2DEFINING THE THIRD WORLD 1DEFINING THE THIRD WORLDKilifi, Kenya
3Where did the term “third world” even come from Where did the term “third world” even come from?? They were the countries NOT involved in the Cold War!Capitalist Democracies (FIRST WORLD)Socialist Communist Countries (SECOND WORLD)Strategic Poor Non-aligned Countries (THIRD WORLD)
4In the 3rd world people usually don’t get proper nutrition 25Protein-energy Malnutrition in Under 5-year Olds in Third WorldStunting Underweight WastingAfrica % % % Asia Latin America, Caribbean OceaniaSwazilandIn the 3rd world people usually don’t get proper nutrition
5Leading Causes of Death in Children Under 5 years of age Perinatal (22%)All other causes (29%)HIV / AIDS (4%)Diarrhea (12%)Measles (5%)Malaria (8%)Pneumonia (20%)Malnutritionunderlying factor (60%)
626Example of child with Malnutrition: wasting, edema, reddish hair and skin ulcers
7Zimbabwe mother and child 31.1 BILLION PEOPLE TRY TO LIVE ON LESS THAN $1 PER DAY (WORLD BANK)Zimbabwe mother and child
8Rice paddies in Indonesia. 23Rice paddies in Indonesia.
9Wood gathering in Ethiopia (for heat and cooking).. 18
10Using dung (feces) patties and wood fuel, Namche Bazaar, Nepal 17Using dung (feces) patties and wood fuel, Namche Bazaar, Nepal
11Disease - Aids In South Africa 2003: 67Disease - Aids In South Africa 2003:5.5 million, including 240,000 children, living with HIV/AIDS. Young women 4x as likely to be infected that are young men ,444 deaths from AIDS in 2004.(UNAIDS: 2006 Report.Getting the message outSoweto, South Africa
12Mother and child, Cameroon. Mother died from AIDS. Some of the AIDS educational challenges in Africa:traditions and beliefs perceptions of life and death witchcraft, ancestor punishment power hierarchies gender norms demands of male virility control of female sexuality pressure for widows to marry close relatives of husband dead from AIDS
13Malaria is common in third world countries. 30Malaria is common in third world countries.Malaria causes one million deaths yearly in Sub-Saharan Africa; has slowed African economic growth by 1.3% yearly
14Disease - Dengue fever is the most important mosquito-borne viral infection affecting humans with 2.5 billion at risk.31Siem Reap, Cambodia
15There’s no University of Alberta Hospital in most of these places! Fractured upper arm + no formal care = gangrene
16What would YOU do if you couldn’t get to a hospital? This person broke his legs and care was not available until too late. People in the 3rd world live without hospitals!What would YOU do if you couldn’t get to a hospital?
17Some places in the world have an extreme wealth disparity! 7Some places in the world have an extreme wealth disparity!Look at beautiful Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.The yachts in the harbor,The penthouses with the views,AND the favelas (slums) on the hillsides
184Where do those in extreme poverty live?17 million, 2%7 million, 1%50 million, 5%313 million, 28%271 million, 25%431 million, 39%Look! You probably thought Africa had the most number of poor people right? No! It’s South Asia!
195Gross National Income (GNI) Per Capita, The orange places are POOR!x
201. Place 2. Population 3. Politics 12Let’s try and figure out why SOME countries are poor! Let’s look at 3 factors.1. Place2. Population3. Politics
22Maybe where the country is located is the reason it’s poor?? xxxxHOT ZONExYearly average temperatures greater than 20 degrees CHOT ZONE
23Is the heat making them poor?? 36Studies in U.S. and Europe have shown productivity falls 50% when temperatures >35°Is the heat making them poor??
2441In the Third World 35 metropolitan areas with populations 2 million or more are within earthquake zonesWhat about natural disasters like earthquakes? Is that what is making them poor??
2540Bam earthquake, Dec. 26, 2003Pakistan earthquake, October 9, 2005
26Natural Disasters 1990-1998. The 3rd world has WAY more deaths! 42Natural Disasters The 3rd world has WAY more deaths!Percent100Disaster (greater than 50 deaths or affected more than 100,000 people)80Disaster-related deaths604020East Asia, PacificEurope, Central AsiaLatin America, CaribbeanMiddle East, North AfricaSouth AsiaSub- Saharan AfricaDeveloping countriesHigh income countries
27POPULATION? Is that the reason??? 1POPULATION? Is that the reason???Hmong children, Thailand
28LARGEST URBAN AGGLOMERATIONS1 Tokyo Mexico City New York/Newark Mumbai São Paulo Delhi Calcutta Buenos Aires Jakarta Shanghai Dhaka Los Angeles plus Karachi Rio de Janeiro Osaka/Kobe Cairo Lagos Beijing Manila1Population in millions Not in Third WorldLook at how many of the most populous cities in the world are in the 3rd world!
29Billions of people live in slums! EXAMPLES OF LARGE SLUM POPULATIONS 9Billions of people live in slums!EXAMPLES OF LARGE SLUM POPULATIONS% urban Number population (millions)Ethiopia Sudan Bangladesh Nigeria Peru India Philippines China Indonesia Mexico(“Planet of Slums”, M. Davis, Verso, New York, 2006)
30Population Change and Predictions 6Population Change and Predictions250Least developed200Less developed150Population change (2005 equals 100)More developed10050YearsLook at the developed countries and how they’re populations are actually DECLINING!
3112Percentage of Women Giving Birth by Age 20, by Level of Education (the less educated women give birth much sooner!)100755025NonePrimary GradeSecondary GradeAfrica Latin America, AsiaCaribbean(U.N. Population Fund. State of the World Population )
32Risk of dying during childbirth East/South Africa15West/Central Africa16South Asia43Mid East, N. Africa100Latin America, Caribbean160East Asia, Pacific360CEE/CIS*770Industrialized countries4000*Central and Eastern Europe/Commonwealth of Independent States
331Maybe it’s NOT PLACE! Maybe it’s POLITICS? Is THAT the reason they’re so poor???
3414What about debt??Latin America and Caribbean800700East Asia and Pacific600500400Middle East and North Africa300Sub-Saharan Africa200South Asia100(BILLIONS $ U.S.) Is THAT why those countries are poor?
3515General Sani AbachaPresident of Nigeria from Fifty-five BILLION dollars DISAPPEARED under his rule, leaving the country with a thirty-one billion dollar debt. Thirty percent of the population NOW lives on less than one dollar per day. Did the Nigerians put themselves into debt or did this guy?
36All Developing Countries 53Official Debt:All Developing CountriesExport CreditsWorld Bank*IMF*Other multilateralBilateral21%40%10%7%22%*Reduced subsequently by 2005 G-8 agreement(OECD, Joint BIS-IMF-OECD-World Bank Database reproduced by A. Goldzimer in “FoodFirst Backgrounder”, vol. 9, no. 1, 2003 <http://www.foodfirst.org/pubs/backgrdrs/2003/w03v9nl.html>)
3754(Cartoon by Austin, Manchester Guardian, at height of Darfur crisis, 2004)
38(Associated Press article published March 26, 2005) 55PAKISTAN HAS:Population 148,721,000 (2002); Average life expectancy 61 years; Literacy 43% (male 58%, female 28%); High infant mortality (85/1000); High under age 5 child mortality (110/1000); Low Human Development Index (127th/0.498)... and now a major earthquake!(Figures from “The World Guide 2003/2004”, New Internationalist Publishing Ltd., Hong Kong, 2003)(Associated Press article published March 26, 2005)
39The Rise of Transnational Corporations 68The Rise of Transnational Corporations63,00060Transnational corporations40300220NationsTransnational Corporations (thousands)20020Nations100623000Years (non-linear scale)(Adapted from “Globalinc.”, M. Gabel & H. Bruner, The New Press, New York, 2003)
418Maybe we should just FORGIVE the debt of the third world?? THE WORLD’S LARGEST PETITION is now being created. It has 24 MILLION SIGNATURES IN MORE THAN 60 COUNTRIES and HAS HELPED FORCE THE G-7 TO COMMIT TO $100 BILLION IN DEBT REDUCTIONTHIRD WORLD DEBTJUBILEE RD WORLD DEBT CAMPAIGN GOAL