Presentation on theme: "Materials taken from Knisely, Karin"— Presentation transcript:
1Writing for Biology Class Part 2: How to Write Each Section of a Lab Report Materials taken from Knisely, Karin. Writing in Biology Sinaur/Freeman and edited by Angela Bush, SRVHS
2The Pre-Lab All laboratory assignments begin with a pre-lab Pre-labs are essential for being prepared for the lab activity. They ensure:Student safety during the labSuccessful completion of the lab in the limited time class allowsIncreased student understanding of the labAn increased chance of desired results from the labThis portion of the lab includes the purpose, hypothesis and procedureDone in lab journal (or typed if preferred)You must read and be familiar with the lab prior to writing a purpose or hypothesis!ULTIMATLEY MUST BE TYPED FOR FORMAL LAB REPORTS
3ProcedureYou must read the lab before writing the purpose and hypothesis,therefore the procedure is a good place to start!In your report, the purpose and hypothesis still come first!Summarize all the steps of the lab.Be detailed, but don’t exactly copy the lab manual or simply change a few words. Plagiarizing your teacher is still plagiarism!Someone should be able to repeat the lab based on your notes in this section. Avoid listing materials, containers & elaborate procedures.Its ok to summarize as long as you still have enough information to perform the lab!Include any pictures, measurements, tables, graphs etc. made/used during the lab in this sectionPlease number your steps (no bullet points, no paragraphs)
4Procedure Samples Example: Original: Label six clean beakers with the following concentrations ofsucrose and create and place those solutions in the appropriatebeaker: 0, 7%, 14%, 21%, 28%, and 35%.Revision:Label beakers: 0%, 7%, 14%, 21%, 28%, and 35%, and place theappropriate sucrose solutions in each beakerExample 2:Place a few yeast under a microscope and draw what they look like.Observe and draw yeast under a microscope4
5PurposePurpose: What is the point of the lab, what are you trying to learn, why it is interesting, etc.Approx. 1-2 sentences to 1 paragraphA statement not a question!Example:Purpose: The purpose of this lab is to observe osmosis using carrots and varying sucrose solutions.
6Hypothesis Hypothesis: If---, then---- If (IV), then (DV) NOTE: Again, this will be easier to do after you have read the lab! Find key words or concepts
7Hypothesis ExampleYou are working with sand and yeast. You will observe both for signs of life using a microscope and a sugar-water mixture.IV?sugar-water mixtureDV?Signs of lifeHypothesis:If sugar-water mixture is added to yeast and sandthen (yeast and/or sand) will show signs of life.Which would you choose yeast or sand?7
8Prior to the Lab Experiment Know what to expect from the experimentKnow the hypothesis and what the outcome will be if the hypothesis is correct! (or supported)Recognize other (standard) variablesKnow what other variables may effect the lab so you can do your best to control themWhat should remain constant? Make sure they do!Identify a control group or groupsGroups using standard variables8
9Writing Titles for Lab Reports The Effect of the IV on the DVExample:The hypothesis was:Hypothesis: If a sugar-water mixture is added to yeast and sand, then (yeast or sand) will show signs of lifeThe effect of sugar-water to determine if sand and yeast are living or not living
10During the Lab Experiment Collection of observations and dataThroughout the lab use your senses to make observations! What could one, hear, smell (if appropriate), taste (if appropriate), and touch (if appropriate) during this lab.Note these observations, you never know what will be important when you start to draw conclusions!Qualitative- make notes in your journal, it will help you with your lab report!Quantitative- use a data table to collect numerical data, with units of measurementMake drawings with dimensions and magnification, where appropriate.Think about questions, possible errors, and other anecdotal notes as you go, it will help with your lab report!Decide if the data is trustworthy or erroneous, if you have time you may need to repeat a portion of the experiment10
11Observations Answer all observation questions. Write the question then the answer. Separate answer and question.For a formal lab report, you should have at least 3-4 sentences of your own observations (in addition to your answers to the observation questions).This section should also be as long as is necessary to include all information. This section should be at least 1-2 paragraphs.Use proper grammar and “good writing techniques” (see Writing for Biology Class Part 3: Grammar) If references are used, be sure to include the number of the reference according to your reference page, in parentheses, after the sentence(s) containing the information.11
12ConclusionsAnswer all conclusion questions after the conclusion paragraph.Write the question then the answer. Separate the answer and the question.Draw your own conclusions! What did the observations lead one to believe about the hypothesis? What experimental error factors may have played a part? What could be done in a future lab to better prove or disprove the hypothesis and limit experimental error? What other questions did this lab raise?For a formal lab report, you should have at least 3-4 sentences of your own observations (in addition to your answers to the conclusion questions). You must also state whether or not the hypothesis was supportedThis section should be as long as is necessary to include all information, it should be at least 1-2 paragraphsUse proper grammar and “good writing techniques” (see Writing for Biology Class Part 3: Grammar) If references are used, be sure to include the number of the reference according to your reference page, in parentheses, after the sentence(s) containing the information.12
13ReferencesInclude a references list for any references used, including your text book, to find information or definitions to help answer questions or make statements in the observation and conclusion portions of the labUse MLA formatFor help creating MLA references go to the Citation Machine Website, on the left hand side of the screen select MLA, then the appropriate reference type.