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Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 11.1 Introduction to Limits.

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1 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Introduction to Limits

2 2 What You Should Learn Understand the limit concept. Use the definition of a limit to estimate limits. Determine whether limits of functions exist. Use properties of limits and direct substitution to evaluate limits.

3 3 Definition of Limit

4 4

5 5 Example 2 – Estimating a Limit Numerically Use a table to estimate the limit numerically Solution: Let f (x) = 3x – 2. Then construct a table that shows values of f (x) for two sets of x-values—one set that approaches 2 from the left and one that approaches 2 from the right.

6 6 Example 2 – Solution From the table, it appears that the closer x gets to 2, the closer f (x) gets to 4. So, you can estimate the limit to be 4. Figure 11.2 adds further support to this conclusion. Figure 11.2 cont’d

7 7 Limits That Fail to Exist

8 8 Example 6 – Comparing Left and Right Behavior Show that the limit does not exist. Solution: Consider the graph of the function given by f (x) = | x | /x. In Figure 11.7, you can see that for positive x-values and for negative x-values Figure 11.7

9 9 Example 6 – Solution This means that no matter how close x gets to 0, there will be both positive and negative x-values that yield f (x) = 1 and f (x) = –1. This implies that the limit does not exist. cont’d

10 10 Limits That Fail to Exist

11 11 Properties of Limits and Direct Substitution

12 12 Properties of Limits and Direct Substitution You have seen that sometimes the limit of f (x) as x → c is simply f (c). In such cases, it is said that the limit can be evaluated by direct substitution. That is, There are many “well-behaved” functions, such as polynomial functions and rational functions with nonzero denominators, that have this property. Substitute c for x.

13 13 Properties of Limits and Direct Substitution Some of the basic ones are included in the following list.

14 14 Properties of Limits and Direct Substitution

15 15 Example 9 – Direct Substitution and Properties of Limits Direct Substitution Scalar Multiple Property Quotient Property Product Property Direct Substitution

16 16 Example 9 – Direct Substitution and Properties of Limits Sum and Power Properties cont’d

17 17 Properties of Limits and Direct Substitution The results of using direct substitution to evaluate limits of polynomial and rational functions are summarized as follows.


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