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Why is the third world the third world?

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Presentation on theme: "Why is the third world the third world?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Why is the third world the third world?

2 DEFINING THE THIRD WORLD
1 DEFINING THE THIRD WORLD Kilifi, Kenya

3 Where did the term “third world” even come from
Where did the term “third world” even come from?? They were the countries NOT involved in the Cold War! Capitalist Democracies (FIRST WORLD) Socialist Communist Countries (SECOND WORLD) Strategic Poor Non-aligned Countries (THIRD WORLD)

4 In the 3rd world people usually don’t get proper nutrition
25 Protein-energy Malnutrition in Under 5-year Olds in Third World Stunting Underweight Wasting Africa % % % Asia Latin America, Caribbean Oceania Swaziland In the 3rd world people usually don’t get proper nutrition

5 Leading Causes of Death in Children Under 5 years of age
Perinatal (22%) All other causes (29%) HIV / AIDS (4%) Diarrhea (12%) Measles (5%) Malaria (8%) Pneumonia (20%) Malnutrition underlying factor (60%)

6 26 Example of child with Malnutrition: wasting, edema, reddish hair and skin ulcers

7 Zimbabwe mother and child
3 1.1 BILLION PEOPLE TRY TO LIVE ON LESS THAN $1 PER DAY (WORLD BANK) Zimbabwe mother and child

8 Rice paddies in Indonesia.
23 Rice paddies in Indonesia.

9 Wood gathering in Ethiopia (for heat and cooking)..
18

10 Using dung (feces) patties and wood fuel, Namche Bazaar, Nepal
17 Using dung (feces) patties and wood fuel, Namche Bazaar, Nepal

11 Disease - Aids In South Africa 2003:
67 Disease - Aids In South Africa 2003: 5.5 million, including 240,000 children, living with HIV/AIDS. Young women 4x as likely to be infected that are young men ,444 deaths from AIDS in 2004. (UNAIDS: 2006 Report. Getting the message out Soweto, South Africa

12 Mother and child, Cameroon. Mother died from AIDS.
Some of the AIDS educational challenges in Africa: traditions and beliefs perceptions of life and death witchcraft, ancestor punishment power hierarchies gender norms demands of male virility control of female sexuality pressure for widows to marry close relatives of husband dead from AIDS

13 Malaria is common in third world countries.
30 Malaria is common in third world countries. Malaria causes one million deaths yearly in Sub-Saharan Africa; has slowed African economic growth by 1.3% yearly

14 Disease - Dengue fever is the most important mosquito-borne viral infection affecting humans with 2.5 billion at risk. 31 Siem Reap, Cambodia

15 There’s no University of Alberta Hospital in most of these places!
Fractured upper arm + no formal care = gangrene

16 What would YOU do if you couldn’t get to a hospital?
This person broke his legs and care was not available until too late. People in the 3rd world live without hospitals! What would YOU do if you couldn’t get to a hospital?

17 Some places in the world have an extreme wealth disparity!
7 Some places in the world have an extreme wealth disparity! Look at beautiful Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The yachts in the harbor, The penthouses with the views, AND the favelas (slums) on the hillsides

18 4 Where do those in extreme poverty live? 17 million, 2% 7 million, 1% 50 million, 5% 313 million, 28% 271 million, 25% 431 million, 39% Look! You probably thought Africa had the most number of poor people right? No! It’s South Asia!

19 5 Gross National Income (GNI) Per Capita, The orange places are POOR! x

20 1. Place 2. Population 3. Politics
12 Let’s try and figure out why SOME countries are poor! Let’s look at 3 factors. 1. Place 2. Population 3. Politics

21 1 1. PLACE Down to Zagora, Morocco

22 Maybe where the country is located is the reason it’s poor??
x x x x HOT ZONE x Yearly average temperatures greater than 20 degrees C HOT ZONE

23 Is the heat making them poor??
36 Studies in U.S. and Europe have shown productivity falls 50% when temperatures >35° Is the heat making them poor??

24 41 In the Third World 35 metropolitan areas with populations 2 million or more are within earthquake zones What about natural disasters like earthquakes? Is that what is making them poor??

25 40 Bam earthquake, Dec. 26, 2003 Pakistan earthquake, October 9, 2005

26 Natural Disasters 1990-1998. The 3rd world has WAY more deaths!
42 Natural Disasters The 3rd world has WAY more deaths! Percent 100 Disaster (greater than 50 deaths or affected more than 100,000 people) 80 Disaster-related deaths 60 40 20 East Asia, Pacific Europe, Central Asia Latin America, Caribbean Middle East, North Africa South Asia Sub- Saharan Africa Developing countries High income countries

27 POPULATION? Is that the reason???
1 POPULATION? Is that the reason??? Hmong children, Thailand

28 LARGEST URBAN AGGLOMERATIONS1
Tokyo Mexico City New York/Newark Mumbai São Paulo Delhi Calcutta Buenos Aires Jakarta Shanghai Dhaka Los Angeles plus Karachi Rio de Janeiro Osaka/Kobe Cairo Lagos Beijing Manila 1Population in millions Not in Third World Look at how many of the most populous cities in the world are in the 3rd world!

29 Billions of people live in slums! EXAMPLES OF LARGE SLUM POPULATIONS
9 Billions of people live in slums! EXAMPLES OF LARGE SLUM POPULATIONS % urban Number population (millions) Ethiopia Sudan Bangladesh Nigeria Peru India Philippines China Indonesia Mexico (“Planet of Slums”, M. Davis, Verso, New York, 2006)

30 Population Change and Predictions
6 Population Change and Predictions 250 Least developed 200 Less developed 150 Population change (2005 equals 100) More developed 100 50 Years Look at the developed countries and how they’re populations are actually DECLINING!

31 12 Percentage of Women Giving Birth by Age 20, by Level of Education (the less educated women give birth much sooner!) 100 75 50 25 None Primary Grade Secondary Grade Africa Latin America, Asia Caribbean (U.N. Population Fund. State of the World Population )

32 Risk of dying during childbirth
East/South Africa 15 West/Central Africa 16 South Asia 43 Mid East, N. Africa 100 Latin America, Caribbean 160 East Asia, Pacific 360 CEE/CIS* 770 Industrialized countries 4000 *Central and Eastern Europe/Commonwealth of Independent States

33 1 Maybe it’s NOT PLACE! Maybe it’s POLITICS? Is THAT the reason they’re so poor???

34 14 What about debt?? Latin America and Caribbean 800 700 East Asia and Pacific 600 500 400 Middle East and North Africa 300 Sub-Saharan Africa 200 South Asia 100 (BILLIONS $ U.S.) Is THAT why those countries are poor?

35 15 General Sani Abacha President of Nigeria from Fifty-five BILLION dollars DISAPPEARED under his rule, leaving the country with a thirty-one billion dollar debt. Thirty percent of the population NOW lives on less than one dollar per day. Did the Nigerians put themselves into debt or did this guy?

36 All Developing Countries
53 Official Debt: All Developing Countries Export Credits World Bank* IMF* Other multilateral Bilateral 21% 40% 10% 7% 22% *Reduced subsequently by 2005 G-8 agreement (OECD, Joint BIS-IMF-OECD-World Bank Database reproduced by A. Goldzimer in “FoodFirst Backgrounder”, vol. 9, no. 1, 2003 <http://www.foodfirst.org/pubs/backgrdrs/2003/w03v9nl.html>)

37 54 (Cartoon by Austin, Manchester Guardian, at height of Darfur crisis, 2004)

38 (Associated Press article published March 26, 2005)
55 PAKISTAN HAS: Population 148,721,000 (2002); Average life expectancy 61 years; Literacy 43% (male 58%, female 28%); High infant mortality (85/1000); High under age 5 child mortality (110/1000); Low Human Development Index (127th/0.498) ... and now a major earthquake! (Figures from “The World Guide 2003/2004”, New Internationalist Publishing Ltd., Hong Kong, 2003) (Associated Press article published March 26, 2005)

39 The Rise of Transnational Corporations
68 The Rise of Transnational Corporations 63,000 60 Transnational corporations 40 300 220 Nations Transnational Corporations (thousands) 200 20 Nations 100 62 3000 Years (non-linear scale) (Adapted from “Globalinc.”, M. Gabel & H. Bruner, The New Press, New York, 2003)

40 1 WHAT CAN ONE DO? Cuzco, Peru

41 8 Maybe we should just FORGIVE the debt of the third world?? THE WORLD’S LARGEST PETITION is now being created. It has 24 MILLION SIGNATURES IN MORE THAN 60 COUNTRIES and HAS HELPED FORCE THE G-7 TO COMMIT TO $100 BILLION IN DEBT REDUCTION THIRD WORLD DEBT JUBILEE RD WORLD DEBT CAMPAIGN GOAL


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