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America in a World at War. I. War on Two Fronts Containing the Japanese Allied territories begin to fall shortly after Pearl Harbor Allied territories.

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Presentation on theme: "America in a World at War. I. War on Two Fronts Containing the Japanese Allied territories begin to fall shortly after Pearl Harbor Allied territories."— Presentation transcript:

1 America in a World at War

2 I. War on Two Fronts Containing the Japanese Allied territories begin to fall shortly after Pearl Harbor Allied territories begin to fall shortly after Pearl Harbor American forces in the Philippines destroyed ten hours after the strike American forces in the Philippines destroyed ten hours after the strike Guam Guam General Douglas MacArthur General Douglas MacArthur move north from Australia into Philippines move north from Australia into Philippines Admiral Chester Nimitz Admiral Chester Nimitz move from Hawaii toward major Japanese island outposts move from Hawaii toward major Japanese island outposts Victorious Battles for U.S. Victorious Battles for U.S. May 7-8 1942: Coral Sea… first major victory… just northeast of Australia May 7-8 1942: Coral Sea… first major victory… just northeast of Australia June 3-6 1942: Midway Island… US Navy destroys four Japanese aircraft carriers June 3-6 1942: Midway Island… US Navy destroys four Japanese aircraft carriers Aug 1942: Solomon Islands east of New Guinea Aug 1942: Solomon Islands east of New Guinea Gavutu Gavutu Tulagi Tulagi Guadalcanal Guadalcanal With help from Aussies and Kiwis… US began long, slow march towards Japan With help from Aussies and Kiwis… US began long, slow march towards Japan

3 In Europe US had less control over military operations than in Pacific In Europe US had less control over military operations than in Pacific forced to work with other allies forced to work with other allies George C. Marshall, supported a plan for a major Allied invasion of France across the English Channel in the Spring of 1943 George C. Marshall, supported a plan for a major Allied invasion of France across the English Channel in the Spring of 1943 Soviets wanted invasion to take place at earliest possible moment… taking brunt of German attack Soviets wanted invasion to take place at earliest possible moment… taking brunt of German attack British wanted to attack Germany through Africa British wanted to attack Germany through Africa Roosevelt decides to support the British plan, against advice of advisors Roosevelt decides to support the British plan, against advice of advisors October 1942, British and US launch counter offensives against German General Erwin Rommel October 1942, British and US launch counter offensives against German General Erwin Rommel African difficulties African difficulties Germans throw full weight against Allied African offensive Germans throw full weight against Allied African offensive Inexperienced troops from US suffer serious losses Inexperienced troops from US suffer serious losses Holding off the Germans

4 General George S. Patton General George S. Patton takes command and regroups American troops and began effective counter offensive from the West takes command and regroups American troops and began effective counter offensive from the West General Bernard Montgomery from Britain… leads successful British counter offensive from the East General Bernard Montgomery from Britain… leads successful British counter offensive from the East Allies drive off last of Germans from Africa in May of 1943 Allies drive off last of Germans from Africa in May of 1943 Russians able to hold off huge German offensive in the winter of 1943 Russians able to hold off huge German offensive in the winter of 1943 Stalingrad Stalingrad Soviets would lose 20 million people during war… far more than any other country Soviets would lose 20 million people during war… far more than any other country Soviets believed that Allied invasion of France was being deliberately postponed to sabotage communist government Soviets believed that Allied invasion of France was being deliberately postponed to sabotage communist government First U.S. European Invasion: Sicily First U.S. European Invasion: Sicily July 9, 1943 July 9, 1943 One month later, Sicily would fall One month later, Sicily would fall Amid defeat Mussolini would be kicked out of power Amid defeat Mussolini would be kicked out of power Italian forces still form a powerful defensive south of Rome Italian forces still form a powerful defensive south of Rome June 4, 1944 captured Rome June 4, 1944 captured Rome Holding off the Germans Continued

5 America and the Holocaust As early as 1942 America had evidence of Nazi extermination of Jews, poles, gypsies, homosexuals and communists As early as 1942 America had evidence of Nazi extermination of Jews, poles, gypsies, homosexuals and communists American government continually resisted almost all plans to rescue individuals from Nazi death camps American government continually resisted almost all plans to rescue individuals from Nazi death camps U.S. Planes flew missions within miles of Auschwitz: Military refused to destroy crematoriums… “militarily unfeasible” U.S. Planes flew missions within miles of Auschwitz: Military refused to destroy crematoriums… “militarily unfeasible” Jews escaping refused entry into the United States Jews escaping refused entry into the United States St. Louis, arrived in Miami in 1939 carrying as many as 1,000 escaped German Jews… refused entry and sent home St. Louis, arrived in Miami in 1939 carrying as many as 1,000 escaped German Jews… refused entry and sent home State department did not even use up the number of visas permitted by law… 90% of the quota remained untouched! State department did not even use up the number of visas permitted by law… 90% of the quota remained untouched! Anti-Semite Assistant Secretary Breckinridge Long Anti-Semite Assistant Secretary Breckinridge Long Allied forces insisted the most important thing they could do to combat Nazi genocide was concentrate all forces in an attack against Germany Allied forces insisted the most important thing they could do to combat Nazi genocide was concentrate all forces in an attack against Germany

6 II. The American People in Wartime Prosperity WWII’s most profound impact on American Life was the ending of the Depression WWII’s most profound impact on American Life was the ending of the Depression Most important agent in recovery: federal spending Most important agent in recovery: federal spending After 1939 fed was putting more money into economy each year than all the New Deal relief agencies combined had done. After 1939 fed was putting more money into economy each year than all the New Deal relief agencies combined had done.

7 The War and the West US gov’t created large manufacturing facilities in California and elsewhere to serve the needs of it’s military US gov’t created large manufacturing facilities in California and elsewhere to serve the needs of it’s military Gov’t made almost $40 billion in capital investments Gov’t made almost $40 billion in capital investments Henry J. Kaiser Henry J. Kaiser construction companies built some of the great dams of the west construction companies built some of the great dams of the west steered billions of dollars to capital investments in the West steered billions of dollars to capital investments in the West Western cities grow in size Western cities grow in size Henry J. Kaiser

8 Labor and the War war created a serious labor shortage war created a serious labor shortage took 15 million men and women out of civilian work took 15 million men and women out of civilian work demand for labor was rising rapidly demand for labor was rising rapidly Civilian workforce increased by almost 20 percent during the war… groups of people began working who before it was considered in-appropriate to work Civilian workforce increased by almost 20 percent during the war… groups of people began working who before it was considered in-appropriate to work very young very young elderly elderly several million women several million women

9 Labor and the War Continued Increase in union membership, but increase in federal restrictions on work stoppages Increase in union membership, but increase in federal restrictions on work stoppages 15% wage increase set 15% wage increase set “no-strike” pledge “no-strike” pledge “maintenance-of-membership” agreements: increased union membership “maintenance-of-membership” agreements: increased union membership Despite these plans, nearly 15,000 work stoppages during the war Despite these plans, nearly 15,000 work stoppages during the war mostly “wildcat” strikes (strikes unauthorized by union leaders) mostly “wildcat” strikes (strikes unauthorized by union leaders) Smith-Connally Act … passed despite FDR’s veto… required unions to wait thirty days before striking and empowered the president to seize a struck war plant Smith-Connally Act … passed despite FDR’s veto… required unions to wait thirty days before striking and empowered the president to seize a struck war plant

10 Stabilizing the Boom from fear of deflation (not enough currency, low prices) to inflation (too much, high prices) during the war from fear of deflation (not enough currency, low prices) to inflation (too much, high prices) during the war Anti-Inflation Act: gave president the authority to freeze agricultural prices, wages, salaries and rents Anti-Inflation Act: gave president the authority to freeze agricultural prices, wages, salaries and rents enforced by Office of Price Administration (OPA) enforced by Office of Price Administration (OPA) successful, inflation not a problem successful, inflation not a problem OPA not popular… black marketing grew OPA not popular… black marketing grew Government Spending Government Spending 1941-1945 spent $321 billion… twice as much as it had spent in the entire 150 years of existence 1941-1945 spent $321 billion… twice as much as it had spent in the entire 150 years of existence national debt rose from $49 billion to $249 billion in 1945 national debt rose from $49 billion to $249 billion in 1945

11 Mobilizing Production one failed agency after another finally leads to War Production Board (WPB) one failed agency after another finally leads to War Production Board (WPB) “superagency”, but not as much power as WWI counterpart War Industries Board “superagency”, but not as much power as WWI counterpart War Industries Board never able to exert control over military purchases never able to exert control over military purchases army and navy often circumvented army and navy often circumvented small businesses angry that contracts were going to big businesses small businesses angry that contracts were going to big businesses WPB’s authority is transferred to Office of War Mobilization (OWM)… only slightly more successful WPB’s authority is transferred to Office of War Mobilization (OWM)… only slightly more successful Despite administrative problems, economy met all of the nation’s critical war needs Despite administrative problems, economy met all of the nation’s critical war needs Development of synthetic rubber over natural rubber Development of synthetic rubber over natural rubber USA output was twice of all the Axis countries combined USA output was twice of all the Axis countries combined *Fake Smile*

12 The Internment of Japanese Americans WWII different from WWI … not as much propaganda or hatred directed towards Europe WWII different from WWI … not as much propaganda or hatred directed towards Europe Americans looked at Italians and Germans as victims of tyrannical gov’t Americans looked at Italians and Germans as victims of tyrannical gov’t Different attitude towards Asian enemy than towards European enemy Different attitude towards Asian enemy than towards European enemy certain racial and cultural characteristics made it easier to hold Japanese Americans in contempt certain racial and cultural characteristics made it easier to hold Japanese Americans in contempt small group, politically powerless small group, politically powerless gov’t and private organizations printed Anti-Japanese propaganda… hatred quickly spread towards Japanese Americans gov’t and private organizations printed Anti-Japanese propaganda… hatred quickly spread towards Japanese Americans Pearl Harbor increased animosity and suspicion Pearl Harbor increased animosity and suspicion Despite cultural assimilation, belief was widespread that Japanese Americans could never become “real” Americans Despite cultural assimilation, belief was widespread that Japanese Americans could never become “real” Americans Executive Order 9066 Executive Order 9066 Leaders make scathing and unfounded comments Leaders make scathing and unfounded comments Earl Warren “passivity as a threat” Earl Warren “passivity as a threat” General Frank Knox blamed Japanese Americans for “sabotage” of Pearl Harbor General Frank Knox blamed Japanese Americans for “sabotage” of Pearl Harbor General John DeWitt “A Jap is a Jap” General John DeWitt “A Jap is a Jap”

13 The Internment of Japanese Americans Continued War Relocation Authority (WRA) War Relocation Authority (WRA) oversee project of relocating over 100,000 Japanese Americans and immigrants oversee project of relocating over 100,000 Japanese Americans and immigrants concentration camps were like desert prisons concentration camps were like desert prisons goal to “Americanize” Japanese… people in charge of committee were same people who were in charge of similar projects for Native Americans goal to “Americanize” Japanese… people in charge of committee were same people who were in charge of similar projects for Native Americans WRA hired out many inmates as agricultural laborers WRA hired out many inmates as agricultural laborers Japanese Americans lost everything Japanese Americans lost everything businesses sold for cheap businesses sold for cheap property sold for cheap property sold for cheap Nisei army fights with high distinction in Europe Nisei army fights with high distinction in Europe Korematsu v. U.S. Korematsu v. U.S. Supreme Court rules U.S. gov’t action during WWII as constitutional Supreme Court rules U.S. gov’t action during WWII as constitutional “loyal” citizens allowed to be free “loyal” citizens allowed to be free 1988 Japanese Americans win compensation for their loses 1988 Japanese Americans win compensation for their loses

14 Chinese Americans and the War Relations increased due to Alliance with China Relations increased due to Alliance with China Congress finally repealed the Chinese Exclusion Acts which had barred Chinese immigration since 1892 Congress finally repealed the Chinese Exclusion Acts which had barred Chinese immigration since 1892 4,000 Chinese women entered the United States in the first years after the war… mail order brides 4,000 Chinese women entered the United States in the first years after the war… mail order brides Improving image Improving image positive propaganda towards Chinese positive propaganda towards Chinese Chinese taking jobs at manufacturing plants Chinese taking jobs at manufacturing plants 22% of Chinese males were drafted… higher than any other group 22% of Chinese males were drafted… higher than any other group

15 The Retreat from Reform replacing “Dr. New Deal” with “Dr. Win the War” replacing “Dr. New Deal” with “Dr. Win the War” Republicans gaining ground in Washington Republicans gaining ground in Washington Administration: Wall Street brokers Administration: Wall Street brokers Congress: movement to destroy New Deal plans Congress: movement to destroy New Deal plans Replacing Wallace with Truman Replacing Wallace with Truman 1944 Election 1944 Election Thomas E. Dewey, Republican: young charismatic governor from NY Thomas E. Dewey, Republican: young charismatic governor from NY Roosevelt: ill (maybe dying) Roosevelt: ill (maybe dying) Roosevelt wins 53.5% to / Dewey 40% Roosevelt wins 53.5% to / Dewey 40% Victory marks the only time in history a president won FOUR elections Victory marks the only time in history a president won FOUR elections

16 III. The Defeat of the Axis The Liberation of France By 1944 American and British bombers were attacking German industrial centers and other targets around the clock By 1944 American and British bombers were attacking German industrial centers and other targets around the clock Leipzig, Dresden and Berlin Leipzig, Dresden and Berlin Feb 1945 raid on Dresden caused a huge fire that killed 135,000… most of which were civilians Feb 1945 raid on Dresden caused a huge fire that killed 135,000… most of which were civilians Air battles weakened the Luftwaffe Air battles weakened the Luftwaffe American forces obtain an “Ultra” machine… able to crack German code American forces obtain an “Ultra” machine… able to crack German code June 6, 1944: D-Day June 6, 1944: D-Day Germans expected Allies to land on the most narrow area of the English Channel… but attack came further west… Normandy Germans expected Allies to land on the most narrow area of the English Channel… but attack came further west… Normandy Intense fighting along the beach Intense fighting along the beach Paratroopers dropped in behind enemy lines amid confusion Paratroopers dropped in behind enemy lines amid confusion Slow advance Slow advance Battle of Saint-Lo: General Omar Bradley breaks through German lines Battle of Saint-Lo: General Omar Bradley breaks through German lines Patton follows with heavy tank support Patton follows with heavy tank support

17 The Liberation of France Continued Battle of the Bulge Battle of the Bulge Rhine River: firm line of German defenses Rhine River: firm line of German defenses mid December, German forces strike in desperation mid December, German forces strike in desperation Germans push Allies back 55 miles before being stopped at Antwerp…. Battle ended serious German resistance in the West Germans push Allies back 55 miles before being stopped at Antwerp…. Battle ended serious German resistance in the West Surrounding all corners Surrounding all corners Soviets made strong advances in the East… Oder River Soviets made strong advances in the East… Oder River Omar Bradley moving in from west… Cologne Omar Bradley moving in from west… Cologne discovered intact bridge on the Rhine and was able to cross discovered intact bridge on the Rhine and was able to cross Montgomery pushed into Northern Germany with a million troops Montgomery pushed into Northern Germany with a million troops Taking Berlin Taking Berlin Omar Bradley in position to take the city, as was Patton and Montgomery Omar Bradley in position to take the city, as was Patton and Montgomery Decision made from high up to allow Russians to take the city Decision made from high up to allow Russians to take the city April 30, 1945 Hitler killed himself in his bunker in the capital April 30, 1945 Hitler killed himself in his bunker in the capital May 8, 1945 remaining German forces surrender unconditionally May 8, 1945 remaining German forces surrender unconditionally V-E Day: “Victory in Europe” Day V-E Day: “Victory in Europe” Day Focus now shifts towards Japan Focus now shifts towards Japan

18 The Pacific Offensives Feb 1944 Chester Nimitz wins a series of victories in the Marshall Islands and cracked the outer perimeter of the Japanese Empire Feb 1944 Chester Nimitz wins a series of victories in the Marshall Islands and cracked the outer perimeter of the Japanese Empire American submarines destroying Japanese shipping and crippling the nation’s domestic economy American submarines destroying Japanese shipping and crippling the nation’s domestic economy food shortage food shortage critical gasoline shortage critical gasoline shortage Land battles encounter frustration Land battles encounter frustration General Joseph W. Stilwell pushed back out of Burma General Joseph W. Stilwell pushed back out of Burma Frustration dealing with Chaing Kai-shek, leader of China, who used troops to protect his gov’t from rebel communists, rather than to fight Japanese Frustration dealing with Chaing Kai-shek, leader of China, who used troops to protect his gov’t from rebel communists, rather than to fight Japanese

19 The Pacific Offensives Continued Decisive battle for Pacific in the Pacific Decisive battle for Pacific in the Pacific June 1944, enormous American armada struck the heavily fortified Mariana Islands, Tinian, Guam and Siapan June 1944, enormous American armada struck the heavily fortified Mariana Islands, Tinian, Guam and Siapan arguably the bloodiest fighting of the entire war arguably the bloodiest fighting of the entire war Oct 1944 General MacArthur landed in the Philippines Oct 1944 General MacArthur landed in the Philippines Japanese used entire fleet to try to stop American advance and lost Japanese used entire fleet to try to stop American advance and lost Battle of Leyte Gulf largest naval entanglement in history Battle of Leyte Gulf largest naval entanglement in history Destroyed Japan’s capacity to continue a naval war Destroyed Japan’s capacity to continue a naval war Very difficult for troops to advance on land Very difficult for troops to advance on land only island U.S. is able to capture is tiny Iwo Jima only island U.S. is able to capture is tiny Iwo Jima costliest battle in Marine Corp history: 20,000 dead costliest battle in Marine Corp history: 20,000 dead Okinawa: taken at the cost of 50,000 troops Okinawa: taken at the cost of 50,000 troops What next? What next? hard to fight troops on land hard to fight troops on land BUT Japanese has no navy left BUT Japanese has no navy left July 1945, Tokyo firebombed: 80,000 dead July 1945, Tokyo firebombed: 80,000 dead US Navy able to shell coastal targets in Japan from offshore US Navy able to shell coastal targets in Japan from offshore Emperor Hirohito gives directions to military leaders to make surrender negotiations… could not persuade military leaders to give up Emperor Hirohito gives directions to military leaders to make surrender negotiations… could not persuade military leaders to give up kamikaze kamikaze background: Japanese “code of honor” background: Japanese “code of honor” would moderates have prevailed? would moderates have prevailed?

20 The Manhattan Project 1939 reports reach U.S. military intelligence that the Germans are attempting to produce atomic fission in uranium 1939 reports reach U.S. military intelligence that the Germans are attempting to produce atomic fission in uranium Albert Einstein and Enrico Fermi – physicists from Europe, exile to the U.S. Albert Einstein and Enrico Fermi – physicists from Europe, exile to the U.S. From 1941 on, gov’t secretly poured $2 billion dollars into the Manhattan Project… massive scientific effort conducted at hidden laboratories From 1941 on, gov’t secretly poured $2 billion dollars into the Manhattan Project… massive scientific effort conducted at hidden laboratories Oak Ridge, Tenn: create fuel for bomb Oak Ridge, Tenn: create fuel for bomb Los Alamos, NM: create the bomb Los Alamos, NM: create the bomb J. Robert Oppenheimer in charge of creating the bomb J. Robert Oppenheimer in charge of creating the bomb War in Europe ends just before they are ready to test the first bomb War in Europe ends just before they are ready to test the first bomb July 16, 1945 near Alamogordo, New Mexico: first atomic explosion in history July 16, 1945 near Alamogordo, New Mexico: first atomic explosion in history Bomb instantly moves from a scientific project to a weapon of war Bomb instantly moves from a scientific project to a weapon of war

21 Atomic Warfare Roosevelt dies in office in April 1945… News of explosion reaches Truman (Truman had no knowledge of weapon prior to FDR’s death) Roosevelt dies in office in April 1945… News of explosion reaches Truman (Truman had no knowledge of weapon prior to FDR’s death) Truman issues warning to Japan, signed jointly by Britain: “unconditional surrender or face complete devastation” Truman issues warning to Japan, signed jointly by Britain: “unconditional surrender or face complete devastation” Japanese premier wanted to surrender, could not persuade military officials to agree… Japanese premier wanted to surrender, could not persuade military officials to agree… Should the bomb have been dropped? Should the bomb have been dropped? Did the Japanese have any idea what “complete devastation” was? Did the Japanese have any idea what “complete devastation” was? Was this the only way force Japanese militants to surrender? Was this the only way force Japanese militants to surrender? Would moderates in the Japanese gov’t who urged surrender eventually prevailed? Would moderates in the Japanese gov’t who urged surrender eventually prevailed?

22 Atomic Warfare Continued Truman orders the use of atomic weapons on Japan Truman orders the use of atomic weapons on Japan August 6, 1945 Enola Gay drops atomic weapon on Hiroshima… within moments… August 6, 1945 Enola Gay drops atomic weapon on Hiroshima… within moments… a four-square mile area is completely destroyed a four-square mile area is completely destroyed 80,000 civilians dead…more would die slow and painful deaths from radiation poisoning + birth defects for generations 80,000 civilians dead…more would die slow and painful deaths from radiation poisoning + birth defects for generations Japanese government, stunned, unable to agree to a response Japanese government, stunned, unable to agree to a response August 8, 1945 Russia declares war on Japan August 8, 1945 Russia declares war on Japan August 9, 1945 another atomic bomb dropped… Nagasaki August 9, 1945 another atomic bomb dropped… Nagasaki 100,000 deaths 100,000 deaths September 2, 1945 Japanese surrender signed aboard American battleship Missouri September 2, 1945 Japanese surrender signed aboard American battleship Missouri In the end… In the end… 14,000,000 combatants killed 14,000,000 combatants killed far more civilians dead from bombings, disease, starvation, genocide far more civilians dead from bombings, disease, starvation, genocide 322,000 American soldiers dead / 800,000 injured 322,000 American soldiers dead / 800,000 injured new fear of nuclear warfare and tensions between the U.S.A and Soviet Union new fear of nuclear warfare and tensions between the U.S.A and Soviet Union one Manhattan Project scientist in a letter to President Truman one Manhattan Project scientist in a letter to President Truman “This thing must not be permitted to exist on this earth. We must not be the most hated and feared people in the world.” “This thing must not be permitted to exist on this earth. We must not be the most hated and feared people in the world.”


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