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Professor Jim Macnamara PhD, FAMI, CPM, FPRIA, FAMEC University of Technology Sydney Jim Macnamara PhD, FPRIA, FAMI, CPM, FAMEC Professor of Public Communication.

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Presentation on theme: "Professor Jim Macnamara PhD, FAMI, CPM, FPRIA, FAMEC University of Technology Sydney Jim Macnamara PhD, FPRIA, FAMI, CPM, FAMEC Professor of Public Communication."— Presentation transcript:

1 Professor Jim Macnamara PhD, FAMI, CPM, FPRIA, FAMEC University of Technology Sydney Jim Macnamara PhD, FPRIA, FAMI, CPM, FAMEC Professor of Public Communication University of Technology Sydney Where are we? Where to next?

2 Professor Jim Macnamara PhD, FAMI, CPM, FPRIA, FAMEC University of Technology Sydney This discussion A quick update on international standards Continuing gaps and inconsistencies Some further barriers to overcome

3 Professor Jim Macnamara PhD, FAMI, CPM, FPRIA, FAMEC University of Technology Sydney Barcelona Declaration 2010 Goal setting and measurement are fundamental aspects of any PR program Measuring outcomes is preferred to measuring outputs The effect on business [organisation] results should be measured where possible Media measurement requires quantity and quality Advertising value equivalents (AVEs) are not the value of PR Social media can and should be measured Transparency and replicability are paramount

4 Professor Jim Macnamara PhD, FAMI, CPM, FPRIA, FAMEC University of Technology Sydney International standards push Coalition for Public Relations Research Standards Established 2011 by AMEC, IPR and CPRF Social Media Standards Conclave (#SMMStandards) Established 2012 by Coalition + 8 other PR/communication organizations –Global Alliance, PRSA, CIPR, IABC, SNCR, FIBEP, WOMMA, DAA Working with eight companies –Dell, Ford, General Motors, McDonalds, Proctor & Gamble, Thompson Reuters, South-West Airlines, SAS Also consulting with –Media Ratings Council, AAAA, ANA, Web Analytics Association Measurement Summit discussions 2011–2013 Academic input?

5 Professor Jim Macnamara PhD, FAMI, CPM, FPRIA, FAMEC University of Technology Sydney

6 Professor Jim Macnamara PhD, FAMI, CPM, FPRIA, FAMEC University of Technology Sydney M&E outputs and guides Proposed Interim Standards for Metrics in Traditional Media Analysis Social Media Standard Definitions for Reach and Impressions Sources and Methods Transparency Table Institute for Public Relations (IPR) Association for Measurement and Evaluation of Communication (AMEC)

7 Professor Jim Macnamara PhD, FAMI, CPM, FPRIA, FAMEC University of Technology Sydney Message recall/ retention Consideration Responses Feedback Engagement Evaluated against objectives Communication Objectives PR Activity Undertaken PR Outputs Analysed PR Outcomes Analysed For example: Media relations Publications sent Events held Sponsorships undertaken Communication engaged in Organisation/ Business Results Organisation/Business Objectives Did activities generate outputs that reached publics effectively and efficiently? Audience reach Tone/sentiment of communication Key messages Share of voice Competitor bench- marking What outtakes and outcomes were achieved among key publics and to what extent? Awareness Understanding Consideration Attitudes/perceptions Action/behaviour Relationships Reputation Brand positioning Sales/profits Market share Share price Donations/grants Customer/staff retention PRIA Evaluation ModelMonitoring Measurement Reporting Formative Research Did organisation/business results shift as a consequence? Evaluative Research Q: PR Outtakes Analysed Evaluative Research

8 Professor Jim Macnamara PhD, FAMI, CPM, FPRIA, FAMEC University of Technology Sydney How far we’ve come …

9 Professor Jim Macnamara PhD, FAMI, CPM, FPRIA, FAMEC University of Technology Sydney “… REACH represents the total number of unique people who had an opportunity to see an item” #SMMStandards, 2012, para. 15. IMPRESSIONS– the number of people having the opportunity for exposure to a media story; also known as ‘opportunity to see’ (OTS) … usually refers to audited circulation” Proposed Interim Standards for Metrics in Traditional Media Analysis (Eisenmann et al., 2012, p. 3) Impressions – “the number of people who might have had the opportunity to be exposed to a story” Dictionary of Public Relations Measurement and Research (Stacks & Bowen, 2013, p. 14) “Impressions represent the number of times an item was displayed” “Impressions represent the gross number of items that could have been seen by all people, including repeats” Social Media Standards Definitions: Reach and Impressions (Digital Analytics Association, 2013) Impressions represents “the number of possible exposures of a media item to a defined set of stakeholders” … Dictionary of Public Relations Measurement and Research (Stacks & Bowen, 2013, p. 14) Definitions – e.g., ‘reach’ and ‘impressions’

10 Professor Jim Macnamara PhD, FAMI, CPM, FPRIA, FAMEC University of Technology Sydney Return on Investment (ROI) PR ROI Return on Impressions (ROI) Return on Media Investment (ROMI) Return on Target Influence (ROTI) Return on Earned Media (ROEM) Return on Expectations (ROE) Return on Communication Investment (ROCI) Return on Brand Investment (ROBI) Social media ROI (SROI)

11 Professor Jim Macnamara PhD, FAMI, CPM, FPRIA, FAMEC University of Technology Sydney Metrics Basic outputsOutputs  OuttakesOuttakes  Outcomes Counting press clippingsUnique visitorsEngagement AudienceViewsInfluence ReachLikesImpact Target audience reachFollowersAwareness ImpressionsFansAttitudes Opportunities to see (OTS)ClickthroughsTrust Share of voiceDownloadsLoyalty Cost per thousand (CPM)CommentsReputation HitsToneRelationships VisitsSentimentROI?

12 Professor Jim Macnamara PhD, FAMI, CPM, FPRIA, FAMEC University of Technology Sydney Message recall/ retention Consideration Responses Feedback Engagement Evaluated against objectives Communication Objectives PR Activity Undertaken PR Outputs Analysed PR Outcomes Analysed For example: Media relations Publications sent Events held Sponsorships undertaken Communication engaged in Organisation/ Business Results Organisation/Business Objectives Did activities generate outputs that reached publics effectively and efficiently? Audience reach Tone/sentiment of communication Key messages Share of voice Competitor bench- marking What outtakes and outcomes were achieved among key publics and to what extent? Awareness Understanding Consideration Attitudes/perceptions Action/behaviour Relationships Reputation Brand positioning Sales/profits Market share Share price Donations/grants Customer/staff retention PRIA Evaluation ModelMonitoring Measurement Reporting Formative Research Did organisation/business results shift as a consequence? Evaluative Research Q: PR Outtakes Analysed Evaluative Research

13 Professor Jim Macnamara PhD, FAMI, CPM, FPRIA, FAMEC University of Technology Sydney The so-called barriers Cost Time Too hard Management don’t want it

14 Professor Jim Macnamara PhD, FAMI, CPM, FPRIA, FAMEC University of Technology Sydney Major barriers to address Conflation of measurement and evaluation Measurement is taking measures – metrics Evaluation is determining VALUE Value = a perception from a perspective Measurement Evaluation Early findings used to fine-tune campaign Data collection Data analysis Findings primarily used for reporting

15 Professor Jim Macnamara PhD, FAMI, CPM, FPRIA, FAMEC University of Technology Sydney Major barriers to address Most measurement and evaluation look backwards “Tells us what we know intuitively” “What’s done is done … can’t change the past” “Post-rationalisation and self-justification” Look forwards What insights can improve PR/communication/relationships in future? What insights can contribute to the organisation’s strategy and outcomes? –Gaps –Trends –Opportunities –Competitor strategy –Emergent issues

16 Professor Jim Macnamara PhD, FAMI, CPM, FPRIA, FAMEC University of Technology Sydney Obsession with numbers

17 Professor Jim Macnamara PhD, FAMI, CPM, FPRIA, FAMEC University of Technology Sydney Conclusions Recognise measurement and evaluation as different and separate One is about metrics and analytics, the other is about VALUE Collect qualitative research data as well as quantitative Noting that many outtakes, outcomes and outflows are perceptions and attitudes (e.g., satisfaction, trust, reputation) and relationships Look forward, not simply reporting retrospectively Contribute to organisational strategy and outcomes

18 Professor Jim Macnamara PhD, FAMI, CPM, FPRIA, FAMEC University of Technology Sydney

19 Professor Jim Macnamara PhD, FAMI, CPM, FPRIA, FAMEC University of Technology Sydney References/resources Interim Standards for Metrics in Traditional Media Analysis media-analysis Social Media Standards ‘Sources and Methods Transparency Table’ ‘Social Media Standard Definitions for Reach and Impressions’, reach-and-impressions-from-the-digital-analytics-association/. Also at Definitions_DAA_v4.pdf reach-and-impressions-from-the-digital-analytics-association/ Definitions_DAA_v4.pdf Jim Macnamara, (2014), ‘The development of international standards for measurement and evaluation of public relations and corporate communication: A review’, available at communication/research/research-reports communication/research/research-reports Tom Watson & Anzgar Zerfass, (2011), ‘Return on investment in public relations: A critique of concepts used by practitioners from communication and management sciences perspectives’, PRism, vol. 8, no. 1, available at


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