Presentation on theme: " Please answer each question in a complete sentence. Describe one of the factors that led to an instable Europe in the 5 th, 6 th and 7 th centuries."— Presentation transcript:
Please answer each question in a complete sentence. Describe one of the factors that led to an instable Europe in the 5 th, 6 th and 7 th centuries AD. Define the term Besiege How did Humans contract the Bubonic Plague?
Muslim expansion, That famous Lumberjack and Here comes the Hammer!
Charles Martel Iconoclasm Reconquista Moors Abbasid Caliphate Battle of Tours Saint Boniface
The Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire faced enemies from all sides and saw their power once again fade in the West. Augustine of Canterbury is sent to Great Britain where he is tasked with converting the Anglo-Saxons to Christitanity. Islam expands rapidly out of Arabia and destroys the Persian Empire in the East and defeats Byzantine power in Syria, the Levant and North Africa. Christianity continues to spread in Europe through Missionaries converting the Nobility. The Frankish Nobility begins the process of establishing Feudalism in Europe.
Caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib is assassinated; with his assassination the Rashidun Caliphate ends and Muawiyah I founds the Umayyad caliphate.
According to the Annales Cambriae, the Anglo-Saxons convert to Christianity after the Second Battle of Badon. Sighere of Essex encourages his subjects to reject Christianity and return to their indigenous religion.
Eastern Roman Emperor Constans II is assassinated in his bath at Syracuse, Italy. Mezezius is proclaimed Emperor by the army in Syracuse in the absence of the sons of Constans II. Constantine IV, son of Constans II, becomes Byzantine Emperor, succeeding Constans II. He organizes an expedition to kill the usurper Mezezius.
Battle of Two Rivers: King Ecgfrith of Northumbria defeats the Picts.
The first Arab siege of Constantinople begins.
Frithuwold of Surrey is baptised and so is his son; Surrey becomes Christian. Arabs raid Crete.
According to the Chronicon Pictum, the last of the Onogur tribes fleeing Khazars in the Ukraine come to Hrpad in Pannonia and the area becomes known as Hungary.
The first Arab siege of Constantinople ends. Pope Agatho succeeds Pope Donus as the 79th pope. He is the first to stop paying tribute to the Byzantine Emperor upon election.
The Bulgars subjugate the country of current-day Bulgaria. Pippin of Heristal becomes Mayor of the Palace. Armenians, Albanians, and Iberians rise in rebellion against the Caliphate in the Caucasus.
The Kingdom of Kent is attacked and conquered by West Saxons under Caedwalla. Caedwalla exterminates the Jutes of the Isle of Wight and kills King Arwald.
King Theuderic III of Neustria is defeated by Pepin of Herstal, Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia, at the Battle of Tertry near Péronne in modern France. Austrasia and Neustria are combined again; Pepin becomes de facto ruler of both areas. Construction of the Dome of the Rock is started in Jerusalem.
Battle of Dorestad: The Frisians of king Radbod are defeated by the Frankish mayor of the palace, Pippin of Herstal. The Rhine delta becomes Frankish.
Hispano-Visigothic king Egica accuses the Jews of aiding the Muslims, and sentences all Jews to slavery.
Paolo Lucio Anafesto is elected the first Doge of Venice.
Arabs under Hassan ibn al-Nu'man capture Carthage from the Byzantine Empire, and destroy it completely. The defeated Byzantine fleet revolts and proclaims Tiberius III, who deposes Leontius after a brief siege of Constantinople and becomes Byzantine Emperor.
Umayyad troops invade Armenia and secure submission of Smbat VI Bagratuni.
Musa bin Nusair defeats the Berber army in Algeria, ending resistance against the Arabs there. The Umayyad prince Abdallah ibn Abd al-Malik captures the Byzantine stronghold of Theodosiopolis.
Muhammad ibn Marwan invades the Byzantine Armenian provinces east of the Euphrates; the local commander Baanes surrenders before the large Arab army and the population accepts a Muslim governor.
Large-scale Armenian rebellion against Muslim rule breaks out with Byzantine support.
Abdallah ibn Abd al-Malik captures Mopsuestia in Cilicia from the Byzantines and refortifies it, making it the first Muslim base in the area that will later become the Thughur.
The Umayyad general Muhammad ibn Marwan suppresses the Armenian revolt, captures and deports Smbat VI Bagratuni and other leading princes. Many of the captured nakharar are gathered into churches and burned alive at Nakhchevan.
The Byzantines lose the Balearic Islands to the Moors.
Nazaktar Khan, a Turk Shahi prince in alliance with the Tibetan Kingdom, captures Bactria from the Umayyads.
Roderic deposes Achila to become king of the Visigoths. A Muslim army is invited into Ceuta by its governor, Count Julian, who, being an opponent of Roderic, encourages them to invade the Iberian peninsula.
Umayyad troops led by Tariq ibn Ziyad land at Gibraltar, and begin their invasion of the Iberian Peninsula and conquest of the Visigothic Kingdom. Battle of Guadalete: Umayyad Moors' victory over the Visigothic army. Visigothic king Roderic (Rodrigo in Spanish and Portuguese) dies in the battle. After pirates plunder an Arab ship near the mouth of the Indus River, Arabs led by Muhammad bin Qasim invade India with 10,000 men and 6,000 horses, establishing a sultanate in Sindh.
Zaragoza falls to the Arab armies of Musa bin Nusair. On the death of Pepin II, his illegitimate son Charles Martel becomes mayor of the Austrasian palace and effective power behind the Frankish throne.
Nechtan mac Der-Ilei, King of the Picts invites the Northumbrian clergy to establish Christianity amongst the Picts.
The Ummayads conquer Lisbon. Boniface begins missions to the Germans.
Leo III the Isaurian usurps the throne of Byzantium. Maslamah ibn Abd al-Malik begins the Second Arab siege of Constantinople, which will last for nearly a year.
Battle of Covadonga, marking the start of the Reconquista by a Christian military force (under Pelagius of Asturias) of the Iberian Peninsula following the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 711. Byzantine Emperor Leo III the Isaurian and Khan Tervel of Bulgaria force the troops of the Umayyad Caliphate to abandon the Second Arab Siege of Constantinople (717– 718), preventing a major Arab incursion into the Byzantine Empire.
Battle of Toulouse: after besieging Toulouse for three months, Al-Samh ibn Malik al-Khawlani, the Wāli (governor) of Al-Andalus (Muslim Spain), is defeated (and dies of his injuries) by Odo the Great, Duke of Aquitaine, preventing the spread of Umayyad control westward from Narbonne into Aquitaine.
Saint Boniface fells Thor's Oak near Fritzlar, marking the decisive event in the Christianization of the northern Germanic tribes.
Leo III the Isaurian bans the worship of religious images, beginning the iconoclastic controversies.
Pope Gregory II condemns iconoclasm, causing Byzantine Italy to break with the Empire.
The Battle of Ravenna is fought between the troops of Byzantine Emperor Leo III the Isaurian, and a force of Italians, raised by Pope Gregory II in defence of image worship, which Leo had outlawed. After a severe struggle, the Greeks are routed; thousands are killed in flight to their ships. The waters of the Po River are so infected with blood, it is said, that for six years the inhabitants of Ravenna will not eat fish from the river.
Charles Martel defeats the last independent dukedom of the Alamanni, and launches raids on the Saxons beyond the Rhine.
Battle of Tours: Near Poitiers, France, leader of the Franks Charles Martel and his men, defeat a large army of Moors under the governor of Cordoba, Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi, who is killed during the battle. The Battle of Tours halts the advance of Islam into Western Europe and establishes a balance of power between Western Europe, Islam and the Byzantine Empire.
An earthquake strikes Constantinople and the surrounding countryside, causing destruction to the city's land walls and buildings, and many deaths. Rebellion of the Berber tribes in the recently conquered region of Galicia. This facilitates the establishment of an independent kingdom in the Cantabrian Mountains under Alfonso I of Asturias. The Khazars, a nation of the Black Sea steppe, though not ethnically Jewish, voluntarily convert to Judaism.
Bubonic plague in Constantinople subsequently sweeps through Europe.
The nobility of the Alamanni is killed at the blood court at Cannstatt.
Abu Muslim unites the Abbasid Empire against the Umayyads.
After the defeat of his army in the Battle of the Zab the last Umayyad Caliph, Marwan II, is overthrown and killed. Al-Saffah is proclaimed the first Abbasid Caliph. The capital of the Caliphate will later moved from Damascus to Baghdad, within the territory of the former Persian Empire; this transfer will prove to be a momentous event for Baghdad, which develops into a centre of international trade and culture.
Pepin the Short is elected as king of the Franks by the Frankish nobility, marking the end of the Merovingian and beginning of the Carolingian dynasty.
When you are done make sure you write your name on your paper and turn it into the basket on your way out the door. That doesn’t mean get up now! I’m looking at you the person who is getting up now and putting on their backpack. Use complete sentences. (Yes that is plural as in more than one)
Assignment 6.4 is being distributed today. It is due on Monday (1/14/2013). You will also receive the instructions for your unit project on Monday. Have a good weekend and don’t be a dummy. Assignment 6.2 is due today! Make sure you put your name on it and turn it in to the basket on your way out the door.