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History of Life on Earth Ch. 12 Biology Ms. Haut.

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Presentation on theme: "History of Life on Earth Ch. 12 Biology Ms. Haut."— Presentation transcript:

1 History of Life on Earth Ch. 12 Biology Ms. Haut

2 How was the Earth Formed?

3 According to the BIG BANG, the universe was created sometime between 10 billion and 20 billion years ago from a cosmic explosion that hurled matter and in all directions.

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6 The Origin of Life Began in Chemistry Spontaneous origin—molecules of nonliving matter reacted chemically to form many different simple, organic molecules

7 Early Earth: Primordial Soup Ancient Atmospheric Gases—H 2 O, CH 4 (methane), NH 2 (ammonia) Additional gases (common emissions of modern volcanoes)—CO, CO 2, N 2, H 2 O vapor, H 2 S/FeS, HCN, H 2 Meteor bombardment Lightning, heat, and UV radiation served as energy sources

8 Can organic compounds be generated under conditions similar to those that existed on primeval earth? Stanley Miller and Harold Urey (1950s) designed an experiment that demonstrated the possibility that organic compounds could be generated.

9 Electrical sparks simulate lightning Condenser cools gases in a “rain”; compounds collect in an “ocean” Early atmospher e of gases: methane, ammonia, hydrogen, and water vapor Found pyrimidines, purines, and amino acids

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11 Organic Chemicals Became Complex Many hypothesize that inorganic molecules formed RNA nucleotides Short chains of RNA nucleotides may have been the first self-replicating information- storage molecule (acting like enzymes) –Could have also catalyzed the assembly of the first proteins

12 First Genetic Material and Enzymes may both have been RNA

13 Microspheres May Have Led to Cells Short chains of amino acids tend to gather into tiny vesicles called microspheres Other molecules of different types formed vesicles called coacervates

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15 microsphere Coacervates of lipid

16 Prokaryotes are the Oldest Organisms Microfossils

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18 Archaebacteria Thought to be closely related to the first bacteria Exist in harsh conditions (similar to early Earth) –Extreme heat –Lack of oxygen

19 Photosynthetic Prokaryotes Cyanobacteria—among the first to appear Produced and released oxygen into the oceans Changed the earth’s atmosphere

20 Modern stromatolites in Shark Bay, Australia Mats of photosynthetic organisms – cyanobacteria, algae and phototrophs

21 Modern Microbialite domes similar to ancient reef structures

22 First Eukaryotes: Endosymbiosis ~1.5 billion years ago Protists –Single cells; some cells sharing a symbiotic relationship with others Today’s eukaryotes contain mitochondria and chloroplasts Because these organelles have their own DNA, they may be descendants of symbiotic, aerobic eubacteria and cyanobacteria

23 First Multicellular Organisms on Land Plants evolved from photosynthetic protists paired up with fungi Plants could harvest sunlight to make food / fungi could harvest minerals from bare rock Mycorrhizae 

24 Life Invaded Land With the development of photosynthetic bacteria came the development of an atmosphere containing oxygen UV radiation from the sun reacted with the oxygen to form the ozone layer around the earth –Protected organisms from destructive radiation, allowing them to survive on the land

25 Arthropods ~100 million years after plants/fungi covered the earth, animals could survive on land Arthropods are believed to be the first –Have hard outer skeleton and jointed limbs –Lobsters, insects, crabs, spiders Specific traits allowed certain animals to survive and reproduce and pass on their genes Eryon arctiformis

26 Vertebrates Animals with backbones (endoskeletons) The first were jawless fishes (500 mya) 430 mya jawed fishes

27 Vertebrates Amphibians –first vertebrates on land Had lungs, allowing them to absorb oxygen from the air Limbs believed to be derived from bones if fish fins Strong, flexible internal skeleton allowed animals to be much larger than insects Plethodon glutinosus: Slimy Salamander Lysorophid amphibian

28 Vertebrates Reptiles –350 mya Watertight skin protected from dessication Lay eggs with shells on land Better adapted to dry climate Iguana

29 Vertebrates Birds Winged animals Can fly Hollow skeleton

30 Evolution of Organisms Extinctions –death of a species –opens up niches for other species to become more abundant Continental drift—movement of Earth’s land masses over geologic time –Contributed to geographic distribution of some species Marsupials in Australia and South America

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