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Maple Syrup

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I. When A. Late Winter - Early Spring B. 4 - 8 week season, depending on the weather 1. Temperatures need to fluctuate from above and below freezing for sap to flow Maple Syrup

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II. How to Collect Sap A. Select Proper Tree Species -Maple Family - Acer 1. Sugar Maple - Number one choice a. Highest Percent Sugar 2. Black Maple 3. Red Maple 4. Silver Maple

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Maple Syrup B. Number of tap holes depends on the diameter of the tree Circumference in Inches Taps 31-471 47-622 63-783 78+4

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Maple Syrup C. Drill 2 into the tree with a 7/16- inch bit 1. Hole will go into the trees Xylem layer

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Maple Syrup D. Hole should be drilled with a slight upward angle so that sap can easily flow out

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Maple Syrup E. Spile is then insert to maintain the tap hole and to allow sap to flow out

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Maple Syrup F. Splies hooked to buckets or plastic tubing

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Maple Syrup G. Commercial Operations 1. Numerous Spiles hooked to single line with vacuum pump

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Maple Syrup III. What is Sap A. Sterile liquid of water and nutrients that the tree needs prior to buds opening and leaf-out 1. Produced during photosynthesis the previous growing season 2. When collected it is clear, colorless liquid with only a hint of sweetness

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Maple Syrup B. Exact biochemical composition depends on the previous growing season, soil conditions, tree health, time of year 1. Only during non-growing season is plant energy stored as sugar (Sucrose). Remainder of year it is stored as starch. 2. Believed to help lower freezing point of water

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Maple Syrup C. 1-10% of Sap is solids - amino acids, proteins, salts, hormones, silicate, etc. 1. As sap is boiled these solids precipitate out of the liquid - it is known as Sugar Sand

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Maple Syrup D. Each tap could produce as much as 1 gallon of sap in a single day and up to 10 gallons over the course of the Sugar Season

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Maple Syrup IV. Evaporation A. To make syrup you simply boil the sap for a long period of time, evaporating the excess water, until the concentration of sugar reaches 66° Brix -100 pounds of maple syrup at 66° Brix contains 66 pounds of Sugar

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Maple Syrup B. Sap should be boiled as soon as possible after harvest. The sap can spoil if not boiled soon enough. C. Evaporation is normally done in very shallow pans to increase the surface area and speed the process along

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Maple Syrup D. Approx. 40 gallons of sap = 1 gallon of syrup from Sugar Maples 1. So 39 gallons of water must be evaporated 2. If one - 1 square pan is used, it would take approx 40-50 hours 3. If one - 3 square pan is used, it would take approx 9-18 hours

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Maple Syrup E. Approx. 60 gallons of sap = 1 gallon of syrup from Red Maples F. Finished Syrup boils at 7.1°F above the boiling point of water because of the sugar concentration

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Maple Syrup G. Syrup Grade 1. Syrup quality is graded by color 2. Thin lightly colored syrup is considered the highest quality, while thick dark syrup is considered the lowest.

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Maple Syrup 3. Though some environmental conditions play a role, quality is mostly determine by how quickly the evaporation process happens

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