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Quantum Number Keep in mind are probabilities of finding electrons in certain places doing certain things(spin). n = what energy level (1, 2, 3, 4...) l = what sub-level (s, p, d, or f) m = which orbital (s=1; p=3; d=5; f=?) s = which spin (only two possibilities up or down)

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Pauli Exclusion Principle No two electrons ever have the same four quantum numbers in the same atom. Just as no two houses have the same address.

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How are these organized? n = 1 n= 2 n = 3 n = 4 Level 1 sublevels Level 2 sublevels Level 4 sublevels Level 3 sublevels s s s s p p p d d f

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Remember: 1s is smaller than 2s, 2s is smaller than 3s, etc. How about energy? Which has the most?

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How do atoms put their electrons in these sublevels? Lowest energy levels are filled first. Sublevels are filled “s”, then “p”, then “d”, then “f”. Well, sort of...

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Orbitals Principal quantum number 3s 3p 3d 4s 4p 4d 4f 1s 2s 2p 5s 5p 5d 5f 6s 6p 6d 6f 7s 7p 7d 7f s p d f 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

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1s orbital holds two electrons e-

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Then consider the next orbital: 2s (which also holds only two e-.) e-

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Then consider the next orbital: 2p there are three of them (which also hold two e- each) e- This is one of three.

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Electron configuration for … Scandium Look up the number of electrons (same as the number of protons). Use the diagonal rule. Scandium is #21. That means Sc has _____ electrons. 26 21

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Electron configuration for … Scandium

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Energy level (Principle Quantum #) # of electrons (add these) Sublevel

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Electron configuration for … Scandium Add These

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Practice Electron configurations for: Neon Aluminum Vanadium 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 1 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 3

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