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Why is the third world the third world?. 1 DEFINING THE THIRD WORLD Kilifi, Kenya.

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Presentation on theme: "Why is the third world the third world?. 1 DEFINING THE THIRD WORLD Kilifi, Kenya."— Presentation transcript:

1 Why is the third world the third world?

2 1 DEFINING THE THIRD WORLD Kilifi, Kenya

3 Strategic Poor Non-aligned Countries (THIRD WORLD) Capitalist Democracies (FIRST WORLD) Socialist Communist Countries (SECOND WORLD) Where did the term third world even come from?? They were the countries NOT involved in the Cold War!

4 Protein-energy Malnutrition in Under 5-year Olds in Third World Stunting Underweight Wasting Africa 39% 28% 8% Asia Latin America, Caribbean Oceania Swaziland In the 3 rd world people usually dont get proper nutrition

5 Leading Causes of Death in Children Under 5 years of age Perinatal (22%) All other causes (29%) HIV / AIDS (4%) Diarrhea (12%) Measles (5%) Malaria (8%) Pneumonia (20%) Malnutrition underlying factor (60%)

6 Example of child with Malnutrition: wasting, edema, reddish hair and skin ulcers 26

7 1.1 BILLION PEOPLE TRY TO LIVE ON LESS THAN $1 PER DAY (WORLD BANK) Zimbabwe mother and child 3

8 Rice paddies in Indonesia. 23

9 Wood gathering in Ethiopia (for heat and cooking).. 18

10 Using dung (feces) patties and wood fuel, Namche Bazaar, Nepal 17

11 Disease - Aids In South Africa 2003: 5.5 million, including 240,000 children, living with HIV/AIDS. Young women 4x as likely to be infected that are young men. 567,444 deaths from AIDS in (UNAIDS: 2006 Report. Getting the message out Soweto, South Africa 67

12 Mother and child, Cameroon. Mother died from AIDS. Some of the AIDS educational challenges in Africa: traditions and beliefs perceptions of life and death witchcraft, ancestor punishment power hierarchies gender norms demands of male virility control of female sexuality pressure for widows to marry close relatives of husband dead from AIDS

13 Malaria is common in third world countries. Malaria causes one million deaths yearly in Sub-Saharan Africa; has slowed African economic growth by 1.3% yearly 30

14 Disease - Dengue fever is the most important mosquito- borne viral infection affecting humans with 2.5 billion at risk. 31 Siem Reap, Cambodia

15 Fractured upper arm + no formal care = gangrene Theres no University of Alberta Hospital in most of these places!

16 This person broke his legs and care was not available until too late. People in the 3 rd world live without hospitals! What would YOU do if you couldnt get to a hospital?

17 Some places in the world have an extreme wealth disparity! Look at beautiful Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The yachts in the harbor, The penthouses with the views, AND the favelas (slums) on the hillsides 7

18 431 million, 39% 313 million, 28% 271 million, 25% 50 million, 5% 7 million, 1% 17 million, 2% Where do those in extreme poverty live? 4 Look! You probably thought Africa had the most number of poor people right? No! Its South Asia!

19 x 5 Gross National Income (GNI) Per Capita, The orange places are POOR!

20 Lets try and figure out why SOME countries are poor! Lets look at 3 factors. 1. Place 2. Population 3. Politics 12

21 1 1. PLACE Down to Zagora, Morocco

22 Yearly average temperatures greater than 20 degrees C x x x x x Maybe where the country is located is the reason its poor?? HOT ZONE

23 Studies in U.S. and Europe have shown productivity falls 50% when temperatures >35° 36 Is the heat making them poor??

24 41 In the Third World 35 metropolitan areas with populations 2 million or more are within earthquake zones What about natural disasters like earthquakes? Is that what is making them poor??

25 40 Pakistan earthquake, October 9, 2005 Bam earthquake, Dec. 26, 2003

26 42 Percent East Asia, Pacific Europe, Central Asia Latin America, Caribbean Middle East, North Africa South Asia Sub- Saharan Africa Developing countries High income countries Disaster (greater than 50 deaths or affected more than 100,000 people) Disaster-related deaths Natural Disasters The 3 rd world has WAY more deaths!

27 POPULATION? Is that the reason??? Hmong children, Thailand 1

28 LARGEST URBAN AGGLOMERATIONS 1 Tokyo Mexico City 19.0 New York/Newark Mumbai 18.3 São Paulo 18.3 Delhi 15.3 Calcutta 14.3 Buenos Aires 13.3 Jakarta 13.2 Shanghai 12.7 Dhaka 12.6 Los Angeles plus Karachi 11.8 Rio de Janeiro 11.5 Osaka/Kobe Cairo 11.1 Lagos 11.1 Beijing 10.8 Manila Population in millions 2 Not in Third World Look at how many of the most populous cities in the world are in the 3 rd world!

29 9 EXAMPLES OF LARGE SLUM POPULATIONS % urban Number population (millions) Ethiopia Sudan Bangladesh Nigeria Peru India Philippines China Indonesia Mexico (Planet of Slums, M. Davis, Verso, New York, 2006) Billions of people live in slums!

30 Population change (2005 equals 100) Years More developed Less developed Least developed Population Change and Predictions 6 Look at the developed countries and how theyre populations are actually DECLINING!

31 Percentage of Women Giving Birth by Age 20, by Level of Education (the less educated women give birth much sooner!) None Primary Grade Secondary Grade Africa Latin America, Asia Caribbean (U.N. Population Fund. State of the World Population )

32 Risk of dying during childbirth 1 in: East/South Africa West/Central Africa South Asia Mid East, N. Africa Latin America, Caribbean East Asia, Pacific CEE/CIS* Industrialized countries *Central and Eastern Europe/Commonwealth of Independent States

33 1 Maybe its NOT PLACE! Maybe its POLITICS? Is THAT the reason theyre so poor??? Maybe its NOT PLACE! Maybe its POLITICS? Is THAT the reason theyre so poor???

34 Latin America and Caribbean East Asia and Pacific Middle East and North Africa Sub-Saharan Africa South Asia What about debt?? 14 (BILLIONS $ U.S.) Is THAT why those countries are poor?

35 General Sani Abacha President of Nigeria from Fifty-five BILLION dollars DISAPPEARED under his rule, leaving the country with a thirty- one billion dollar debt. Thirty percent of the population NOW lives on less than one dollar per day. Did the Nigerians put themselves into debt or did this guy? 15

36 40% 21% 22% 10% 7% (OECD, Joint BIS-IMF-OECD-World Bank Database reproduced by A. Goldzimer in FoodFirst Backgrounder, vol. 9, no. 1, 2003 ) 53 Export Credits World Bank* IMF* Other multilateral Bilateral Official Debt: All Developing Countries *Reduced subsequently by 2005 G-8 agreement

37 (Cartoon by Austin, Manchester Guardian, at height of Darfur crisis, 2004) 54

38 PAKISTAN HAS: Population 148,721,000 (2002); Average life expectancy 61 years; Literacy 43% (male 58%, female 28%); High infant mortality (85/1000); High under age 5 child mortality (110/1000); Low Human Development Index (127 th /0.498)... and now a major earthquake! (Figures from The World Guide 2003/2004, New Internationalist Publishing Ltd., Hong Kong, 2003) 55 (Associated Press article published March 26, 2005)

39 Nations Transnational corporations Years (non-linear scale) Transnational Corporations (thousands) Nations ,000 (Adapted from Globalinc., M. Gabel & H. Bruner, The New Press, New York, 2003) The Rise of Transnational Corporations 68

40 WHAT CAN ONE DO? Cuzco, Peru 1

41 THIRD WORLD DEBT 8 JUBILEE RD WORLD DEBT CAMPAIGN GOAL Maybe we should just FORGIVE the debt of the third world?? THE WORLDS LARGEST PETITION is now being created. It has 24 MILLION SIGNATURES IN MORE THAN 60 COUNTRIES and HAS HELPED FORCE THE G-7 TO COMMIT TO $100 BILLION IN DEBT REDUCTION


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