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Multimedia Authoring1 Sound Effects Many special effects can be applied to a sound file, or part of a sound, to emphasise a point, stimulate emotions,

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Presentation on theme: "Multimedia Authoring1 Sound Effects Many special effects can be applied to a sound file, or part of a sound, to emphasise a point, stimulate emotions,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Multimedia Authoring1 Sound Effects Many special effects can be applied to a sound file, or part of a sound, to emphasise a point, stimulate emotions, define space, and add realism. There are drawbacks to using them - such as taking time to process and making sound files bigger. Fades Fades are effective in providing a transition from one sound to another. - fade In - usually at the beginning of one sound - fade Out - usually at the end

2 Multimedia Authoring2 Sound Effects Envelopes Envelopes can be applied to stereo files. - transitions sound from left to right speaker, or from rear to front Equalizer Equalization (EQ) is the process of boosting or cutting certain frequency components in a signal. In recording, it is a very important tool for bringing out an instrument's sound. - Bass and treble are controlled by emphasising and stretching frequencies. - The name originates from the application of trying to obtain a flat frequency response. E.g. When transmitting (analogue) voice signals over long distances of wire, the high frequencies would be attenuated. By applying some equalization filters, this loss could be 'undone' so that the voice would sound more natural on the receiving end.

3 Multimedia Authoring3 Sound Effects Pitch Shift Pitch shift is effective for altering voice so it sounds entirely different from normal. Normalize Normalizing amplifies a sound file to its maximum value without distorting the sound. Backward Reverse sound Tempo Changes speed at which performed

4 Multimedia Authoring4 Sound Effects Delay One of the simplest effects, it is very valuable when used properly. - a little can bring life to dull mixes - allows you to solo over yourself - a building block for other effects - reverb, chorus, flanging Echo: takes an audio signal and plays it back after the delay time (produces one copy only) Feedback takes output of delay and sends it back as input - repeating sound - becomes quieter each time played back - theoretically repeated forever but don't hear it after a while pulse like sound with delayspulse like sound with delays - pulse then processed 60ms delay (no feedback), 100ms delay, 150ms delay, 250ms delay, 250ms with feedback, 250ms with a higher feedback gain - can fill out an instrument sound - as if playing in unison guitar riff followed by same riff with added delay of 40 ms - doubles the sound guitar riff followed by same riff with added delay of 40 ms

5 Multimedia Authoring5 Sound Effects Delay (cont.) -can be used to layer notes - 15 ms delay time15 ms delay time Delay is also very important when building a mix of instruments in a stereo environment because it enhances stereo placement creating a bigger sound. - slapback: “fattens up the sound “ (40-120 ms) - multi tap: adds rhythmic quality - 4-tap4-tap Ping-pong delay - two distinct delay lines - two output signals which are panned left and right to create the bounce - bouncingbouncing

6 Multimedia Authoring6 Sound Effects Reverb Reverberation is probably one of the most heavily used effects in music. -we hear reverb every day, without any special processors -- result of the many reflections of a sound that occur in a room - reverb simulates reflections -- sound gets quieter with time - need it when in environment with little or no reverb – e.g. car - sounds as if recorded in a stadium, concert hall, outer space sound without and then with reverbsound without and then with reverb

7 Multimedia Authoring7 Sound Effects Chorus Just as a chorus is a group of singers, the chorus effect can make a single instrument sound like there are actually several instruments being played. It thickens the sound up a little, and is often described as 'lush' or 'rich'. chord progression first without and then with chorus Flanger Flanging has a characteristic sound referred to as a "whooshing". - similar to the sound of a jet plane flying overhead drum loop without then with flanging

8 Multimedia Authoring8 Embedding Sound in Web Pages Sound on web pages is a very contentious subject. Many people hate sound of any kind on web pages, and even people who don’t mind sound tend to hate automatic background music—especially if there are no controls to turn it off. So, before you add sound to your web pages, you should be very sure that it serves a purpose and adds value. Always provide a control to either enable or disable the playing of the sound. Music on the web is copyrighted and you should have permission of the holder of the copyright before using music on your web site. If the music is in the public domain it is free to use on your site.

9 Multimedia Authoring9 Embedding Sound in Web Pages Issues and elements are not supported in all versions of html and xhtml If your browser does not support the file format, your audio will not play. If you convert your file to another format, it may still not play in all browsers. Problems and Solutions

10 Multimedia Authoring10 Embedding Sound in Web Pages Dreamweaver Insert>Media>Plugin dogs autostart="true" Dreamweaver – need to put code in so sound does not start automatically dogs If coding from scratch the best solution is to use the HTML Object element

11 Multimedia Authoring11 Sound Design Multimedia appears to be dominated by visual design. However, sound can be used without visuals or to give support to it. Types of Sounds Sound is empowered by association, meaning and context. silence - like white space in graphic design, can be powerful noise - may have little impact on listener, e.g. ongoing background sounds carrying little information pleasant - may not be informative or have much meaning but does communicate and manipulate emotions, pleasing - natural sounds, music (??? consider personal preference) physical effects - very loud sound = panic, very high-frequency = irritate, sounds that set your teeth on edge emotive - distracting eg. crying child, angry shouting, howling dog meaningful e.g. fire alarm, car horn, snake hissing, car skidding speech -its whole purpose is meaning. Someone talking communicates a lot more than what they say (tone, speed).

12 Multimedia Authoring12 Digital Audio Speech in Multimedia Advantages and disadvantages -now easy to store and use speech fragments - can chop up and combine chunks to make new sentences with new meanings (in real time), low learning curve for users -could cause user embarrassment "Welcome to job-seek, the site for those who are looking for another job" - may slow down interaction - can't interrupt the fragment dynamic, therefore may miss parts of sound-based presentation of information (external interference) context - user has a certain expectation of what system is going to do or say - speech fragments should be tested in the system context that user is going to encounter them in and not independently

13 Multimedia Authoring13 Sound References Vaughan, T. (2011) Multimedia: Making It Work, 8 th Ed., New York: McGraw-Hill A Guide to Guitar Effects Harmony CentralHarmony Central Pros and Cons of Adding Sound to Web Pages m

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