2TYPES OF GRAPHSGraphs are used to illustrate what happens during an experiment.Bar graph - used for comparing data.Pie graph - used to show percentages.Line graph - used to show continuous change, usually change over time.
3CREATING A DATA TABLE A data table has 2 columns (not always). The first column is the independent variable.The second column is the dependent variable.INDEPENDENTVARIABLEDEPENDENT
4This is the factor that we can change. Independent VariableThis is the factor that we can change.Example: How long the thermometer is in the water, or how far the runner races.
5Dependent Variable These are the results we get. Example: The water temperature, or how fast the runner ran.
6Variable & Controlled Parameters Controlled parameters are the factors that stay constant during the experiment.Example: The amount of salt used or the material used.Variable Parameters are factors that change during the experiment.Example: The mass or volume of the gummy bear in water.
7Creating a Graph Data tables help you organize data. Graphs help you understand and use data.
8AXES An axis is a line that forms one side of the graph. X-axis: the horizontal line that represents the independent variable.Y-axis: the vertical line that represents the dependent variable.
9Range & ScaleTo find the range of each axis, subtract the smallest value on the data table from the largest value.Scale: Each axis has its own scale, or how many spaces between numbers.
10Data PointsYou plot the data points by putting a dot on the graph for each pair of data on the data table.
11LabelsTitle: The title tells people what the graph describes. Do NOT use the word graph in your title.Label axes: Also label the x-axis and y-axis. Include the name and unit label if necessary, like “distance (m)” or “time (sec.)”.
12STEPS FOR MAKING A GRAPH ALWAYS USE A RULER!ALWAYS MAKE AS LARGE AS POSSIBLE!1) Draw the x and y axes.2) Label the axes. Include units if needed. 1st column of data table = x-axis 2nd column of data table = y-axis3) Decide - line graph or bar graph?4) Choose a scale and fill in numbers.5) Plot your data.6) Write a title for your graph.