Presentation on theme: "Thinking and intelligence"— Presentation transcript:
1Thinking and intelligence 9Thinking and intelligence
29 Elements of cognition Concept Proposition Schema Image Mental category that groups objects, relations, activities, abstractions, or qualities having common propertiesBasic concepts have a moderate number of instances and are easier to acquire.A prototype is an especially representative example.PropositionA meaningful unit, built of concepts, expressing a single ideaSchemaAn integrated mental network of knowledge, beliefs, and expectations concerning a particular topic.ImageA mental representation that resembles what it represents
39Your turn“To get a hamburger, go to a fast-food restaurant and wait in line behind the counter. When it is your turn, tell the person by the cash register that you want a hamburger. He/she will tell you how much it costs. Give him/her enough money. In a few minutes someone behind the counter will give you a hamburger.” This kind of mental representation is best described as a:1. Concept2. Proposition3. Schema4. Image
49Your turn“To get a hamburger, go to a fast-food restaurant and wait in line behind the counter. When it is your turn, tell the person by the cash register that you want a hamburger. He/she will tell you how much it costs. Give him/her enough money. In a few minutes someone behind the counter will give you a hamburger.” This kind of mental representation is best described as a:1. Concept2. Proposition3. Schema4. Image
5How conscious is thought? 9How conscious is thought?Subconscious processesMental processes occurring outside of conscious awareness but accessible to consciousness when necessaryNon-conscious processesMental processes occurring outside of and not available to consciousness
6Types of coconscious processes 9Types of coconscious processesImplicit learningWhen you have acquired knowledge about something without being aware how you did so, and without being able to state exactly what you have learnedMindlessnessMental inflexibility, inertia, and obliviousness in the present context
79ReasoningThe drawing of conclusions or inferences from observations, facts, or assumptions
89 Algorithms and logic Deductive reasoning Inductive reasoning A tool of formal logic in whicha conclusion necessarilyfollows from a set of premises.Inductive reasoningA tool of formal logic in which a conclusion probably follows from a set of premises.
9Heuristics and dialectical thinking 9Heuristics and dialectical thinkingHeuristicA rule of thumb that suggests a course of action or guides problem solving but does not guarantee an optimal solutionDialectical reasoningA process in which opposing facts or ideas are weighed and compared, with a view to determining the best solution or resolving differences
109 Reflective judgment Skills Question assumptions Evaluate and integrate evidenceRelate evidence to theory or opinionConsider alternative interpretationsReach defensible conclusionsReassess conclusions in face of new evidence
11Stages of reflective judgment 9Stages of reflective judgment
12Barriers to rational reasoning 9Barriers to rational reasoningExaggerating the improbableAvoiding lossBiases due to mental setThe confirmation biasThe hindsight biasThe need for cognitive consistencyOvercoming our cognitive biases
13Exaggerating the improbable 9Exaggerating the improbableAvailability heuristicThe tendency to judge the probability of an event by how easy it is to think of examples.
149Avoiding lossPeople try to minimize risks and losses when making decisions.
159The fairness biasThe Ultimatum Game: Your partner gets $10 and must decide how much to share with you. You can accept or reject the offer, but if you reject it, neither of you get any money.It is rational to accept any offer: you always end up with more money if you accept than if you reject the offer.In industrial societies, offers of 50% are typical.Offers below 20–30% are commonly rejected.
169The hindsight biasThe tendency to overestimate one’s ability to have predicted an event once the outcome is known.The “I knew it all along” phenomenon
179The confirmation biasThe tendency to pay attention only to information that confirms one’s own beliefsTest this rule: If a card has a vowel on one side, it has an even number on the other side.Which 2 cards to turn over?1. Cards 6 and 72. Cards J and 63. Cards J and 74. Cards E and 6
18Biases due to mental set 9Biases due to mental setMental setTendency to solve problems using procedures that worked before on similar problemsMental sets make learning and problem solving more efficient.Not helpful when problem calls for new approach
199 The nine-dot problem Connect all 9 dots. Use only 4 lines. Do not lift your pencil from the page after you begin drawing.
20Need for cognitive consistency 9Need for cognitive consistencyCognitive dissonanceA state of tension produced when a person holds two contradictory cognitions or when a person’s belief is inconsistent with his/her behavior
21You try especially hard to reduce dissonance 9You try especially hard to reduce dissonanceWhen you need to justify a choice or decision you freely madeWhen you need to justify behavior that conflicts with your view of yourselfWhen you need to justify the effort put into a decision or choice
22Justification of effort 9Justification of effortThe tendency of people to increase their liking for something they have worked hard for or suffered to attainA common form of dissonance reduction
23Defining intelligence 9Defining intelligenceIntelligenceAn inferred characteristic of an individual, usually defined as the ability to profit from experience, acquire knowledge, think abstractly, act purposefully, or adapt to changes in the environmentg factorA general intellectual ability assumed by many theorists to underlie specific mental abilities and talents
249PsychometricsThe measurement of mental abilities, traits, and processes
25The invention of IQ tests 9The invention of IQ testsBinet believed we should measure a child’s mental age.Binet and Simon developed a test which measured memory, vocabulary, and perceptual discrimination.Mental age was divided by chronological age and multiplied by 100 to get an intelligence quotient.Now IQ scores are derived from norms provided for standardized intelligence tests.
26The psychometric approach 9The psychometric approachIQ scores distributed normallyBell-shaped curveVery high and very low scores are rare.68% of people have IQ scores between 85 and 115.99.7% between 55 and 145
29Can IQ tests be culture free? 9Can IQ tests be culture free?Attempts to make IQ tests culture fair or culture free have backfired because different cultures have different problem-solving strategies.Culture affects a person’s. . .Attitude toward examsComfort in settings required for testingMotivationRapport with test providerCompetitivenessEase of independent problem solving
309Expectations and IQScores are affected by expectations for performanceExpectations are shaped by stereotypesStereotype threatBurden of doubt one feels about his/her performance due to negative stereotypes about his/her groupStereotype threat affects African-Americans, Latinos/Latinas, low-income people, women, and the elderly.
32Sternberg’s triarchic theory 9Sternberg’s triarchic theoryComponential (analytic)Comparing, analyzing, and evaluatingThis type of process correlates best with IQExperiential (creative)Inventing solution to new problemsTransfer skills to new situationsContextual (practical)Applying the things you know to everyday contexts
33Domains of intelligence 9Domains of intelligenceEmotional intelligenceAbility to identify your own and other people’s emotions accuratelyAbility to express your emotions clearlyAbility to manage emotions in self and othersAppears to be biologically based (Damasio, 1994)
349Comparison:The Psychometric and Cognitive Approaches to Intelligence
35Motivation and intelligence 9Motivation and intelligenceComparing 100 most successful men with 100 least successful, researchers found that motivation, not IQ, made the difference.Motivation to work hard at intellectual tasks differs as a function of culture.American children are as knowledgeable as Asian children on general skills.
36Beliefs about intelligence 9Beliefs about intelligenceAsian parents, teachers, and students are more likely to believe that math ability comes from studying.Americans are more likely to view ability as innate.American parents had lower academic standards for kids.American children value education less.
379 Animal intelligence Cognitive ethology Studies show that animals can The study of cognitive processes in nonhuman animalsStudies show that animals canAnticipate future eventsUse numbers to label quantitiesCoordinate activities with other animals
389 Theory of mind A system of beliefs about The way one’s own mind and the minds of others workHow individuals are affected by their beliefs and feelings
399Animals and languageLanguage is a critical element in human cognition.Many species can be taught to communicate in ways that resemble language.Chimpanzees and bonobos converse using American Sign Language and symbol board systems.An African grey parrot has been taught to count, classify, and compare objects using English words.Whether these behaviors are language depends on definition of “language.”
40Thinking about animal thinking 9Thinking about animal thinkingAnthropomorphismThe tendency to falsely attribute human qualities to nonhuman beingsAnthropodenialThe tendency to think, mistakenly, that human beings have nothing in common with other animals.