2Thursday, May 24, 2012Understand early American involvement in Vietnam, the Domino Theory and the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution.Understand why napalm and Agent Orange were used.What sort of fighting did the Vietcong use?
3French Indochina consisted of Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam.
4During WWII France was defeated and occupied by Germany in 1940. Japan invaded the French colonies of Indochina where they ruled Vietnam through a puppet government.During the war the nationalist Communist leader Ho Chi Minh formed a resistance group, the Vietminh, that fought both the Japanese and Vichy French.After the U.S. entered WWII, the Office of Strategic Services (later the Central Intelligence Agency), sent U.S. agents into Vietnam. These men helped to train the Vietminh and they promised Ho Chi Minh that the United States would support his goal for Vietnamese independence after the war.Ho Chi Minh believed that after the war the United States would support independence for Vietnam but he could not foresee the Cold War.
5French Indochina War 1945-54 Communists gain support The French returnedThe war beganU.S. provided support for FranceFrance defeated at Dien Bien Phu
6After WWII Ho Chi Minh, leader of the Communist Vietnamese, believed that the U.S. would not allow France to reoccupy to its former colony, since the OSS promised that to Minh during the war. When French soldiers returned to reassert their authority and reclaim their colony a bitter nine year war began that ended in a French defeat that divided Vietnam into two halves. One, the north, became communist, while the south was under U.S. influence.FRENCH INDOCHINAPICTURES ARE OF HO CHI MINH AND A BATTLE PHOTO FROM DIEN BIEN PHU THE DECISIVE COMMUNIST VICTORY THAT LED THE FRENCH TO PULL OUT OF INDOCHINA.HO CHI MINH
7In 1945 Ho Chi Minh and the communist Viet Minh gained the good will of many Vietnamese when they provided relief during a devastating famine killed almost 2 million.The famine was caused in large part by the Japanese who exported Vietnam’s rice to feed their troops.
8Eisenhower's Vietnam Policy Geneva accordsSEATO formedThe Domino TheoryEisenhower pledged U.S. support for South Vietnam & Ngo Dinh Diem1958 Communist forces in South VietnamNational Liberation of Vietnam formed 1960
9The French returned to Vietnam to reclaim its former colony, 1945
10In May of 1950 President Truman authorized $15 million in economic and military aid to the French, who were fighting to retain control of French Indochina, including Vietnam. As part of the aid package, Truman also sent 35 military advisers.
11American Involvement in Vietnam FDR/Truman-aided Vietminh against Japanese during WWII.Eisenhower-Supported France’s return to Vietnam to get rid of Ho Chi Minh’s Communist regime. The US paid for 75% of France’s War cost, but the French ultimately lost.Kennedy- Sent military advisors to support the South Vietnam’s independence.
13First proposed by President Eisenhower in 1954. The Domino TheoryCold War theory based on the idea that if one nation was conquered by communists, neighboring nations were at risk, and therefore it was the United States’ obligation to prevent that from occurring.First proposed by President Eisenhower in 1954.It was the foundation for the war in Vietnam as well as other Cold War conflicts.Eisenhower’s speech on Vietnam
14Domino TheoryEisenhower stressed that if Vietnam fell to Communism neighboring countries would soon follow like Dominoes.Do you think one country’s change can influence a neighboring country?
15In July of 1954 the Geneva Accords were signed dividing Vietnam at the 17th parallel for two years until elections could be held to unify the nation.The north became communist while the south established an anti-communist regime that was tied to the U.S.President Dwight D. Eisenhower and Secretary of State John Foster Dulles (from left) greet south Vietnam's President Ngo Dinh Diem at Washington national airport, 05/08/1957
16From 1955-61 Eisenhower sent $200 million in aid and around 675 military advisers. Eisenhower’s policy on Vietnam did not involve troops, only monetary contributions and advisors.
17Kennedy's Vietnam Policy JFK felt pressuredJFK sent combat forces & startedCorrupt government under DiemKennedy assassinationStrategic hamletsAp Bac
18President Kennedy, to avoid being accused of “losing south Vietnam” as President Truman was accused of “losing China”, increased the number of military advisors from 800 to 16,000 and formed the Green Berets special forces.
19The U.S. military set up schools and clinics in an attempt to win the “hearts and minds” of the South Vietnamese people.
20Tonkin Gulf Incident, August 1964 The official story was that North Vietnamese torpedo boats launched an "unprovoked attack" against a U.S. destroyer on "routine patrol" in the Tonkin Gulf on August 2, 1964, and that North Vietnamese PT boats followed up with a "deliberate attack" on a pair of U.S. ships two days later. Evidence uncovered since the event has proven that there was no attack that night, and some have suggested that this incident was an excuser to escalate U.S. involvement in the region.USS MaddoxTarget of a fictional North Vietnamese naval attack
21President Johnson signed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, August 7, 1964 The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution authorized President Lyndon Johnson to "take all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against forces of the United States and to prevent further aggression."The resolution passed unanimously in the House, and by a margin of 82-2 in the Senate.The Resolution allowed Johnson to wage all out war against North Vietnam without ever securing a formal Declaration of War from Congress.Senator Wayne Morse opposed the resolution
22Johnson's Vietnam Policy Johnson’s advisersGulf of TonkinMilitary strategyOperation RanchhandElection of 1964Operation Rolling ThunderU.S. Troops engaged in combat 1965Geography of VietnamOperation StarliteInfiltration detectionOperation CrimpCommunist tacticsOperation Birmingham, Hastings, Cedar Falls and Junction CityU.S. alliesKhe SanhTet offensiveMy LaiAnti-war movement
23LBJ’s Foreign Policy Team (Left) Robert McNamara, Secretary of DefenseMcGeorge Bundy (National Security Council) along with his brother William Bundy (Pentagon) were important advisorsDean Rusk, Secretary of State
24The election of 1964Johnson won by a landslide and quickly escalated U.S. involvement in Vietnam
25LBJ stated in the 1964 presidential campaign that he was “not going to send American boys nine or ten thousand miles away from home to do what Asian boys ought to be doing for themselves.”By early 1965 the communists were well on their way to victory and Johnson had to either increase U.S. involvement or see South Vietnam defeated.
26Gulf of Tonkin Resolution Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, authorizing the president to “take all necessary measures,” which effectively began the Vietnam War.
27In Vietnam, the U.S. dropped three times the tonnage used in all of World War II, and 12 times the tonnage used in the Korean War.Neither LBJ nor the American people were willing to resort to the kind of all-out war the United States had fought against Japan and Germany. He thought we could win the war with massive bombing and limited U.S. ground troops.
28Arc light OperationsArc Light was the code name for the devastating aerial raids of B-52 Strato fortresses against enemy positions in Southeast Asia.The first B-52 Arc Light raid took place on June 18, 1965, on a suspected Vietcong base north of Saigon.In November 1965, B-52s directly supported American ground forces for the first time, and were used regularly for that purpose thereafter.
29B-52 bomber munitions load of over 70,000 pounds of ordnance including bombs, mines and missiles.
30LBJ announced in July 1965 that U.S. troops would engage in combat. By the end of 1965 there were 180,000 U.S. troops in Vietnam.This grew to 500,000 by the beginning of 1968.
32A Bloody StalemateThe North Vietnamese had inferior fire power and depended on using the Vietcong (VC) to fight a guerilla war.Frustrated by the Vietcong’s ability to hide in the dense jungles, American forces began dropping napalm and Agent Orange to destroy the jungle.