Information Processing Model (Three-Box-Model)— Processing Components Attention: – Focusing or tuning on relevant sensations and perceptions Rehearsal: – Process of repeating information to preserve or improve memory. Encoding: – Processing information into the memory system Retrieval: – Recovering stored information
What methods or techniques do you use to remember information or study?
Best Strategies for Remembering Attend to Information
Attention: Encoding Failure Can You Identify the Actual Penny? Nickerson & Adams (1979)
Attention: Encoding Failure Correct Answer = A
Attention: Avoiding Distractions The car ride was getting bumpy now that George had left the main road to use the dirt road. He was out of school, not having to study during the summer break. He was glad to get out of the stuffy offices of the archeology department and get out into….. Connelly, Hasher, & Zacks (1991)
Attention: Avoiding Distractions The car ride river was getting bumpy jeep now that religious George had religious left the main digging tools road to use the religious dirt road. He digging tools river was out of jeep school, not having digging tools to study digging tools river during the summer jeep religious break. He was jeep river glad to digging tools get out of jeep the stuffy religious offices river of the archeology religious department river jeep and get out into….. Connelly, Hasher, & Zacks (1991)
Attention: Avoiding Distractions Eliminate both external and internal distractions. – STUDY IN A QUIET ENVIRONMENT – ClOSE YOUR EYES during encoding and retrieval Einstein, Earles, & Collins (2002)
Attention: Avoiding Distractions Be in Synchrony with your optimal time of day. – May, Hasher, & Stoltzfus (1993) Investigated the effects of learning during optimal time of day. – People performed better on a recognition test when learning took place during their optimal time of day.
Best Strategies for Remembering Rehearsal – Elaborative Rehearsal VS. Maintenance Rehearsal
Best Strategies for Remembering Effective & Effortful Encoding
Improving Memory: Encoding Levels-of-Processing Theory Processing during encoding affects how the memory is formed. Deeper (sophisticated) processing leads to better long term memories.
Improving Memory: Encoding Deep & Elaborate Processing – Ask WHY? Helps generate interest Information is more likely to becomes knowledge based
Improving Memory: Encoding & Retrieval Organization - Group material in a meaningful way --The LTM equivalent of chunking -- Meaningful connections between items in memory help create durable memory Encoding
Improving Memory: Mnemonics Mnemonic: –Strategy for remembering information –Involves both encoding & recall
Improving Memory: Mnemonics 1.Imagery: connect words with images 2.Acronym: letter stands for a word ( IAAM for this list) 3.Acrostic: form a sentence Please excuse my dear aunt sally. (parentheses, exponents, multiplication, division, addition, subtraction) Every good boy does fine (E G B D F) My very educated mother just served us nine pizzas. (planets) 5. Method of Loci: constructing an interactive image that relates an idea to a landmark.
Try the Method of Loci Hot Dogs Cat Food Tomatoes Bananas Chicken Juice Broccoli Lunch meat Pasta Bread Cherries Driveway Garage Front door Hall closet Living room Bathroom Dining room Kitchen Den Bedroom Study
Improving Memory: Encoding Timing of encoding into LTM. Spacing Effect: repeated spaced out presentations lead to better memory. Implications for studying: Cramming is massed practice, which is NOT a deep encoding process (no chance to elaborate or form connections) Cramming leads to shallow memories
Best Strategies for Remembering Retrieval
Improving Memory: Retrieval Retrieval practice effect (aka ‘testing effect’) –Test taking involves recall (retrieval) from LTM –Test taking can improve memory (Roediger & Karpicke, 2006)
Improving Memory: 3R’s Read Recite Review
Encoding Specificity Context (environment) influences memory. Recall is better when it occurs in context in which material was learned. A) physical context (room) B) emotional context
What does this have to do with you? –For durable memories, study under many different contexts You don’t want to remember something only in one place! –Study in different places across a number of days Goal: To create DURABLE memories!
Practical Application Remembering someone’s name when you are introduced to them.
Improve Your Memory Use Elaborative/Deep Rehearsal Retrieval Practice Space out Studying Organization Test Yourself Use Mnemonics Read Recite Review