2 TYPES OF GRAPHSGraphs are used to illustrate what happens during an experiment.Bar graph - used for comparing data.Pie graph - used to show percentages.Line graph - used to show continuous change, usually change over time.
3 CREATING A DATA TABLE A data table has 2 columns (not always). The first column is the independent variable.The second column is the dependent variable.INDEPENDENTVARIABLEDEPENDENT
4 This is the factor that we can change. Independent VariableThis is the factor that we can change.Example: How long the thermometer is in the water, or how far the runner races.
5 Dependent Variable These are the results we get. Example: The water temperature, or how fast the runner ran.
6 Variable & Controlled Parameters Controlled parameters are the factors that stay constant during the experiment.Example: The amount of salt used or the material used.Variable Parameters are factors that change during the experiment.Example: The mass or volume of the gummy bear in water.
7 Creating a Graph Data tables help you organize data. Graphs help you understand and use data.
8 AXES An axis is a line that forms one side of the graph. X-axis: the horizontal line that represents the independent variable.Y-axis: the vertical line that represents the dependent variable.
9 Range & ScaleTo find the range of each axis, subtract the smallest value on the data table from the largest value.Scale: Each axis has its own scale, or how many spaces between numbers.
10 Data PointsYou plot the data points by putting a dot on the graph for each pair of data on the data table.
11 LabelsTitle: The title tells people what the graph describes. Do NOT use the word graph in your title.Label axes: Also label the x-axis and y-axis. Include the name and unit label if necessary, like “distance (m)” or “time (sec.)”.
12 STEPS FOR MAKING A GRAPH ALWAYS USE A RULER!ALWAYS MAKE AS LARGE AS POSSIBLE!1) Draw the x and y axes.2) Label the axes. Include units if needed. 1st column of data table = x-axis 2nd column of data table = y-axis3) Decide - line graph or bar graph?4) Choose a scale and fill in numbers.5) Plot your data.6) Write a title for your graph.
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