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GRAPHING NOTES Part 1

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TYPES OF GRAPHS Graphs are used to illustrate what happens during an experiment. Bar graph - used for comparing data. Pie graph - used to show percentages. Line graph - used to show continuous change, usually change over time.

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**CREATING A DATA TABLE A data table has 2 columns (not always).**

The first column is the independent variable. The second column is the dependent variable. INDEPENDENT VARIABLE DEPENDENT

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**This is the factor that we can change.**

Independent Variable This is the factor that we can change. Example: How long the thermometer is in the water, or how far the runner races.

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**Dependent Variable These are the results we get.**

Example: The water temperature, or how fast the runner ran.

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**Variable & Controlled Parameters**

Controlled parameters are the factors that stay constant during the experiment. Example: The amount of salt used or the material used. Variable Parameters are factors that change during the experiment. Example: The mass or volume of the gummy bear in water.

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**Creating a Graph Data tables help you organize data.**

Graphs help you understand and use data.

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**AXES An axis is a line that forms one side of the graph.**

X-axis: the horizontal line that represents the independent variable. Y-axis: the vertical line that represents the dependent variable.

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Range & Scale To find the range of each axis, subtract the smallest value on the data table from the largest value. Scale: Each axis has its own scale, or how many spaces between numbers.

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Data Points You plot the data points by putting a dot on the graph for each pair of data on the data table.

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Labels Title: The title tells people what the graph describes. Do NOT use the word graph in your title. Label axes: Also label the x-axis and y-axis. Include the name and unit label if necessary, like “distance (m)” or “time (sec.)”.

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**STEPS FOR MAKING A GRAPH**

ALWAYS USE A RULER! ALWAYS MAKE AS LARGE AS POSSIBLE! 1) Draw the x and y axes. 2) Label the axes. Include units if needed. 1st column of data table = x-axis 2nd column of data table = y-axis 3) Decide - line graph or bar graph? 4) Choose a scale and fill in numbers. 5) Plot your data. 6) Write a title for your graph.

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Remember To Check For: T Title L Labels U Units D Data

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LET’S TRY IT!

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