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Introduction to WWII Adapted from McIntyre at

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1 Introduction to WWII Adapted from McIntyre at

2 2 Key Concept: W hat were the four main causes of WWII? Give an example of each. Treaty of Versailles 1. Failure of the Treaty of Versailles Germany’s borders were changed, and its economy was bankrupted by reparations payments. 4. Appeasement and Isolationism: England and France were still recovering from WWI and unsuccessfully tried to use diplomacy to stop Hitler. Some countries, such as the United States, isolated themselves to try to avoid being drawn into other nations’ wars. 3. Nationalism: Extreme nationalism gave rise to Fascism in Italy and Nazism in Germany and caused Japan to colonize Asia. 2. Economic Factors: All countries suffered the effects of the Great Depression, and people blamed their governments and sought change.

3 3 Quick Facts A. War Costs 1.US Debt $9 billion US Debt $98 billion The war cost $330 billion times the cost of WWI & as much as all previous federal spending since 1776

4 4 Quick Facts: B. Human Costs 1.50 million people died (compared to 15 million in WWI) 21.3 million Russians (7.7 million civilians) 11 million died as a result of the HOLOCAUST (6 million Jews + 5 million others)

5 5 When? 1939 Sept.1 - Germany invades Poland (official start to the war ) Sept. 3 - Britain & France declare war on Germany Dec. 7 – Japan bombs Pearl Harbor; US enters the War 1941 May - Germans Surrender Sept. - Atomic Bombing of Hiroshima & Nagasaki, Japanese Surrender US involvement

6 6 Who? Allies Axis Great Britain France (note: France surrendered to Germany in 1940 (after 6 weeks of fighting) United States Russia Germany Italy Japan (major powers)

7 7 Major Leaders Adolf Hitler Nazi Germany Benito Mussolini Italy

8 8 Major Leaders Hideki Tojo Japanese Prime Minister Winston Churchill British Prime Minister

9 9 Major Leaders Franklin Delano Roosevelt US President Joseph Stalin Russian Leader

10 10 Why? (underlying causes of WWII) 1. Failure of Treaty of Versailles A. Germany lost land to surrounding nations and wanted them back. B. War Guilt Clause 1) Germany forced pay $57 trillion (modern equivalent). These payments bankrupted the German economy and left them hopeless and embarrassed. C. The U.S. Congress rejected the treaty. embarrassed Germans Lloyd George, Georges Clemenceau, and Woodrow Wilson during negotiations for the Treaty of Versailles

11 11 Why? 2. Economic Factors A. The Depression made Germany’s debt even worse. B. Desperate people turn to leaders who make them feel better about themselves and put the blame on others. In this case, Hitler blamed the former government, Jews, foreigners, communists, Roma (Gypsies), the mentally ill, and homosexuals. C. Similar situations existed in other countries such as Italy Wallpapering with German Deutschmarks Evidence of Kristallnacht, or the Night of the Broken Glass

12 12 Why? 3. Nationalism A. Extreme nationalism gave rise to Fascism in Italy and Nazism in Germany and caused Japan to colonize Asia. B. It is an extreme form of having pride in one’s country. It creates a situation in which people think, “My country and people are the best, we deserve the best, and we’re going to take it from you.” C. To support nationalism, countries increase their military strength to get what they want.

13 13 Why? 4. Appeasement and Isolationism A. Why was the U.S. isolationist? 1. The Great Depression caused economic problems in the U.S. 2. Perceptions of WWI: a. WWI did not seem to solve much and cost too much in money and lives. 3. People thought that the U.S. got into WWI for the wrong reasons (greedy businessmen!). B. This led to “Appeasement.” 1. Appeasement: give dictators what they want and hope that they won’t want anything else. 2. Appeasements included allowing the Japanese invasion of Manchuria, the Italian invasion of Ethiopia, and Germany’s invasion of taking of part of Czechoslovakia called the Sudetenland.

14 14 Rise of Totalitarian Regimes In a Totalitarian country, individual rights are not viewed as important as the needs of the nation. The government controls every aspect of public and private life. Totalitarianism Communist Dictatorship (USSR) Fascist Dictatorship (Germany, Italy) Military Dictatorship (Japan) Fascism: military government with based on racism & nationalism with strong support from the business community

15 15 What else did Hitler get? Hitler peacefully annexed (took over) Austria in Hitler signed a nonaggression pact with the USSR. They agreed not to fight each other and split Poland between them Hitler would later break the pact and attack the USSR. The USSR then became one of the Allies fighting Germany. Hitler's triumphal entry into Danzig, Poland 1939

16 16 How Did Hitler Make War? Blitzkrieg = “Lightning War” In the next year, Hitler invades: Denmark Norway The Netherlands France Hitler in Paris

17 17 US Assistance Roosevelt provided aid to the Allies: Lend-Lease US “lent” war materials to cash-strapped Great Britain London Firefighter Tackles an Air Raid Blaze Atlantic Charter US secretly meets with England to commit to defeating Germany

18 18 Meanwhile … in the Pacific Pearl Harbor: “a date which will live in infamy” USS Arizona sinking in Pearl Harbor What? Surprise attack by the Japanese on American forces in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Effect? US declares war on Japan & other Axis powers

19 19 Key Concept: What were the four long-term effects of WWII? Give an example of each. EffectExamples Power ShiftsU.S. and U.S.S.R become world powers, replacing England and Germany. Tensions Rise Arms Race and Cold War begin. Communism Spreads U.S.S.R. sets up satellite nations in Eastern Europe. Hope Survives United Nations and Marshall Plan implemented.

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