biology Overview of mitosis interphaseprophase(pro-metaphase) metaphaseanaphasetelophase cytokinesis I.P.M.A.T.

17 AP Biology Interphase  90% of cell life cycle  cell doing its “everyday job”  produce RNA, synthesize proteins/enzymes  prepares for duplication if triggered I’m working here! Time to divide & multiply!

18 AP Biology Cell cycle  Cell has a “life cycle” cell is formed from a mitotic division cell grows & matures to divide again cell grows & matures to never divide again G 1, S, G 2, M G1G0G1G0 epithelial cells, blood cells, stem cells liver cells brain / nerve cells muscle cells

19 AP Biology Interphase  Divided into 3 phases:  G 1 = 1 st Gap (Growth)  cell doing its “everyday job”  cell grows  S = DNA Synthesis  copies chromosomes  G 2 = 2 nd Gap (Growth)  prepares for division  cell grows (more)  produces organelles, proteins, membranes G0G0 signal to divide

20 AP Biology Interphase  Nucleus well-defined  DNA loosely packed in long chromatin fibers  Prepares for mitosis  replicates chromosome  DNA & proteins  produces proteins & organelles green = key features

21 AP Biology  Synthesis phase of Interphase  dividing cell replicates DNA  must separate DNA copies correctly to 2 daughter cells  human cell duplicates ~3 meters DNA  each daughter cell gets complete identical copy  error rate = ~1 per 100 million bases  3 billion base pairs in mammalian genome  ~30 errors per cell cycle mutations (to somatic (body) cells) S phase: Copying / Replicating DNA

22 AP Biology Organizing DNA  DNA is organized in chromosomes  double helix DNA molecule  wrapped around histone proteins  like thread on spools  DNA-protein complex = chromatin  organized into long thin fiber  condensed further during mitosis DNA histones chromatin duplicated mitotic chromosome ACTGGTCAGGCAATGTC double stranded chromosome

23 AP Biology Copying DNA & packaging it…  After DNA duplication, chromatin condenses  coiling & folding to make a smaller package DNA chromatin mitotic chromosome

24 AP Biology double- stranded mitotic human chromosomes

25 AP Biology Mitotic Chromosome  Duplicated chromosome  2 sister chromatids  narrow at centromeres  contain identical copies of original DNA homologous chromosomes homologous chromosomes sister chromatids homologous = “same information” single-stranded double-stranded

26 AP Biology Mitosis  Dividing cell’s DNA between 2 daughter nuclei  “dance of the chromosomes”  4 phases  prophase  metaphase  anaphase  telophase

27 AP Biology Prophase  Chromatin condenses  visible chromosomes  chromatids  Centrioles move to opposite poles of cell  animal cell  Protein fibers cross cell to form mitotic spindle  microtubules  actin, myosin  coordinates movement of chromosomes  Nucleolus disappears  Nuclear membrane breaks down green = key features

28 AP Biology Transition to Metaphase  Prometaphase  spindle fibers attach to centromeres  creating kinetochores  microtubules attach at kinetochores  connect centromeres to centrioles  chromosomes begin moving green = key features

29 AP Biology Metaphase  Chromosomes align along middle of cell  metaphase plate  meta = middle  spindle fibers coordinate movement  helps to ensure chromosomes separate properly  so each new nucleus receives only 1 copy of each chromosome green = key features

30 AP Biology

31 Anaphase  Sister chromatids separate at kinetochores  move to opposite poles  pulled at centromeres  pulled by motor proteins “walking”along microtubules  actin, myosin  increased production of ATP by mitochondria  Poles move farther apart  polar microtubules lengthen green = key features

32 AP Biology Separation of chromatids  In anaphase, proteins holding together sister chromatids are inactivated  separate to become individual chromosomes 2 chromosomes 1 chromosome 2 chromatids single-stranded double-stranded

33 AP Biology  Kinetochores use motor proteins that “walk” chromosome along attached microtubule  microtubule shortens by dismantling at kinetochore (chromosome) end Chromosome movement

34 AP Biology Telophase  Chromosomes arrive at opposite poles  daughter nuclei form  nucleoli form  chromosomes disperse  no longer visible under light microscope  Spindle fibers disperse  Cytokinesis begins  cell division green = key features

35 AP Biology Cytokinesis  Animals  constriction belt of actin microfilaments around equator of cell  cleavage furrow forms  splits cell in two  like tightening a draw string

36 AP Biology Cytokinesis in Animals (play Cells Alive movies here)Cells Alive (play Thinkwell movies here)Thinkwell

37 AP Biology Mitosis in whitefish blastula

38 AP Biology Mitosis in animal cells

39 AP Biology Cytokinesis in Plants  Plants  cell plate forms  vesicles line up at equator  derived from Golgi  vesicles fuse to form 2 cell membranes  new cell wall laid down between membranes  new cell wall fuses with existing cell wall

40 AP Biology Cytokinesis in plant cell

41 AP Biology Mitosis in plant cell

42 AP Biology onion root tip

43 AP Biology Origin of replication chromosome: double-stranded DNA replication of DNA elongation of cell cell pinches in two ring of proteins Evolution of mitosis  Mitosis in eukaryotes likely evolved from binary fission in bacteria  single circular chromosome  no membrane- bound organelles

44 AP Biology Evolution of mitosis  A possible progression of mechanisms intermediate between binary fission & mitosis seen in modern organisms protists dinoflagellates protists diatoms eukaryotes yeast eukaryotes animals prokaryotes (bacteria)

45 AP Biology Dinoflagellates  algae  “red tide”  bioluminescence

46 AP Biology Diatoms  microscopic algae  marine  freshwater

47 AP Biology Any Questions??

48 AP Biology Ghosts of Lectures Past (storage)

49 AP Biology Control of Cell Cycle

50 AP Biology Kinetochore  Each chromatid has own kinetochore proteins  microtubules attach to kinetochore proteins

51 AP Biology nucleosome DNA histone DNA double helix chromosome rosettes of chromatin loops scaffold protein chromatin loop 30 nm Chromosome structure

52 AP Biology G2G2 S G1G1 M metaphase prophase anaphase telophase interphase (G 1, S, G 2 phases) mitosis (M) cytokinesis (C) C  Phases of a dividing cell’s life  interphase  cell grows  replicates chromosomes  produces new organelles, enzymes, membranes…  G 1, S, G 2  mitotic phase  cell separates & divides chromosomes  mitosis  cell divides cytoplasm & organelles  cytokinesis Cell Division cycle

53 AP Biology Substitute Slides for Student Print version (for student note-taking)

54 AP Biology How did you get from there to here? And now look at you…


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