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Warm Up #5 How did St. Boniface convince the Germans to convert to Christianity? Briefly describe the Franks victory over the Moors at the Battle of Tours.

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Presentation on theme: "Warm Up #5 How did St. Boniface convince the Germans to convert to Christianity? Briefly describe the Franks victory over the Moors at the Battle of Tours."— Presentation transcript:

1 Warm Up #5 How did St. Boniface convince the Germans to convert to Christianity? Briefly describe the Franks victory over the Moors at the Battle of Tours What was the cause of the iconoclasm controversy? Please answer all questions in complete sentences!

2 Charlemagne, Vikings, Saracens & The Holy Roman Empire
European History AD Charlemagne, Vikings, Saracens & The Holy Roman Empire

3 Key Figures/Events Charlemagne (a.k.a. Charles the Great) Roland
Empress Irene of Athens Vikings Holy Roman Empire Saracens Egbert of Wessex

4 I forgot everything over the weekend Mr. Morrow
Charles Martel defeated the Moors at the Battle of Tours, halted their advance into Europe and became the most powerful man in Western Europe. The Eastern church and Western church split over the iconoclasm controversy. The Moors invaded the Iberian Peninsula, established a Caliphate, but sparked the Christian Reconquista to retake the lands. The Abbasid Caliphate, based in the East, revolted and took power from the Umayyad Caliphate. Saint Boniface went into Germany and felled the Thor’s Oak, converting many of the Germans to Christianity.

5 754 AD al-Mansur, the second Abbasid caliph, starts to rule.
Pope Stephen II crowns Pepin the short King of the Franks at Saint-Denis outside Paris; also dedicates the foundations of the new abbey church.

6 755 AD Pepin the Short sends his armies into Italy to aid the pope against the Lombards. Abd-ar-Rahman I lands in Spain, where the next year he will establish a new Umayyad dynasty.

7 756 AD Pepin the Short defeats the Lombards of northern Italy, who have threatened Pope Stephen II. The Donation of Pepin is a cession of lands including Ravenna that will become the basis of the Papal States.

8 768 AD Pepin the Short (714–768), king of the Franks since 751, dies; he is succeeded by his sons Carloman (eastern Franks) and Charles, aka Charlemagne (western Franks).

9 771 AD Carloman I, King of the Franks, dies, leaving his brother Charlemagne king of the now complete Frankish kingdom. Gerberga, the widow of Carloman, flees to Desiderius, the king of the Lombards.

10 772 AD Frankish king Charlemagne starts fighting the Saxons and the Frisians. Caliph Al-Mansur orders Christians and Jews in Jerusalem to be stamped on their hands with a distinctive symbol.

11 773 AD At request of the Pope Adrian I, Charlemagne crosses the Alps and invades the kingdom of the Lombards headed by the king Desiderius.

12 774 AD Charlemagne conquers the kingdom of the Lombards, and takes title King of the Lombards.

13 777 AD Charlemagne defeats the Saxons; their leader Widukind flees to Denmark.

14 778 AD Battle of Roncevaux Pass (Roncesvalles): Charlemagne's army suffers a terrible defeat at the hand of the Basques. Among those killed is Roland, lord of the Breton March; the 11th-century Song of Roland is loosely based on the events of this battle.

15 782 AD Charlemagne summons the monk and scholar Alcuin of York to head the palace school at Aachen in order to inspire the revival of education in Europe. The Massacre of Verden is ordered by Charlemagne against the Saxons. Harun al-Rashid invades Byzantine Anatolia and advances to within sight of Constantinople. Trapped on his return march, he is rescued by the defection of the Byzantine general Tatzates, which allows him to impose a harsh truce on Empress Irene of Athens.

16 785 AD Widukind and many other Saxons are baptized.

17 787 AD The Second Council of Nicaea ends the first iconoclastic period in the Byzantine Empire.

18 788 AD Charlemagne conquers Bavaria.

19 789 AD The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the first appearance of Vikings in England.

20 791 AD The Avars invade Europe again, but are defeated by Charlemagne.

21 793 AD Vikings sack the monastery of Lindisfarne, Northumbria, their first major viking attack in England.

22 795 AD In the earliest recorded Viking raid on Ireland, they attack Iona, Inisbofin and Inismurray.

23 797 AD Irene of Athens orders her son, Byzantine Emperor Constantine VI, captured and deposed. Irene of Athens's orders are carried out; her son is blinded, and she is declared empress the next day.

24 798 AD High water mark of Alfonso II of Asturias's campaigns against al-Andalus, the Christians sack Lisbon.

25 800 AD December 25 - Pope Leo III crowns Charlemagne Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire in Saint Peter's Basilica in Rome.

26 802 AD Irene is deposed as Empress of Byzantium, replaced by Nicephorus I, and banished to Lesbos.

27 803 AD Nikephoros I of the Byzantine Empire and Charlemagne of the Holy Roman Empire settle their imperial boundaries and sign Pax Nicephori. Venice is recognized as independent by the Byzantine Empire.

28 806 AD al-Andalus: the Umayyad emir, al-Hakam I, reasserts his control over the city of Toledo, autonomous since 797; to this effect the emir has over 700 locals killed in what came to be known as the "day of the trench". The Saracens sack Nola, Italy.

29 813 AD Byzantine Emperor Michael I Rangabe is defeated in a war against the Bulgarians. A revolt puts Leo V on the throne of the Byzantine Empire; former emperor Michael I Rangabe becomes a monk, beginning the Second Iconoclastic Period. Louis the Pious is crowned co-emperor of the Franks with his father Charlemagne. Third Council of Tours: Priests are ordered to preach in the vernacular.

30 814 AD Charlemagne dies in Aachen; Louis the Pious succeeds Charlemagne as king of the Franks and Emperor. The Bulgarians lay siege before Constantinople.

31 817 AD Louis the Pious divides his empire among his sons; Louis the German becomes king of East Francia, Lothar I becomes co-emperor and Pepin I receives Aquitaine.

32 824 AD Iñigo Arista revolts against the Franks and establishes the kingdom of Navarre (approximate date).

33 825 AD Egbert of Wessex defeats Beornwulf of Mercia at Ellandun. Kent, Surrey, Sussex and Essex submit to Wessex and East Anglia acknowledges Egbert as overlord.

34 826 AD The Danish king Harald Klak accepts Christianity.

35 828 AD Egbert of Wessex becomes the first King of England.
The first Christian church in central and eastern Europe is built in Nitra.

36 829 AD Egbert of Wessex conquers Mercia and is recognized as Bretwalda. The Saracens ravage the coast of Dalmatia. The Cretan Saracens annihilate a Byzantine fleet at the Battle of Thasos, and raid freely across the Aegean. Ansgar is appointed missionary to Sweden by Louis the Pious, at the request of the Swedish king Björn at Hauge.

37 837 AD Saracens from Egypt attack the Italian city of Naples.
Vikings from Scandinavia attack Constantinople.

38 840 AD After the death of Louis the Pious, his sons Lothar, Charles the Bald and Louis the German fight over the division of the Holy Roman Empire, with Lothar succeeding as Emperor.

39 841 AD The Norse town of Dyflinn or Dublin is founded in Ireland.

40 843 AD Kenneth I (Cináed mac Ailpín), King of the Scots, also becomes King of the Picts, thus becoming the first monarch of the new nation of Scotland. The Alpin dynasty of Scottish kings begins to reign. Byzantine Empire: Official end of Iconoclasm and a return to images in all Orthodox churches of the Empire. To commemorate this, on the first Sunday in Lent the Feast of Orthodoxy is celebrated every year since then. Crete: A major Byzantine attempt at recovering the island from the Saracens is launched. After initial success, the Byzantine army is overwhelmed.

41 844 AD First Viking attacks on the Muslim possessions of the Iberian peninsula. The Scandinavian raiders sack Sevilla, Niebla, Beja and Lisbon.

42 Before you go…. Assignment 6.4 is due TODAY! Make sure you turn it in to the basket when the bell rings. F Period, Assignment 6.2 is also due TODAY for you. Your unit project, a Dark Ages Diorama, is being handed out today. You have two weeks to complete it. Do not wait until the last night! Take your time to turn in something you can be proud of.

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