2The World before 1600 The Big Idea Diverse cultures existed in the Americas, Europe, and Africa before 1600.Main IdeasWho were the first people in the early Americas?In what ways were North American cultures before 1500 different, and in what ways were they similar?What characterized African cultures before 1500?How did European exploration begin?
3NomadsNomadic Siberian hunter-gatherers crossed into the Americas, began farming, and settled in villages.During the Ice Age, a land bridge called Beringia connected Asia and North America.Between 12,000 and 40,000 years ago, Siberians crossed this land bridge into North America.These early Americans were nomads. They moved from place to place and followed a hunter-gatherer way of life.
4VillagersAbout 10,000 years ago many of the large North American animals died off.Early Americans began to hunt smaller prey and gather more plants.About 7,000 years ago, some groups started planting seeds. Farming allowed them to settle into villages.This change is called the Agricultural Revolution.
5Empires of Mesoamerica Empires rose up in Mesoamerica, a region that is today Mexico and Central America.OlmecOlmec culture first began around 1200 BC.The Olmec people had a tremendous influence on later cultures.MayaThe Maya began their rise around 400 BC.They built pyramids and developed writing and number systems.AztecIn the 1400s the militaristic Aztec formed a large empire in present-day Mexico. The Aztec capital was Tenochtitlán, today’s Mexico City.
6Early Cultures of North America Early Native Americans encountered varied environments, including forests, deserts, and fertile land.In each region, different kinds of societies developed. For example:The Hohokam people farmed with irrigation systems in the Southwest.The Anasazi, ancestors of today’s Pueblo Indians, built adobe dwellings called pueblos in the Southwest.
7The Adena and Hopewell, known as the Mound Builders, buried their dead in large earth mounds. The Mississippians were the most advanced farmers north of Mexico. They built towns across the Southeast and southern Midwest.
8Native American Geography Native Americans in North America before the 1500s established diverse cultures based on geography and resources.Southwest:Lived in pueblos governed by council of religious eldersNorthwest Coast:Had an abundance of natural resources
9California:Many animals and plants were available year-round.Far North:Lived in the freezing tundra and hunted wildlifeGreat Basin and Plateau:Lived in dry areas behind the Pacific Coast mountain ranges.
10Geography Continued Great Plains: Plains Indians lived west of the Mississippi River and hunted buffalo.Eastern Woodlands:Groups in this dense forest region used forest resources to build homes.Southeast:Most Native Americans lived in settled farming villages for hundreds of years.
12Shared Customs and Traditions Native North Americans had diverse social systems and traditions, but shared a number of customs, practices, and religious ideas.Most villages and nations organized into clans by kinship, or blood relationsMany shared the concept of a spiritual connection to the natural world.
13Trade brought Native Americans together Trade brought Native Americans together. By the 1400s thousands of miles of trade networks crossed North America.From their earliest days in North America, bands of hunters exchanged gifts and spear pointsLater, people traveled to exchange food, raw materials, and luxury goods.
14Trade with The EastNorth Americans and Europeans traded goods, and eventually slaves, with African trading kingdoms.Africa’s Sahara Desert was a fearsome barrier to travel. Despite the dangers, many trading caravans have crossed it since ancient times.Besides goods, desert traders brought the religious teachings of Islam to Africa, which some accepted.
15Several African trading kingdoms developed in West Africa starting around AD 300, including: Ghana and Mali - grew wealthy by taxing tradersSonghai - A large capital of Islamic learningBenin and Kongo - Coastal kingdoms; many European traders
18Demand for Slave LaborGold and trade first attracted European sailors to Africa, but it was the demand for labor that caused Europeans to join in the African slave trade.The Portuguese, Spanish, and other Europeans built plantations off the African coast and in the Caribbean, Brazil, and North America.European planters began importing slaves to work the large plantations.
19The slave trade expanded as American planters began importing slaves to the Americas. The slave trade devastated society in West Africa for 400 years. During this time an estimated 20 million enslaved Africans landed in the Americas.
20Changes in New LandsEuropeans made political, cultural, and religious changes and explored new lands.The Middle Ages1096: The Crusades began in Palestine, opening European eyes to new lands.1400s: European countries began to consolidate under monarchs, forming nation-states.The Magna Carta was signed, placing limits on royal powers.
21The Renaissance and Reformation 1300s: Prosperity led to better education and cultural and scientific advances.Discontent grew in the Roman Catholic church.Martin Luther’s challenges began the Reformation and the birth of Protestantism.
22Changes Continued The Age of Exploration Scientific advances led European nation- states to find new lands and trade sources.Marco Polo traveled to China.Prince Henry of Portugal sought a sea route to Asia. Vasco de Gama found one in 1498.
23Columbus and America Christopher Columbus Born in 1451 in the trading city of Genoa, ItalyWhile visiting Portugal, decided to attempt sailing west to reach AsiaCalled this mission “Enterprise of the Indies”Enterprise of the IndiesFinally won support from Spanish monarchs Isabella and FerdinandBegan on August 3, 1492, with three ships: Niña, Pinta, and Santa Maria – Columbus’s flagshipLanded at dawn on October 12, 1492, on a small island in the Bahamas, which Columbus mistook for the Indies in Asia
24Voyage ImpactsEuropean colonization in America and the downfall of the Native American peopleNew plants and animals exchanged between continents, known as the Columbian ExchangeThis exchange brought European diseases to the Americas.
26Claims on AmericaThe Spanish and Portuguese claimed the Americas, but other European powers challenged those claims.After Columbus returned from the Americas, the Spanish and the Portuguese debated claims to newly discovered lands. The Treaty of Tordesillas settled the dispute, granting Spain a much bigger land claim.
27Juan Ponce de Léon claimed Florida for Spain. A wave of exploration followed the Treaty of Tordesillas, and the Spanish conquistadors, or conquerors, led the way in the 1500s.Their goals were “God, gold, and glory.”Juan Ponce de Léon claimed Florida for Spain.Hernán Cortés conquered the wealthy Aztec Empire in 1521Francisco Vásquez de Coronado discovered the Grand Canyon.Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo: explored the coast of CaliforniaJuan Ponce de Leon
29Spain’s Empire in the Americas PoliticsAspects of colonial governmentViceroyalties, provinces ruled by viceroys representing monarchsThe ecomienda system, which granted landowners the right to control people of a certain area
30Social hierarchy based on ancestry Peninsulares, people from SpainCreoles, people born in Americas of European descentMestizos, people of Spanish and Native American descentPeople of mixed Spanish and African descent, Africans, and Indians
31Spain’s Empire Continued ReligionIn addition to finding gold, the Spanish wanted to spread Christianity.Spain sent missionaries, people who convert others to a religion.Missionaries converted Native Americans to Christianity. Their work continued for centuries in the West and Southwest.In 1769 Fray Junípero Serra, a Franciscan friar known for his self-discipline, started the first California mission in San Diego and later headed eight more missions in California.
33Other Nations Explore the Americas During the late 1400s and 1500s, explorers from England, France and the Netherlands began to explore America.English explorers Francis Drake and John Cabot challenged Spain’s claim to the Americas.Queen Elizabeth I built England into a sea power, which began a key chain of events:Religious issues caused Spain and England to go to war.In 1588 the Spanish king sent a fleet of 130 ships, called the Spanish Armada, to invade England.England’s superior navy defeated the Spanish Armada, leaving England free to build American colonies.Francis Drake
35England Defeats SpainThe English defeated the Spanish Armada and established several North American coloniesAfter the defeat of the Spanish Armada, English colonists came to America for many reasons, including economic opportunity and adventure.King James I issued a charter dividing North America between two groups of investors, the London Company and the Plymouth Company.King James I
36These companies were joint-stock ventures in which investors pooled their money, hoping to make a profit.The companies governed and maintained the colonies and received most of the profit.Joint Stock Companies
37The English in Virginia RoanokeIn 1584 Sir Walter Raleigh sent a group to America. They claimed land along the Atlantic seaboard and named it Virginia. In 1587 they founded the colony of Roanoke.In 1590 when the colony’s leader returned from England, he found the colony mysteriously empty of people.
38JamestownSettled in 1607, this was the first English colony to survive, despite disease, contaminated water and lack of food.John Smith, who imposed military discipline on the colonists, helped them survive hardships.John Rolfe, who discovered tobacco and learned to cure it from his wife Pocahontas, made the colony profitable.
39Virginia Continued Key Events in Virginia History Formation of the House of Burgess, which was America’s first legislature, or law-making bodyUse of indentured servants, who worked for a number of years in exchange for food, shelter and paid passage to AmericaTransition to slave labor by the late 1600s
40PuritansThe Puritans, seeking religious freedom, founded the Northern Colonies (New England).English Protestants who thought the Reformation did not go far enough were known as Puritans.Some Puritans, known as Separatists, wanted total separation from the established church.Separatists who left for America were known as the Pilgrims.
41In 1620 a group of Separatists sailed to America on a ship called the Mayflower. Two months later, they reached present-day Massachusetts.The Pilgrims signed the Mayflower Compact, a legal contract agreeing to make laws to protect the people. It was one of the first attempts at self-government in the English colonies.
43Northern Colonies Plymouth Colony The pilgrims who signed the Mayflower Compact established this colony. They grew their own food and built their own houses.Harsh conditions, which killed many of the colonists, included cold, hunger, and sickness.Those who survived had help from the friendly local Indians.
44Massachusetts Bay Colony This colony was established as both a religious haven and the headquarters of the Massachusetts Bay Company.The colony’s success inspired the Great Migration, when 16,000 English settlers crossed the Atlantic Ocean and settled in New England.
46Northern Colonies Continued Other Northern ColoniesIn time, the strict rules of the Puritan colonies caused dissenters to leave and settle new towns in other parts of New England.These new colonies included: Connecticut, Rhode Island, and New Hampshire.
48King Charles IIKing Charles II granted friends and family land to rule, and they formed the Middle and Southern ColoniesIn the late 1600s, a new and different phase of colonization began in the middle and southern regions.A new king, Charles II, owed money and favors to many people. He repaid them with American land grants.
49The colonies created New York New Jersey Pennsylvania Carolina Unlike joint-stock colonies, these were not ruled by investors or colonial legislatures, but by their owners.New York Colony
51The Southern and Middle Colonies New YorkGranted to James, duke of YorkAlready belonged to the DutchConquered by the English in 1674 and renamed New YorkLater, a large tract James gave to two proprietors became New Jersey.The Carolinas and GeorgiaCarolina co-owned by eight menSplit into North and South due to tensions over farm size and slaveryGeorgia was formed as a military buffer between English and Spanish colonies.New York Colony
52Southern & Middle Colonies Cont’d PennsylvaniaGiven to William PennFounded as a haven for Quakers and called a “Holy Experiment”Decreased in size when Penn agreed to give Native Americans present-day DelawareMarylandFounded by George Calvert, the first Lord BaltimoreWas a haven for Catholics after Church of England became England’s official churchWas a source of personal wealth for Lord BaltimoreWilliam Penn
54England Loses ControlColonists began smuggling goods because they felt Great Britain taxed them unfairly.Britain, however, had established the colonies to obtain wealth.Great Britain and the American colonies were divided on several issues, includingEconomic principles called mercantilism held that a nation’s power was directly related to its wealth. But colonial merchants wanted to make money for themselves, not for Britain.
55Britain passed the Navigation Acts, laws that restricted colonial trade, to ensure that the colonies stayed profitable.For greater control, the king merged colonies and sent a royal governor, Edmund Andros. Colonists arrested and banished him.
56Colonists Begin to Self-Govern Local rebellions helped some colonies regain elected assemblies. Others were ruled more strictly as a result.Several colonies formed the United Colonies of New England, or the New England Confederation in 1643.Salutary neglect, which was the British officials’ tendency to rule the colonies leniently, benefited the colonies.Local governments (town meetings, counties, parishes and local governors) ruled daily life for colonists.
57Colonists elected assemblies that were based on the British Parliament’s bicameral (two house) system, withA governor's council with executive and legislative powersAn elected assembly like the Parliament’s House of CommonsWhen the House of Commons in England gained more power, so did the colonial assemblies, winning rights such as freedom of speech in debate and the right to pass money bills.
58Regional Economics Northern Colonial Economies Commerce-based economy Crops did not grow well, so farmers only grew enough for themselves.The most valuable Northern resources were dense forestsTimber exportsWood for shipbuildingNortherners produced rum, textiles, ironworks, and other goods.Good harbors and inexpensive ships encouraged commerce in the North; it was concentrated in the port cities.These cities became part of trade routes that linked the world.
59Regional Economics Cont’d Southern Colonial EconomiesAgricultural-based economyProduced valuable cash crops such as tobacco, rice, tar, and indigo.Two agricultural systems developed:Plantations were large, warm-climate farms that grew one cash crop and depending largely on slave labor.Small independent farms raised livestock and exported beef and pork. They grew corn, wheat, fruit and vegetables for the home market.
60The Impact of Slavery Plantation owners needed more and more workers. Settlers gradually stopped using Native American workers and indentured servants in favor of enslaved Africans.The slave trade caused massive human suffering.The difficult trip across the Atlantic from Africa was called the Middle Passage.Kidnapped Africans were chained together in dark, filthy quarters below the decks and many died.The African population in America grew quickly.
61Slavery existed in both the North and South, but the South’s agricultural economy depended more on slave labor.Slaves developed strong cultural and religious communities.
62America’s Emerging Culture The EnlightenmentA period in Europe that was known for its use of logic and reason to improve government, law, and societyThe ideas of the Enlightenment began in the European upper classes but soon traveled to the American colonies.John Locke believed the government should protect citizens’ “natural rights.” His ideas influenced Americans such as Jefferson and Franklin.John Locke
63Locke’s ideas are found in the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution, including limited government and divided powers.
65Emerging Culture Cont’d The Great AwakeningThe Enlightenment led some colonists to question religious beliefs.In 1730, the clergy, trying to bring people back to church, began the Great Awakening, a major religious revival in the colonies.Jonathan Edwards was an influential religious leader of this period.The Great Awakening made religion accessible to the people and church membership grew. It’s new ideas influenced the growing colonies.Jonathan Edwards
66Life in the Colonies The colonies came of age culturally in the 1700s. Non-British colonists, including Scots, Scots-Irish, Germans, French and Jewish people began to arrive.The newcomers, along with British settlers, created a new American culture.Colonial cities were lively: paved streets lit by oil lamps, anchored ships from foreign ports, libraries, bookshops, and impressive public buildings added to colony life.
67Benjamin Franklin was influential in writing colonial newspapers Colonial printers printed and distributed newspapers, books, ads, and political announcements.Influential newspapers were published in Boston, New York, and Philadelphia.Benjamin Franklin was influential in writing colonial newspapers
68The French and Indian War The CauseIn the 1700s Britain and France struggled for territory.The French built forts and allied with Native Americans to protect their fur trade.The British built forts and alliances of their own, which led to many frontier battles.In 1754 the French joined with the Native Americans to attack the English, which is why it is called the French and Indian War.
69French-Indian War Cont’d The CourseThe British army, new to the territory, made easy targets.Britain’s William Pitt took over and forced colonists into the army.The British took the French city of Quebec in 1759.The French surrendered the following year and the Treaty of Paris ended the war in 1763.William Pitt
70Impacts of the French and Indian War To avoid more conflict with the Native Americans, British officials tried to stop colonists from moving west of the Appalachian Mountains. The Proclamation of 1763 reserved the land for the Native Americans, but colonists ignored it.Some say this war led to the American Revolution. Its effects includeColonial unity: Ben Franklin proposed the Albany Plan of Union, which was the first plan to unify the colonies. It was never adopted.
71New boundaries: Britain gained lands east of the Mississippi and much of Canada from the French, and Florida from the Spanish. Spain gained the Louisiana Territory from France for joining the war.War Debts: The war cost England a lot of money. King George III thought colonists should pay some of the costs of the war. These policies drove Britain and the colonies further apart.Effects on Native Americans: Chief Pontiac allied the Midwestern Native Americans and started a bloody rebellion.Pontiac’s Rebellion