Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

HLT40312 Certificate IV in Massage Therapy Practice Book two: HLTREM401D Work within a massage framework HLTIN301C Comply with infection control policies.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "HLT40312 Certificate IV in Massage Therapy Practice Book two: HLTREM401D Work within a massage framework HLTIN301C Comply with infection control policies."— Presentation transcript:

1 HLT40312 Certificate IV in Massage Therapy Practice Book two: HLTREM401D Work within a massage framework HLTIN301C Comply with infection control policies and procedures HLTWHS300A Contribute to WHS processes HLTCOM405D Administer a practice E-LEARNING MATERIAL & ASSESSMENTS DEMONSTRATION UNIT DELIVERY STYLE - complete unit contains 113 pages

2 Book two 2 Assessment guidelines FORMATIVE TASKS. Formatives are activities located throughout the learning material which you need to complete and submit to your trainer for comments. They allow you to continually demonstrate your ability to perform the required skills and knowledge for these unit. SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENTS. The summative assessment uses the performance criteria, range statement, critical evidence and employability skills as the checklist for demonstration of the required skills and knowledge. Your trainer will deem you either competent or not yet competent based on your performance in the summative assessments. SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT A. KNOWLEDGE QUESTIONS You are required to learn the information in this learning material covering the units of; Work within a massage framework. Comply with infection control policies and procedures. Contribute to WHS processes. Administer a practice. At each formative checkpoint your trainer will provide you with a series of knowledge questions covering the information in this learning material. You are to answer these questions within an allocated time frame. You will be assessed on demonstration of your knowledge on this subject matter. SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT B. DEVELOP OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES FOR A MASSAGE THERAPY PRACTICE. DOCUMENT ASSESSMENT You are to demonstrate your knowledge and technical skills by developing procedures for the operations of a massage therapy practice. Your procedures are to include daily administration, marketing strategies, financial documentation and human resources for payroll and employee records. You are to address the issues of work health and safety for staff and clients, infection control, waste minimisation and daily cleaning and maintenance tasks. You are to develop procedures for delivering massage treatments using professional standards, treatment timeframes, fee structure, routine duties and stock control. All procedures must comply with statutory and regulatory requirements. Submit your typed document to your trainer for assessment.

3 HLTREM401D Work within a massage framework This unit of competency describes the skills and knowledge required to work effectively within a massage framework. This unit contains employability skills. Application of the unit. This unit may apply to work in massage in a range of settings and contexts. Performance criteria covered within this training programme 1.1,1.2,1.3,1.4,2.1,2.2,2.3,3.1,3.2,3.3,3.4,4.1,4.2,4.3,4.4,5.1,5.2,5.3 Book two 3

4 HLTREM401D Work within a massage framework Elements and performance criteria standards Each element stipulates the skills and knowledge you will achieve when you correctly complete each of the evaluative statements listed in the performance criteria. Throughout this learning material you will be participating in performing the criteria tasks to achieve the required skills and knowledge in order to be deemed competent in this unit. Book two ELEMENTPERFORMANCE CRITERIA 1. Demonstrate commitment to the central philosophies of massage practice 1.1. Provide definition of massage and the massage system of treatment 1.2. Provide an overview of the historical development of massage 1.3. Identify and explain massage principles 1.4. Draw upon massage philosophy to interpret health issues 2. Identify and describe the principles and practices of massage 2.1. Identify and describe major methods of treatment used in massage 2.2. Identify and describe other complementary therapies used in massage 2.3. Identify and describe massage assessment techniques 3. Develop knowledge of complementary therapies 3.1. Provide information on other complimentary therapies 3.2. Explain similarities and differences between physiotherapy, osteopathy, chiropractic therapy and massage therapy 3.4. Identify the relationship between therapies 4. Represent massage framework to the community 4.1. Explain the practices and principles of massage in an easily understood way in a one-to -one and group setting 4.2. Clarify enquiries and provide appropriate information 4.3. Make requests for client to bring relevant data to consultation 4.4. Discuss alternative sources of information and advice as discussed 5. Work within clinic and regulation guidelines 5.1. Assess and follow clinic guidelines 5.2. Access and follow legal and regulatory guidelines 5.3. Undertake relevant documentation 4

5 SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE ESSENTIAL SKILLSESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE 1.Appropriately record details of client enquiries according to clinic guidelines 2.Correctly identify client information needs 3.Demonstrte communication skills in a one-to-one and group setting 4.Explain relevant products and services 5.Provide client with required information 6.Work or model work which demonstrates an understanding of underpinning values and philosophies in the massage framework 1.A range of alternative and complementary therapies 2.Ethical issues in body therapies 3.WHS requirements in the workplace 4.Philosophical tradition of western and eastern body treatments 5.Sociology of health and the health care system 6.The effects of massage on the body surface 7.The history and development of massage 8.Organisation policies, procedures and guidelines 9.The philosophies, principles and tools of massage practice 10.The qualitative, quantitative, cultural and traditional lines of evidence used in massage 11.The rationalistic, analytical approach to an understanding of disease Book two 5

6 HLTWHS300A Contribute to WHS processes This unit specifies the workplace performance required by a worker to contribute to work health and safety (WHS) processes where there is responsibility for own work outputs and possibly limited responsibility for the work output of others. This unit contains employability skills. Application of the unit. Application of this unit should be contextualised to reflect any specific workplace risks, hazards and associated safety practices Performance criteria covered within this training programme 1.1,1.2,1.3,1.4,1.5,1.6,1.7,2.1,2.2,2.3,2.4,3.1,3.2,3.3,3.4,4.1,4.2,4.3,4.4,5.1,5.2,5.3 Book two 6

7 HLTWHS300A Contribute to WHS processes Elements and performance criteria standards Each element stipulates the skills and knowledge you will achieve when you correctly complete each of the evaluative statements listed in the performance criteria. Throughout this learning material you will be participating in performing the criteria tasks to achieve the required skills and knowledge in order to be deemed competent in this unit. Book two ELEMENTPERFORMANCE CRITERIA 1. Plan and conduct work safely 1.1. Plan work in accordance with relevant WHS legislation, standards, codes of practice/compliance codes and guidance material 1.2. Identify hazards as part of work planning and work process 1.3. Address identified hazards prior to starting work using judgement within defined scope of responsibilities 1.4. Report residual risk according to organisation procedures 1.5. Report incidents and injuries in line with organisation policies and procedures 1.6. Undertake WHS housekeeping in work area 1.7. Monitor own levels of stress and fatigue to ensure ability to work safely and sustainably 2. Support others in working safely 2.1. Share information on safe work practices and work procedures with others, including members of the work group where relevant 2.2. Check the WHS practices of less experienced members of the workgroup or other stakeholders in the work context 2.3. If appropriate provide guidance and coaching to less experienced members of the work group to support them in working safely 2.4. If appropriate support others and accurately record incidents and complete associated workplace documentation according to organisational procedures 3. Contribute to WHS participative processes 3.1. Raise WHS issues in accordance with organisation procedures within appropriate timeframes 3.2. Contribute to workplace meetings, workplace inspections or other consultative activities 3.3. Provide assistance to workgroup members or other stakeholders o contribute to workplace safety 7

8 Book two ELEMENTPERFORMANCE CRITERIA 4. Contribute to hazard identification, WHS risk assessment and risk control activities 4.1. Report identified hazard and inadequacies in risk controls within appropriate timeframes 4.2. Check the workplace for hazards using itemised checklists in accordance with work procedures 4.3. Contribute to risk assessments 4.4. Provide input to development and implementation of control measures, with reference to the hierarchy of risk control 5. Participate in the control of emergency situations 5.1. Identify emergency signals and alarms and respond to them appropriately 5.2. Take initial action to control/confine emergency according to organisation procedures and taking account of the nature and scope of the emergency 5.3. Implement emergency response procedures within scope of training and competence 8

9 SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE ESSENTIAL SKILLSESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE 1.Contribute to WHS processes in the work context by; -addressing their own health and safety -addressing health and safety of others who may be affected by their actions -identifying ways to keep up to date with current WHS issues as they apply to workplace systems, equipment and processes -supporting members of the workgroup who may be less experienced in the workplace in regard to WHS matters -taking initiative to address hazards and manage risks at a systemic level 2.Check the workplace for hazards and risks using an itemised checklist 3.Provide advice and feedback in a constructive and supportive manner 4.Take into account and use opportunities to address waste minimisation, environmental responsibility and sustainable practice issues 1.Basic hazard identification procedures such as workplace inspections and review of workplace data 2.Hierarchy of risk control and its application 3.Nature of common workplace hazards relevant to work role 4.Personal protective equipment requirements including use, storage and maintenance 5.Principles of basic risk assessment 6.Relationship between WHS and sustainability in the workplace, including the contribution of maintaining health and safety to environment, economic, workforce and social sustainability 7.Roles and responsibilities of HRS’s and HSC’s 8.Roles and responsibilities of workers, officers, and persons conducting a business or undertaking 9.Safety signs and their meanings for dangerous goods class, emergency equipment, personal protective equipment and specific hazards such as sharps and radiation 10.Sources of WHS information within the workplace and awareness of external sources of WHS information, including Safe Work Australia and relevant state/territory regulators 11.Standard emergency signals, alarms and required responses 12.The difference between hazard and risk and the legal rights and responsibilities of workplace parties 13.Workplace specific information; hazards of the work environment, hazard identification procedures relevant to hazards, designated persons for raising WHS issues, organisation of work procedures related to performance of own work, specific hazards and risk control, reporting hazards, incidents, injuries and WHS issue resolution, consultation, use of PPE and emergency response 14.Potential emergency situations, alarms and signals and required response Book two 9

10 HLTIN301C Comply with infection control policies and procedures This unit of competency describes the skills and knowledge required for workers to comply with infection control policies and procedures. All procedures must be carried out in accordance with current infection control guidelines, Australian and New Zealand Standards for maintaining infection control and the policies and procedures of the organisation. This unit acknowledges the importance of complying with an effective infection control strategy that ensures the safety of the client (or end-user of health-related products/services), maintains personal protection and prevents the transmission of infections from person to person. All tasks must be carried out in accordance with State or Territory legislative requirements that affect work practices of the organisation and/or worker. This unit contains employability skills. Application of the unit. This unit is applicable to workers who are responsible for following workplace procedures to maintain infection control. Application of this unit should be contextualised to reflect any specific workplace infection risks, hazards and associated infection control practices. Performance criteria covered within this training programme 1.1,1.2,1.3,2.1,2.2,2.3,2.4,2.5,2.6,2.7,3.1,3.2,3.3,3.4,4.1,4.2,5.1,5.2,5.3,6.1,6.2,6.3,6.4,6.5,7.1,7.2,7.3,7.4,7.5,7.6,7.7 Book two 10

11 HLTIN301C Comply with infection control policies and procedures Elements and performance criteria standards Each element stipulates the skills and knowledge you will achieve when you correctly complete each of the evaluative statements listed in the performance criteria. Throughout this learning material you will be participating in performing the criteria tasks to achieve the required skills and knowledge in order to be deemed competent in this unit. Book two ELEMENTPERFORMANCE CRITERIA 1. Follow infection control guidelines 1.1. Demonstrate the application of standard precautions to prevent the spread of infection in accordance with organisation requirements 1.2. Demonstrate the application of additional precautions when standard precautions alone may not be sufficient to prevent transmission of infection 1.3. Minimise contamination of materials, equipment and instruments by aerosols and splatter 2. Identify and respond to infection risks 2.1. Identify infection risks and implement an appropriate response within own role and responsibility 2.2. Document and report activities and tasks that put clients and/or other workers at risk 2.3. Respond appropriately to situations that pose an infection risk in accordance with the policies and procedures of the organisation 2.4. Follow procedures for risk control and risk containment for specific risks 2.5. Follow protocols for care following exposure to blood or other body fluids as required 2.6. Place appropriate signs when and where appropriate 2.7. Remove spills in accordance with the policies and procedures of the organisation 3. Maintain personal hygiene3.1. Maintain hand hygiene by washing hands before and after client contact and/or after any activity likely to cause contamination 3.2. Follow hand washing procedures 3.3. Implement hand care procedures 3.4. Cover cuts and abrasions with water proof dressings and change as necessary 11

12 Book two 12 ELEMENTPERFORMANCE CRITERIA 4. Use personal protective equipment 4.1. Wear personal protective clothing and equipment that complies with Australian New Zealand Standards and is appropriate for the intended use 4.2. Change protective clothing and gowns/aprons daily, more frequently if soiled and where appropriate, after each client contact 5. Limit contamination5.1. Demarcate and maintain clean and contaminated zones in all aspects of health care work 5.2. Confine records, materials and medicaments to a well-designed clean zone 5.3. Confine contaminated instruments and equipment to a well-designed contaminated zone 6. Handle, package, label, store, transport and dispose of clinical and other waste 6.1. Wear appropriate personal protective clothing and equipment in accordance with occupational health and safety policies and procedures when handling waste 6.2. Separate waste at the point where it has been generated and dispose of into waste containers that are colour coded and identified 6.3. Store clinical or related waste in an area that is accessible only to authorised persons 6.4.Handle, package, label, store, transport and dispose of waste appropriately to minimise potential for contact with the waste and to reduce the risk to the environment from accidental release 6.5.Dispose of waste safely in accordance with policies and procedures of the organisation and legislative requirements 7. Clean environmental surfaces7.1.Wear personal protective clothing and equipment during cleaning procedures 7.2.Remove all dust, dirt and physical debris from work surfaces 7.3.Clean all work surfaces with a neutral detergent and warm water solution before and after each session or when visibly soiled 7.4.Decomtaminate equipment requiring special processing in accordance with quality management systems to ensue full compliance with cleaning, disinfection and sterilisation protocols 7.5.Dry all work surfaces before and after use 7.6.Replace surface covers where applicable 7.7.Maintain and store cleaning equipment

13 SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE ESSENTIAL SKILLSESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE 1.Consistently apply hand washing, personal hygiene and personal protection protocols 2.Consistently apply clean and sterile techniques 3.Consistently apply protocols to limit contamination 4.Apply standard precautions -consistently ensure instruments used for invasive procedures are sterile at time of use where appropriate -consistently follow the procedure for washing and drying hands -consistently limit contamination -consistently maintain clean surfaces and manage blood and body fluid spills -consistently protect materials, equipment and instruments from contamination until required for use -consistently put into practice clean and sterile techniques -consistently use personal protective equipment 5.Apply additional precautions when standard precautions are not sufficient 6.Take into account opportunities to address waste minimisation, environmental responsibility and sustainable practice issues 1.Additional precautions, aspects of infectious diseases including opportunistic organisms, pathogens 2.Basic microbiology including bacteria and bacterial spores, fungi, viruses 3.Clean and sterile techniques 4.Disease transmission; paths of transmission including direct contact, aerosols and penetrating injuries, risk of acquisition, sources of infecting microorganisms including persons who are carriers, in the incubation phase of the disease or those who are acutely ill 5.Effective hand hygiene; procedures for routine and surgical hand wash, when hands must be washed 6.Good personal hygiene practice including hand care 7. Identification and management of infectious risks in the workplace 8.Organisation requirements relating to immunisation, where applicable 9.Personal protective equipment; guidelines for glove use, wearing gowns and waterproof aprons, wearing masks as required, wearing protective glasses 10.Standard precautions 11.Susceptible hosts including persons who are immune suppressed, have chronic diseases such as diabetes and the very young and old 12.Surface cleaning; procedures at the start and end of the day, managing a blood or body fluid spill, routine surface cleaning 13.Sharps handling and disposal techniques 14.The organisation’s infection control policies and procedures Book two 13

14 Book two 14 HLTCOM405D Administer a practice This unit of competency describes the skills and knowledge required to provide administration for a clinical health practice according to the size and scale of the business. This unit contains employability skills. Application of the unit. This unit applies to work in a range of health settings where health services are provided with direct client contact involved. Application of this unit should be contextualised to reflect any specific workplace requirements, issues and practices. Performance criteria covered within this training programme 1.1,1.2,1.3,1.4,2.1,2.2,2.3,3.1,3.2,3.3,3.4,3.5,4.1,4.2,4.3

15 HLTCOM405D Administer a practice Elements and performance criteria standards Each element stipulates the skills and knowledge you will achieve when you correctly complete each of the evaluative statements listed in the performance criteria. Throughout this learning material you will be participating in performing the criteria tasks to achieve the required skills and knowledge in order to be deemed competent in this unit. Book two ELEMENTPERFORMANCE CRITERIA 1. Establish and maintain administrative systems 1.1. Identify and perform routine tasks 1.2. Ensure policies and procedures are followed 1.3. Use resources appropriately 1.4. Establish administrative systems 2. Conduct financial administration 2.1. Administer financial procedures of the business 2.2. Maintain systems for financial documentation 2.3. Record information for financial reports 3. Follow practice management strategies 3.1. Follow operational strategies 3.2. Follow marketing strategies 3.3. Attend meetings 3.4. Monitor stock levels and supplies 3.5. Comply with statutory and regulatory requirements 4. Administer personnel management strategies 4.1. Follow human resource strategies 4.2. Administer payroll and employee records 4.3. Follow diversity guidelines 15

16 SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE ESSENTIAL SKILLSESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE 1.Accurately record financial transactions 2.Apply time management skills 3.Establish and maintain administrative systems 4.Follow clinic practice guidelines 5.Give and receive communication messages 6.Maintain payroll records 7.Promote, implement and manage work attitudes and practices that reflect awareness of the importance of a range of aspects of sustainability 8.Securely manage monies 1.Appropriate practices to ensure efficient use of power and other resources 2.Business systems 3.Clinic practices and procedures 4.Financial recording systems 5.Forms and administrative systems 6.Legal rights and responsibilities 7.Operational factors relating to the business(provision of professional services, products) 8.Planning and control systems (sales, advertising and promotions, distribution and logistics) 9.Record keeping duties 10.Services available and charges 11.Stock control methods and procedures Book two 16

17 Book two 17 Definition of massage and the massage system of treatment Massage therapy involves the manipulation of soft body tissues with pressure, tension, motion or vibration. In addition to various parts of the body, massage can be performed with the aid of mechanical aids, oils and lotions. Massage involves acting on the client's body with pressure, tension, motion or vibration done manually or with mechanical aids. The tissues targeted may include muscles, tendons, ligaments, skin, joints or other connective tissue, as well as lymphatic vessels and organs. Massage can be applied with the hands, fingers, elbows, forearm and feet. During a massage, the therapist applies massage oil to the body and uses kneading and circular movements in combination with long, smooth strokes. Massage principles and philosophy. Massage has a somatospsychic effect. Somatopsychic is the interrelationship of body and mind. Psychosomatic refers to the mind's effect on the body. Massage therapy helps restore healthy structure and function, allowing better circulation, greater ease of movement, wider range of movement, more flexibility and the release of chronic patterns of tension. Massage effects; Circulation of Blood - improved blood circulation is beneficial for relieving tension in the muscles and other soft tissues. Movement of Lymphatic Fluid - improved circulation of lymphatic fluid for ridding the body of wastes, toxins and pathogens. The lymph system also benefits from massage, particularly in conditions where lymphatic flow is impaired by injury or surgery. Release of Toxins – improving the movement of toxins through the body’s normal pathways of release and elimination. Release of Tension - allowing greater relaxation having important physiological and psychological benefits. The result is a reduction of stress.

18 Book two 18 Brief history of massage Massage is probably the oldest and simplest form of health care. It is depicted in Egyptian tomb paintings and mentioned in ancient Chinese, Japanese and Indian texts. It is thought to have originated in the East as a method for unblocking the chi, the vital energy flowing through our bodies, that tends to get trapped due to emotional and physical upset. The word "massage“ in French means "friction,” from Arabic massa means "to touch, feel or handle“ and from Latin massa meaning "mass, dough". Massage or manual bodywork comes under the category of complimentary or allied health in Australia. India - according to Hindu Tantra the Kundalini or life force originates at the base of the spine and is part of the interaction of cosmic forces of female and male energy. Greece - ancient Greek physicians commonly prescribed massage as a remedy in conjunction with poultices, tonics, fresh air and a corrective diet. Hippocrates recognised the benefits of massage for treating a wide range of ailments. His belief was that disease was caused naturally and so should be treated naturally. Rome - the Romans were known to rub sore and tired muscles with warm oil after bathing and before enjoying a full body massage to stimulate the nervous system and ease the action of their joints. China - the Chinese are thought to have initiated the first formal examinations in massage. Medical students were examined in acupuncture, massage and treatment of disease. Swedish Massage was originally developed in the late 18th century by a Swedish fencing master as the first systematic system of therapeutic massage in the west. This massage shortens recovery time from muscular strain by flushing the tissue of lactic acid, uric acid and other metabolic wastes. It improves circulation and stretches the ligaments and tendons, keeping them supple and young. It also stimulates the skin and nervous system reducing stress, both emotional and physical. It also has specific clinical uses in medical or remedial therapy.

19 Book two 19 Massage philosophy Effects of massage on body systems. Physical – directly affects parts of the body being treated such as the skin and sensory nerve endings. Physiological – directly effects the body’s own response such as warming the tissues which dilates capillaries and increases blood flow. Psychological – creates a feeling of relaxation. Cells - massage improves circulation, increases the supply of essential nutrients to the cells and prevents the build-up of waste material. Skeletal system – massage increases the flow of nutrients to the bones and reduces muscular tension that can cause structural problems. Muscular tissue – massage increases the flow of blood to the muscle tissue and can relieve muscle tension. Circulatory system – massage improves blood circulation and relieves congestion by increasing oxygen and nutrient supply to the cells. Nervous system – massage can be used with aromatic plant oils to relax the nerves. Respiratory system – massage can improve breathing patterns by relaxing the body. Digestive system – massage can push out waste products for those who suffer from constipation. Urinary system – massage can assist with the elimination of built up fluids, seen as swelling in the body. Skin – massage increases secretions from the sebaceous and sudoriferous glands. It also aids with the shedding of skin cells and improves the colour of the skin.

20 Book two 20 Major methods of treatment used in massage Swedish - This type of massage is beneficial to promote the feeling of well-being and also helps to reduce emotional and physical stress. Aromatherapy massage – concentrates on relaxing strokes, but of prime importance is the selection of essential oils used during the massage chosen for their therapeutic effect. Neuromuscular massage - forms the basis of aromatherapy massage. It is also referred to as "Trigger point" therapy and the overall effect of this massage is to restore the balance of the autonomic nervous system. Lymphatic massage - helps to improve the flow of lymph and some techniques are incorporated in aromatherapy massage. Lymph drainage massage is particularly useful in detoxifying the body and to boost the immune system. Acupressure massage and Shiatsu - focuses on the meridians (channels) of the body and to relieve "blockages" through pressure on certain points of the body. Reflexology - used on feet hands and ears which are massaged and focus is placed on certain points known to have corresponding body parts or organs. The massage must be conducted in a way that is fitting and professional. Any method of massage treatment should be preceded by a medical history consultation with the client. This assists the therapist in planning the treatment. It highlights any crucial conditions that may need special attention during massage treatment or to refer to other specialists if necessary. The massage therapist’s main role is assessment and treatment. There are some conditions that cannot be improved with massage. It is important to explain the limitations of massage during client consultation.

21 Book two 21 Massage assessment practice principles Always perform assessments in conjunction with appropriate and ongoing assessments. A definitive assessment may not always be possible due to the variety of musculoskeletal problems that may be present. Refer clients to other health care practitioners if in doubt. Assessment should be conducted in a logical sequence commencing with client medical history. Assessment findings allow the massage therapist to plan treatments with clients, monitor responses to treatments, adjust treatments and review plans for treatment as required. Method of assessments. Seek confirmation of client medical history. Identify client musculoskeletal conditions. Identify possible psychosocial factors that may appear as symptoms. Assess client’s functional limitations. Determine treatments and management of treatments. Discuss treatment opportunities with client. Monitor client’s responses allowing for adjustments. Record treatment results. Assess effectiveness of treatments.

22 Book two 22 Definition of pain Pain is conveyed to the brain by sensory neurons. Pain is a sensation of physical discomfort. The perception of pain is the discomfort caused with a measure of its intensity. The various conscious and unconscious responses to both sensation and perception, including the emotional response, define the overall concept of pain. Pain can occur from a variety of situations. Injury is a major cause, but pain may also arise from an illness. It may accompany a psychological condition, such as depression, or may even occur in the absence of a recognisable trigger. Acute pain often results from tissue damage, such as a skin burn or broken bone. Acute pain can also be associated with headaches or muscle cramps. This type of pain usually goes away as the injury heals or the cause of the pain is removed. Pain-sensing neurons are called nociceptors. A stimulus of the nociceptor unleashes a cascade of neurotransmitters (chemicals that transmit information within the nervous system) in the spine. General pain. Nerve cells, or neurons, perform many functions in the body. Certain types of neurons are capable of transmitting a pain signal to the brain. Pain-sensing neurons are called nociceptors, with almost every surface and organ of the body being wired with them. The central part of these cells is located in the spine. They send threadlike projections to every part of the body. Nociceptors are classified according to the stimulus that prompts them to transmit a pain signal. Thermoreceptive nociceptors are stimulated by temperatures that are potentially tissue damaging. Mechanoreceptive nociceptors respond to a pressure stimulus that may cause injury. Polymodal nociceptors are the most sensitive and can respond to temperature and pressure. They also respond to chemicals released by the cells in the area from which the pain originates.

23 Book two 23 Client history questions Occupation – current or past. Sports or hobbies – current or past. Referred to by; Client past illness or disease. Recent hospitalisation or major injury. Family history of major illness or disease. Pregnant or recent births. Current social habits – smoke, excessive drinking or use of recreational drugs. Current medication being taken. Known allergies. CONTRAINDICATIONS FOR MASSAGE TREATMENT CLIENT MEDICAL HISTORY Client’s name: Date: I understand that the service provided by (massage clinic) is not a substitute for medical care and any information provided by the therapist is not diagnostically prescriptive in any way. I understand that my personal information herein is to aid the therapist in providing a good service and is completely confidential. Signed by client: Massage therapist name: Date: Signed by massage therapist:

24 Book two 24 Purpose of assessment questions Questions a massage therapist needs to ask should be designed to distinguish the levels of pain, whether it be pain of a local origin or pain referred from another part of the body. Nature of pain. Local pain. - usually sharp shooting pain. - usually at a specific area. Referred pain. - dull ache. - general area. Burning pain. - usually from trauma to sympathetic and somatic sensory nerves. Questions to ask client. Location of pain. Is the pain from a physical injury? Type of pain. Intenseness of pain on a scale of 0 to 10 with 0 being no pain and 10 being extreme pain. The onset of pain. What the client was doing when the pain started? Were they active, inactive or stressed? Does the client believe that activity prompted the pain and whether the onset was sudden, gradual or part of an ongoing chronic problem? The duration of pain? Is the pain frequent, intermittent, constant or episodic? What aggravates the pain and what relieves the pain? FORMATIVE TASK 1. CONDUCT CLIENT CONSULTATIONS – VIDEO RECORD YOUR PRACTICE SESSIONS Using the client interview document that you created in Book 1, you are to conduct three client consultation sessions. You will be demonstrating your skills and knowledge required for conducting comprehensive client consultations. Submit your videos to your trainer for comment.

25 Book two 25 Professional complementary health care Chiropractic treatments - analysis of the skeletal structure and muscles for joint dysfunction and use pressure and client’s body position to make joint adjustments. Acupuncture - involves the stimulation of points on the body using a needles to penetrate the skin that are then manipulated manually or by electrical stimulation. Herbal remedies and homeopathy - uses the medicinal properties of plants, fungi and herbs to create medicines for treating ailments. Naturopathy - uses a wide variety of therapies, including hydrotherapy, heat, massage and herbal medicine to treat and stimulate the person's own body to heal itself. Osteopathy - places emphasis on the musculoskeletal system with the name osteo referring to bone and path refers to disease. Physiotherapy treatments - assists the rehabilitation process by developing and restoring body systems, in particular the neuromuscular, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and respiratory systems. They devise treatment programmes, comprising manual therapy, movement, therapeutic exercise. Myotherapy - application of pressure at trigger points. The relief of tension in the muscle followed by stretching promotes healing.

26 Book two 26 Informed consent This is providing clients with information that they need in order to make a decision as to whether they will have the massage treatment. You need to explain; The massage procedure to the client. Length of time the treatment will take. Proposed benefits of the treatment. Common side affects or risks. Cost of treatment. Allow time for the client to ask questions. Valid consent. Client’s consent to a massage treatment must take place prior to the commencement of treatment. There are four elements to the consent. 1.It must be given freely and voluntarily. 2.Client must understand the treatment process that the therapist will be undertaking. 3.Client is legally capable of giving the consent. 4.The consent may be implied, given verbally or in a written form. Minors under the age of 16 must have parental or guardianship consent prior to the massage.

27 Book two 27 Client privacy and personal security rights must be protected Massage should be conducted in a secure and private area where the client has the ability to undress and dress in private. The therapist must ask the client to lie on the table and cover themselves with the appropriate towel or cover prior to the therapist entering the room. The therapist must have advised the client on what clothing should be left on. During the massage, towels or coverings should be used to cover any part of the body not directly receiving treatment. Health guidelines for personal care & body art industries. These guidelines help businesses comply with the Public Health and Wellbeing Regulations 2009 by providing information on infection control. The guidelines are designed around a risk management approach. Industry-specific requirements - Physical therapies (massage, solaria, saunas, flotation tanks, spas and pools, gymnasium equipment and alternative therapies) It is important that clients are aware of the workplace policies and procedures for safety whilst they are within the premises. The code of conduct directs the behaviour of both the client and staff in a mutually dignified and respectful manner. It is valuable because it communicates to the spa client that they are important and empowers staff to evoke the highest level of service. It provides clear and compassionate communication. Communicate code of conduct to clients through – notices in dressing rooms, on spa brochures and through instructions from the therapist. Communicate code of conduct to staff through - notices in staff room, orientation and training sessions and policy and procedure manuals.

28 28 FORMATIVE CHECKPOINT Before you can proceed with any further learning or tasks you need to submit formative task 1 to your trainer. Your trainer will contact you to discuss your submission. They will provide; Comments that will allow you to improve your submission. Questions to gain a better understanding of your knowledge of the subject. General guidance so that you can improve your skills and knowledge. Encouragement to expand your thinking towards better solutions. You are to make the necessary changes as instructed by your trainer and submit the documents for re-evaluation by your trainer. Book two ASSESSMENT A. KNOWLEDGE QUESTIONS 1.

29 Book two 29 Legislation requirements Relevant federal, state and local health and hygiene legislation and regulations. Efficient use of energy, water and other resources to reduce negative environmental impacts. Relevant organisations within the massage industry there is Australian Association of Massage Therapist (AAMT), Association of Massage Therapies (AMT), Massage Association of Australian (MAA) and the Australian Natural Therapist Association (ANTA). These associations are for those who perform therapeutic massage and administers body treatments for relaxation, health, fitness and remedial purposes. Keep up to date with health issues by contacting the industry associations and health funds. The website PrivateHealth.gov.au provides information on private health insurance and a list of Australian Health Funds. The website for the Department of Health provides health information for massage clients. Massage Code of Ethics. The code of ethics listed below has been developed as a statement about appropriate and expected standards of professional conduct of AAMT (Australian Association of Massage Therapist) members and as such reflects the values of the Association. This Code describes the professional conduct expected of members to preserve and enhance their professional reputation as well as the general reputation of the massage industry in Australia. Adherence to this Code involves a commitment to 5 principles. 1.The primary factor in all treatment decisions is the client/patient’s well-being. 2.Maintain Client/Patient/Therapist confidentiality. 3.Treat the client/patient according to competent application of accepted techniques and principles. 4.Maintain a commitment to the development of the industry/ profession. 5.Maintain a supportive professional attitude to our colleagues and the industry.

30 Book two 30 Management operational functions They may include; Hours of opening – trading hours – weekly time schedule – holidays taken into consideration. Out of hours – book keeping, purchase of stock etc. Equipment and products required. These include stock control of products for retail sales, product used in your services and equipment needed to carry out your services. Occupational Health and Safety procedures including security of premises. Staff wages, incentives and entitlements. Management or owners role. MANAGING OPERATIONAL FUNCTIONS Operational functionDescription of functionManagement aim MarketingFormulating a business offer to customers To maximise sales ProductionMaking products to sellTo maximise output PurchasingAcquiring physical supplies for sale To obtain the best supply terms for desired quality PersonnelEmploying people to be productive To maximise labour productivity FinancialMeasuring financial results of the operation To maximise profit and cash flow surpluses

31 Book two 31 Oganisational and operational activities within a massage clinic A massage clinic is like any small business and needs to follow the principles of small business management. These include; Marketing activities with clients and associated industries. Delivery standards of services. Record keeping of client services and stock control. OH&S policies including emergencies and security. Financial requirements. Human relations standards. Establishing an administrative system for the clinic. An administrative system involves; Planning the direction of the clinic. These are the goals and objectives of the business. Organising the activities within the clinic and the responsibilities of those activities. This is called operations. It also includes staff. Who will work within the clinic, what tasks they will perform and what timeframe will they work? Marketing and promotions for the business. Directing the operations of the business is a management role. This means controlling the overall running and financial aspects of the clinic. The daily activities conducted within the clinic may include; Making client appointments. Conducting client treatments. Recording and storing client treatment results. Marketing activities and associating with organisations and other practitioners. Clinic cleaning and maintenance. Organising clinic supplies. Financial transactions including point of sale transactions and record keeping. FORMATIVE TASK 2. CREATE A RECORD OF THE DAILY ACTIVITIES THAT OCCURED OVER A ONE WEEK PERIOD OF WORK WITHIN YOUR CLINIC. DOCUMENT Submit your record to your trainer for comments.

32 Book two 32 Marketing Market research is a large part of the business plan. This process may involve the following; Observing and discussing client requirements. Recording and reviewing client requests, enquiries and client personal cards. Reviewing frequency of purchases of services and products. Talking to colleagues and sales representatives. Reading industry magazines and other publications. Sourcing suppliers of products for the industry. Collecting market research data from independent sources. Marketing plan - definition of the marketing plan. The marketing plan is a written document detailing marketing and financial objectives for each product and service and recommending programs and strategies for achieving these objectives. The marketing plan sets out programs and their costs and timing to guide the marketing activities of your business. Market planning reflects short-term goals and the actual, specific details of the plan – that is the actual budgets and marketing tactics that will be employed. Marketing funds should be allocated to business promotions, consumer promotions or general advertising. Marketing concept. A marketing concept is the overall plan that the business will implement to attract customers. The customer is the main focus. What does the customer want? What does the customer need? Customer service. Your customer service policy needs to be included as part of your marketing plan. Makes sure it is relevant to your business goals and objectives.

33 Book two 33 Profit margins Understanding the basic concepts of costing and pricing is important in running a business. You need to know the optimum price you can charge for the products or service to cover business overheads and make a profit without pricing yourself out of the market. You need to consider what customers will pay and what your profit margin will be. Your profit margin. There are three different profit margin calculations you need to consider: direct costs margin, break-even pricing and profit pricing. 1. Direct costs margin. This is the amount that remains after paying the costs directly associated with the product or service being sold. Obviously you would want to at least cover your direct costs to continue selling the product or service. 2. Break-even pricing. The break-even analysis sets your overhead costs against how many production hours you will need to cover them. This then determines how much you will need to charge for your product or service in order to cover those overheads. The break-even analysis provides a strong indication of whether your business will make a profit or not. 3. Profit pricing. This is the price at which you’ll finally make a profit. If you can sell your products and services at this price, and still be competitive, you’ve got a business. If you can’t, you can lower your direct costs, fixed costs or desired profit, or sell something else that offers better margins.

34 Book two 34 Target profit margins This is the amount of profit you want to earn above the hourly expenses and the seat time costs. It is generally considered that a business should follow these principles; Product cost should be no more than 15% of sales forecast. Wages and fixed costs together should be no more than 50% of sales forecast. The balance should cover variable costs and profits to be made. In economics, fixed costs are business expenses that are not dependent on the activities of the business. They tend to be time-related, such as salaries or rents being paid per month. In management accounting, fixed costs are defined as expenses that do not change in proportion to the activity of a business. For example, paying rent and utility bills irrespective of the number of sales made. Variable costs are volume-related and are affected by sales and purchases the business makes. Total costs for running the business is the fixed costs plus variable costs added together. Time and cost. The costs of services charged to clients differs. The price charged to deliver the treatment depends on the operators skills, the facilities and equipment available and the client’s requirements. Clients will ask; How long will it take? How much will it cost? Workplace policies for processing payments To process payments for a customer you need to know the cost of the service they had, plus any products purchased and how the customers wants to pay the amount owed. You must be accurate when determining the cost to save embarrassing situations.

35 Book two 35 Human resource planning Human resource planning is about; Trying to get a lot of different people to work successfully towards shared outcomes. Harnessing all the resources of a business or team in order to attain shared goals. Monitoring progress towards these goals. Managing variations from the goals and the plans to ensure that each goal is achieved. Developing a staffing policy. Every business should have a staffing policy. This document should detail how the business will attract and retain staff. It should include; Employee award details. Staffing roster and absenteeism policy. Performance appraisal goals and rewards policy. Strategies for training and personal development for employees. Strategies for resolving interpersonal employee conflict and industrial disputes. Strategies for administering staff discipline and dismissal procedures. Employment award. Most businesses are covered by a modern award. Modern awards commenced on 1 January 2010 and are industry or occupation-based employment standards that operate in conjunction with the Fair Work Act They were created to establish one set of minimum conditions for employers and employees across Australia who work in the same industries and occupations. The award does not need to list individual businesses. There is also a Miscellaneous Award 2010 which covers employees who are not covered by another modern award and who perform work of a similar nature to that which has historically been regulated by awards. It is likely that new and innovative jobs which are developed over time will not fall neatly into existing industry awards, so it is possible that the Miscellaneous Award will cover some of those employees.

36 Book two 36 Employment categories An employee usually; Receives payment as wages or salary. Have their tax taken out by their employer. Is based at the business, work from their home or are mobile; for example a sales representative. Can be full-time, part-time, apprentice, trainees or causal. Permanent employment can be full time or part time. A full-time worker can work a standard day (9am to 5pm - 8am to 4pm). A part-time employee works regular set hours but less than a full-time week (Monday to Friday 9am to 1pm) or parts of weeks (Monday to Wednesday) or even parts of a month. Full time and part time employees are entitled to annual leave, personal leave (sick leave and carer’s leave) and are entitled to be given notice if their employment is terminated. Casual. Casual employees can be used for short irregular periods of work but can also work in long term arrangements. Can be asked to work at short notice and have no guarantee of regular set hours. Some awards require casuals to be paid for a minimum of three or four hours work depending on the award. Often casuals work irregular hours and don’t receive annual leave, personal leave or notice of termination. Instead, casual employees are usually paid an extra loading, at least 20% or more depending on the award. This is on top of the base rate of pay to compensate them for not receiving entitlements. Can be terminated with an hours notice unless they are covered by an agreement that specifies otherwise. Casual employment offers a flexible arrangement for the employer and employee.

37 Book two 37 Fair Work Act 2009 T he Fair Work Act 2009 commenced on 1 July New agreements under the Act are now called enterprise agreements and are simply an agreement between one or more national system employers and their employees. Fair Work Australia will use the Better Off Overall Test (BOOT) to assess new enterprise agreements. The major new features of enterprise agreements are that they must have; - A nominal expiry date of not more than four years after the day on which FWA approves the agreement of a dispute settlement procedure. - A flexibility term so the employee and management can agree to vary the agreement to meet mutual needs. A consultation term requires the employer to consult with their employees about any major workplace changes that are likely to have a significant effect on them. - If an enterprise agreement does not contain a flexibility or consultation term, the generic model clause prescribed by the Fair Work Regulations will be 'deemed' to be included in that agreement and therefore must be followed. Common law employment contracts, letters of offer or engagement. Common law contracts are individual employment agreements between employees and employers, with legal obligations for both sides. A contract consists of mutual promises made by two or more people, enforceable by law. In a work context, the most obvious form these mutual promises take is the employee's promise to work in return for an employer's promise to pay wages. Unlike awards and other formal workplace agreements, a common law contract may be in writing, oral, or partly writing and oral. Common law employment contracts, as a minimum, must meet or exceed each condition in an applicable award or agreement. The National Employment Standards (NES) also override any less favourable terms in a common law contract. Common law contracts can be a short letter of offer or letter of engagement. These summarise the new employee's pay and conditions, which they sign before they start work. Fair Work Australia sets minimum wages and conditions Modern awards list the minimum rates for award-covered employees.

38 Book two 38 Equal Opportunity Under the Equal Opportunity Act 2010, employers have a positive duty to take reasonable and proportionate measures to eliminate discrimination, sexual harassment and victimisation. A business needs to establish a policy and procedures for complying with the Equal Opportunity Act. There are also benefits to having a workplace free from discrimination, bullying, sexual harassment and victimisation. Workers are more likely to have better morale and be more productive if they feel safe and supported. Staff turnover and recruitment costs are reduced, as are staff complaints, disruptions and legal disputes. This may include discrimination by; Age. Breastfeeding. Carer status. Disability. Employment activity. Gender identity. Industrial activity. Lawful sexual activity. Marital status. Parental status. Physical features. Political belief or activity. Pregnancy. Race -including colour, nationality, ethnicity and ethnic origin. Religious belief or activity. Sex and sexual orientation. Personal association with someone who has, or is assumed to have, any of these personal characteristics. The Act covers discrimination in employment, education, accommodation, clubs, sport, goods and services, land sales and transfers, local government as well as sexual harassment.

39 Book two 39 General record keeping The Fair Work Act 2009 requires employers to keep and maintain records of the dates and hours their employees work and how much they're paid. It also requires you to give employees regular payslips with these details, as a hard copy or in electronic form. Good record keeping provides useful information to forecast future costs. Other records you're obliged to keep for your employees include; Start and end date of employment or contract end date. The agreement that covers their employment e.g. award, workplace agreement, contract. Start and finish times of overtime hours worked for employees entitled to overtime penalty rates or loadings leave accruals e.g. annual leave and personal leave. Superannuation fund and contribution details. Superannuation. The superannuation guarantee legislation requires employers to provide superannuation contributions for their employees as a percentage of their base earnings. Employees can choose their own superannuation fund or retirement savings account. The payment is 9% for an employee who is paid at least $450 gross per month, paid into a superannuation fund or retirement savings account at least every quarter. Records must be kept of all contributions made. A record of when and how you reported superannuation contributions to the employees must be kept. You must also report in writing to your employees the details of the contributions you've made to their superannuation funds at least once every quarter. Under the Federal Superannuation Guarantee Act 1993, you don't pay superannuation to an employee if they are paid a salary or wage of less than $450 in a month, or under 18 years of age and work less than 30 hours a week, or aged 70 or over.

40 Book two 40 Fringe benefits tax (FBT) This is a tax paid on certain benefits employers provide to their employees or their employees' associates in place of, or in addition to, salary or wages. FBT is separate from income tax and is based on the taxable value of the fringe benefit. A benefit could be the use of something, e.g. the use of a car or discounted goods. Payroll tax. Each state within Australia has its own tax collection agency. The State Revenue Office (SRO) collects and administers payroll tax. Employers must register for and pay payroll tax if their total Australian wages exceed the states general exemption level.

41 Book two 41 Stock control systems A stock control system begins with a list of all the stock, those for use in salon services as well as retail stock sold to clients. Separate the two so as not to be confusing. Stock management should be a regular task when operating a salon. Creating a basic manual stock system for clinic use products. This system should include the different product types, product sizes and colours. It should include a column noting the minimum numbers of stock required and another noting the maximum numbers for the clinic to hold. Minimum numbers prevent running out of stock while the maximum numbers prevent excessive holding of stock. Too much stock is a drain on the cash flow of any small business. This list should have a blank column for counting the stock. The stock system must have the date and time when the count was conducted. The person who conducts the count should sign as well as a supervisor. A basic manual stock system for retail stock. This should include the different product types, product sizes and colours. It should contain minimum and maximum stock amounts plus an actual stock count column. Include a column for the price charged for the retail products. When a current list is compared with a previous list, it is easy to see what stock has been sold. This stock take requires signatures of the person conducting the count as well as the supervisor. If the business uses computerised stock control, it is linked in with the cash register. This system gives a print out report on the stock on hand without the necessity of physical stock counts. This stock control allows you to see what is happening on a daily basis however a physical count may need to take place to see if the stock levels are the same as those on the printouts.

42 FORMATIVE CHECKPOINT Before you can proceed with any further learning or tasks you need to submit formative tasks 2 and 3 to your trainer. Your trainer will contact you to discuss your submission. They will provide; Comments that will allow you to improve your submission. Questions to gain a better understanding of your knowledge of the subject. General guidance so that you can improve your skills and knowledge. Encouragement to expand your thinking towards better solutions. You are to make the necessary changes as instructed by your trainer and submit the documents for re-evaluation by your trainer. Book two 42 ASSESSMENT A. KNOWLEDGE QUESTIONS 2.

43 Book two 43 Role of OH&S Code of Practice Provides practical guidance. Should be followed, unless there is a better solution which achieves the same or better results. Is able to be used in support of the Act’s preventative enforcement provisions. Can be used to support prosecution. It is the employer’s responsibility (as far as possible) to provide and maintain; The health and safety of themselves, their employees and members of the public. Safe work systems and equipment. First aid facilities and ensure at least one practitioner has a current first aid certificate. Equipment and substances safe handling, storage and transportation. Adequate space for conducting work activities. Information, training and supervision for employees. Protective clothing and equipment. An acceptable temperature in the workplace. Adequate ventilation in the workplace. Adequate washing and toilet facilities. Walkways that are free of obstructions. In the induction phase of staff employment, employees should be given training in OH&S issues. For an employee to work safely, employers are required to provide; Information on any known hazards found to be in the workplace and business policies for carrying out safe work procedures. Instruction and training in safe work procedures. Supervision in making sure their employees are not exposed to hazards. Regular checks to ensure health and safety instructions are followed. Adequate rest between client treatments to reduce levels of stress and fatigue to ensure ability to work safely and sustainably.

44 Book two 44 Health and safety policies and procedures These may cover; Procedures for hazard assessment, selection and implementation of risk control measures. Procedures for hazard identification, incident and accident investigation. OH&S audits and safety inspections. Consultative arrangements for employees in work areas. Training staff in prevention methods for reducing the risk of personal injuries to themselves during the activities conducted within the clinic. Hazard reporting procedures. Use and care of personal protective equipment. Emergency and evacuation procedures. Purchasing policy and procedures. Equipment maintenance and use. Hazardous substances use and storage. Dangerous goods transport and storage. OH&S arrangements for on-site contractors, visitors and members of the public. First aid provisions and medical practitioner contact and attention. Waste management procedures. Health and safety rules. These focus on the behaviour required of an employee. Provide good housekeeping and good judgement. Refrain from poor work practices such as hurrying, taking shortcuts and misuse of equipment. Using protective equipment correctly. No smoking, drinking or drugs on the job and no fooling around. Reporting accidents which includes near misses. Occupational health and safety. The purpose of Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) is to identify and manage workplace hazards to prevent disease, injury or death. A business in a workplace, is legally obligated to insure any employees and follow work safety laws. WorkSafe in your state provides advice and training on health and safety.

45 Book two 45 Risk management Responsibilities of clinic management. Provide written policies for the safe handling and disposal of sharps. Ensure staff have adequate rest times to reduce levels of stress and fatigue. Ensure staff can perform treatments sufficiently within allocated treatment timeframes. Ensure the availability of materials for adhering to the salon’s cough and sneezing hygiene policy. Ensure adequate supplies of personal protection equipment is available to staff. Provide staff with the opportunity to attend a first aid training course. Provide training in emergency response procedures for fire, hazardous substance spillage and slips, trips and falls. Provide regular meeting with staff to address OH&S procedures. Ensure adequate supplies of cleaning and sterilising materials are available. Reinforce the importance of hand washing and provide access to hand hygiene amenities in accordance with regulations. Prepare a compliance standard document for following relevant Occupational Health and Safety directives. Document cleaning procedures and locate information in staff room where staff can follow instructions. Develop a cleaning roster and ensure cleaning equipment is of a high standard and in good working order. Ensure adequate linen and laundry supplies are available. Develop a waste management and disposal procedures document according to OH&S policies. Identify a secure area where contaminated waste can be stored for access only by authorised persons and that incorporates infectious waste which is only accessible by authorised persons. Develop a monitoring system for determining the effectiveness of infection control procedures. FORMATIVE TASK 4. PROVIDE A LIST OF OHS ISSUES THAT MAY RELATE TO WORK WITHIN A MASSAGE CLINIC. DOCUMENT Submit your document to your trainer for comment.

46 Book two 46 Maintaining Occupational Health and Safety There are three designated personnel an employee can report workplace health and safety issues to; Supervisors, managers and owners. Workplace representatives. Other personnel in control of workplace. The best way to solve problems at work is to simply talk to each other and work out a constructive course of action. Be sure that; Staff feel comfortable to talk to the manager or owner about the problems. Staff and management agree on ways to resolve the problem. DEVELOP A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH Systematic approach to risk control. Is the workplace safe? 1.Identify hazards – any new hazards? 2. Assess risk – is the risk controlled? 3. Control risk. 4. Review. Supporting the systematic approach risk control. 1. Regular inspections to ensure substances are being used and stored as required by the risk assessment, whether control measures are in place and working adequately. 2. Procedures for maintenance and checking the effectiveness of controls. 3. Procedures for staying up to date with current knowledge and information. 4. Procedures for emergencies and adequate first aid facilities. Emergency phone numbers. For ambulance, fire or police the number in Australia is OOO. Every emergency requires different actions. Another emergency number is 112 which can be dialled from anywhere in the world with GSM coverage and this is automatically translated to that country’s emergency number. People with a hearing or speech impairment can dial 106 from a phone line connected to a Teletypewriter or from a computer with a modem.

47 Book two 47 Risks and hazards Everyone in a business needs to work together to eliminate workplace hazards and find practical ways of protecting the safety and health of everyone in the clinic. A hazard is exposure to danger which can affect; 1. People; illness, injury, trauma or death. 2. Property; damage, wastage, contamination. 3. Processes; disruption to work processes. A risk is the probability of someone being hurt or an accident happening through exposure to the hazard. Risk assessment. After a hazard has been identified the next step is to assess the risk. Assessing the risk is a simple process which considers the number of people at work. Is the risk minor and unlikely to occur? Is the risk minor but will occur frequently? Is the risk great? If so, the solution might be to change work arrangements. When assessing a risk you need to consider the; Nature of the hazard. Severity of the hazard and any health effects that may occur. Duration and how often a person may be exposed to the hazard. Probability that risk will occur.

48 Book two 48 Risk assessment Methods for conducting a risk assessment. Talking to people and testing the chemicals and equipment before use. Reading labels and Safety Data Sheets (SDS). Consulting workplace injury records. Checking equipment and the work area before starting work. Ways of identifying hazards in the workplace. The job to be done and the number of people at risk. The length of exposure to the hazard. Possible injuries that may occur. Risk management planning programme. Identify the risks. Analyse the risks. Prioritise the risks. Treat the risks by action to reduce or eliminate them. Review and monitor these actions. Possible injuries that may occur. Record keeping and reviews. Outcomes of risk assessments must be documented. Records must be kept while the assessment is still relevant. Records must be accessible to employees. Assessments must be reviewed and revised. At least every five years or when circumstances change. How to do a risk assessment 1.Identify the problem task. Problem tasks are likely to be identified when;  Making a change – new tools or process  There are indications that something may be wrong – staff complain of discomfort  After an incident A risk assessment is then conducted on the problem task 2. Assess the risk. When assessing the problem task make sure that you look at all of the tasks elements of the activity as different risks may occur within the one task Make a note of the risks you have identified in the task 3. Control the risk. Consider the individual and combination of risk factors, and determine which ones need controlling. Design controls (physical changes) are better than administrative controls (training) 4. Implement the controls. Determine a control plan. A combination of long term design and short terms administrative controls may be required 5. Review the controls. Regularly check the solutions to determine if they are working, being applied correctly and not causing other risks

49 Book two 49 Theft Having products, money or any items stolen from the clinic can be very costly besides being upsetting. Even though you think you are careful, there are procedures you need to implement to make it difficult for any items to be stolen from your business. Items that get stolen are; Keys. Display stock and retail stock. Display advertising material. Furniture and reading material. Cash, EFTPOS and cash registers. Personal items. Products used in treatments. Equipment. It is not only armed robbers that steal. Staff, customers, visitors, trades people and sales representatives may also be likely to steal if given the opportunity. Theft can occur; While you are working on a client. While clients are waiting. Whilst you are out of the clinic. Armed robbery night and day. CALL THE POLICE: 000

50 Book two 50 Cash management procedures Ensure staff safety when handling cash. Train staff in cash management procedures, what to do if people behave suspiciously and how to react during a robbery. Locate the point of sale area away from entrances and exits. Use an audible device that indicates when the cash drawer is opened. Open the cash drawer only when a customer is paying for merchandise, and close it before merchandise is packaged. Where possible, lock the cash drawer and remove the key when it is not in use. Ensure that the cash drawer is empty when the workplace is unattended. Transfer excess money frequently but randomly from the cash drawer into a locked safe. Do this during a low risk time and in a way that is not obvious to customers. Lock the safe at all times when it is not in use and locate it in a place that is not obvious to customers. Regularly change the combination to the safe and have a limited number of keys. Install a safe with time delay locks or two key opening systems. Count cash in a secure room. Encourage cashless purchasing such as credit cards and EFTPOS. Pay staff with cheque or direct deposits. Display a sign advertising the security measures in place or advising that cash is not kept on the premises. Assign the banking to more than one person and rotate the task. Ensure that other staff have an estimated time the person should return so that an alarm can be raised if necessary. Use a bank close to the workplace and deposit money several times a day. Do not advertise the fact that you are going to the bank with cash such as carrying a marked money bag or wearing a branded workplace uniform. If walking to the bank, keep to busy streets, not deserted streets. If driving to the bank keep the car doors locked at all times, vary the route regularly and do not leave the vehicle whilst on route. If ordering a taxi to go to the bank, ask the operator to advise the number of the assigned taxi.

51 Book two 51 Duty of care There are 6 responsibilities a business owner needs to implement in order to fulfil their duty of care. 1.Fixtures and Fittings. 2.Flooring. 3.Ventilation. 4.Personal protective equipment - PPE 5.Storage of chemicals – SDS. 6.Equipment in good working order. Induction and training in Occupational Health and Safety should take account of; Employees existing knowledge and expertise. Language and literacy levels. Adult learning principles. Needs of people from non-English speaking backgrounds. During staff training session supervisors should use this time as an opportunity; To discuss potential hazards with staff. Apply reviews of risks in the workplace. Discuss potential product ingredient risks. OH&S issues raised during a training session need to be attended to promptly and reported back to staff with guidance on what corrective action needs to be taken. There are 3 barriers to effective communication. Language and terminology. Understanding. Poor attitude to work. All clinic managers should keep records of the date, time and issues taught in the training session. Safety signs. Worksafe Australia state that safety signs are designed to prevent accidents, signify health hazards, indicate the location of safety and fire protection equipment, or for giving guidance and instruction in an emergency.

52 Book two 52 First aid in the workplace Role of first aid officer. 1. Dispense and control items from first aid cabinet. 2. Ensure cabinet supplies are adequate. 3. Treat minor wounds and injuries, such as applying dressings, stopping bleeding and treating burns. 4. Deal with fits or fainting. 5. Resuscitation. 6. Recording accident/injury details in the accident book. 7. Arranging further assistance or advice from clinical experts such as ambulance officer, paramedic or qualified health care professional. 8. Advise management immediately of any serious or potentially serious injury where first aid treatment was given. It is the employer’s responsibility to; 1. Provide first aid facilities and provide first aid training to staff. 2. Select, locate and maintain first aid facilities. First aid kits vary according to their particular use. A basic first aid kit should contain; Triangular bandages. Crepe ('conforming' or elastic) bandages of varying widths. Non-adhesive dressings, varying sizes. Disposable gloves (medium and large), preferably non-latex ones. Thermal blanket. Notepad and pencil. Plastic bags, varying sizes. Adhesive tape (2.5cm wide – preferably a permeable tape). Resuscitation mask or face shield. Medicines in first aid kits. It is recommended that medicines are not kept in a first aid kit for workplaces because of the risk of allergic reaction. First aid is defined as the provision of emergency treatment and life support for people suffering injury or illness. The dispensing of medication would generally not fall within this definition. If medicines are kept, awareness of dosage and potential side effects is necessary. Check expiry dates.

53 Book two 53 Sharps A sharp is any object capable of inflicting a penetrating injury. The potential for transmission of blood borne viruses is greatest when sharp instruments are used. Non reusable sharps must be carefully handled and disposed of into a puncture resistant container immediately following use. All sharps containers must; Be puncture resistant, waterproof and leak-proof and have an opening that is wide enough to allow the sharps to be dropped into the specified container without risk of puncture. Be clearly labelled with black lettering on yellow background with the “biohazard” symbol printed on the container. Remain upright at all times and never be overfilled. Securely sealed with a lid before disposal. Resistant to leakage, impact rupture and corrosion. Sharps containers must be placed as close as practical to the immediate area where sharps are being used. They must also be placed so unauthorised persons can not have access to the container. The container must be of a large enough size to accommodate the type of sharp and sharps must never be forced into the container. Needle stick injury. If a needle stick injury occurs squeeze the injury site to encourage bleeding. Wash the site with soap and water and notify management or a medical doctor. Compile a report on how the incident happened. Sharps container

54 Book two 54 Reporting First aiders should always make notes or fill out a casualty report on any event attended, no matter how minor. In your workplace you may have reporting obligations under your State or Territory OH&S legislation. Records may be used in a court, so ensure that the reports are legible, accurate and factual, containing all relevant information and are based on observations not opinions. Recording accidents and incidents. Legislation requires that records must be kept on all work injuries, work-related illnesses or dangerous occurrences that happen in the workplace. If the injury causes death or hospitalisation, the Division of Workplace Health and Safety must be notified. Reporting guidelines. Use ink only. Any correction should be crossed out with a single line and initialled. Do not use correction fluid to correct mistakes. Sign and date the record. The information should be kept confidential and should only be accessed by authorised people in your workplace, State or Territory. In a workplace incident, a copy should go to the authorised employer representative for auditing and OH&S monitoring purposes. Psychological impacts on first aiders involved in incidents. De-stressing strategies can include; Seek counselling with qualified persons. Writing down your feelings about the incident and talking with a friend or colleague about how it felt to be involved. Participating in physical activities, listening to a relaxation tape or going for a bushwalk, sitting near the water or in the bush.

55 Book two 55 Documenting your treatment The accurate recording of injury or illness is also of great assistance to any medical personnel who take over your casualty’s treatment, such as ambulance officers. The report needs to contain information about the person suffering the casualty. The date and time of incident. Brief personal details – name, address, date of birth. History of the illness or injury. Observations – signs, symptoms and vital signs. The first aider’s assessment of the injury or illness. Signature of first aider. The date of report. Print name and title of first aider. Copies of the report should be given to; The person taking over. A copy of the report should go with the ambulance to the hospital or medical facility. The casualty and the first aiders need to keep a copy as a record which should be kept in a secure place. Cleaning up after an incident. You need to; Clean up the area where the incident took place. Clean up any equipment used. Restock first aid kit by replacing items used and looking for any soiled unopened items that need to be replaced. Complete required documentation and securely file it. Have a rest and evaluate your performance throughout the emergency. Participate in discussions with persons in authority for ways of improving the first aid management plan. Rest and reassurance. One on the most valuable actions you can do in a emergency situation is to give rest and reassurance to the person needing help. This requires you to comfort and reassure the casualty which in some cases may be all that is needed.

56 Book two 56 Infection in the workplace An infectious disease is caused by germs that are passed on from one person to another by breathing in, contact or eating. Bacteria, fungi, virus or animal parasites can also cause infections. Disinfection and infection control. A business owner is responsible for preventing the spread of infection by ensuring careful cleaning and disinfecting procedures are conducted within the business premises. Poor housekeeping can contribute to infections from unsanitary items. The Act outlines the sterilisation and disinfection control procedures, which must be carried out to prevent the spread of disease. Infection control risk management is a systematic approach towards identifying, managing and minimising exposure to sources of infection risks in the health organisation. Sterilisation is the destruction of all living organisms, including spores. Decontamination is a process that renders equipment, or environmental surfaces safe to handle by cleaning and disinfection or sterilisation, destroying pathogenic and other kinds of micro-organisms by thermal or chemical means. Disinfection is less lethal than sterilisation, because it destroys the majority of recognised pathogenic micro- organisms, but not necessarily all microbial forms (eg bacterial spores). Disinfection does not ensure the degree of safety associated with sterilisation processes.

57 Book two 57 Factors influencing infections In a clinic the most common susceptible hosts are clients and practitioners. The main modes of transmission of infectious agents is contact through blood, droplets and airborne bacteria. The modes of transmission vary by type of organism. In some cases the same organism may be transmitted by more than one route. Transmission of infection can also occur from common sources such as contaminated food, water, medications and equipment. Infection through contact. Some infections can be spread directly by skin-to-skin contact or indirectly by contact with contaminated surfaces like clothing and equipment. Contact is the most common mode of transmission and usually involves transmission by touch or via contact with blood or body substances. Contact infection may be direct or indirect. Direct transmission occurs when infectious agents are transferred from one person to another. This could be a client’s blood entering a beauty practitioner’s body through an unprotected cut in the skin. Indirect transmission involves the transfer of an infectious agent through a contaminated intermediate object or person. This could be a beauty practitioner’s hands transmitting infectious agents after touching an infected body site on one client and not performing hand hygiene before touching another client.

58 Book two 58 Droplet transmission Droplet transmission can occur when an infected person coughs, sneezes or talks. Droplets larger than 5 microns in size are infectious. Diseases with respiratory tract symptoms such as runny nose, cough, sore throat are spread by droplets containing viruses or bacteria or by surfaces contaminated with nose and throat discharges. These large droplets travel less than one metre before falling to the ground and do not remain suspended in the air. Before falling to the ground, droplets may be deposited on the mucous membranes of the eye, nose or mouth of another person which pass on the disease. Droplets can also be transmitted indirectly through the hands. Airborne transmission. Airborne transmission may occur through infectious particles arising from sneezing, talking, coughing and breathing that remain infective over time and distance and in conditions of low humidity. Aerosols containing infectious agents can be dispersed over long distances by air currents including ventilation or air conditioning and then inhaled by susceptible individuals who have not had any contact with the infectious person. These small particles can transmit infection into small airways of the respiratory tract. Standard precautions must apply to all clients receiving treatments in a clinic. They include contact with; Blood being fresh and dried. Body substances, secretions and excretions (excluding sweat), regardless of whether or not they contain visible blood. Open cuts and sores. Mucous membranes including eyes.

59 Book two 59 Australian standards for detergents The Australian standards AS & AS recommends the use of mild alkaline detergents (pH ) for cleaning. Alkaline detergents are recommended because they clean better than neutral or acidic detergents. Surfaces: Alkaline detergents help keep soil particles suspended in the cleaning solution, this prevents “clumping” and re-deposition of soil onto the cleaned surface. Fatty Acids: Alkaline detergents converts insoluble fatty acids into their more soluble salts making them easier to wash away. Proteins: Alkaline detergents helps to increase the solubility of proteins. Hard Water: Alkaline detergents help remove calcium and magnesium (to soften the water) which improves the performance of surfactants in the detergent. Metal: Alkaline detergents help prevent corrosion of metal. Some alkaline ingredients have anti-corrosion properties. Corrosion of steel is at a minimum in mild alkaline solutions (pH ) compared to neutral or mild acid solutions where corrosion can be more significant. The Australian register of therapeutic goods. Only disinfectants and sterilants specified in the Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods (ARTG) may be used by workers in the health care industry. They must only be used for the approved purpose. Although suppliers of disinfectants or sterilants are not required to document a product’s listing on the ARTG on the product label, the TGA issue a’ listing certificate’ or ‘registration certificate’ to product suppliers. These certificates are valid unless they are; cancelled by the sponsor advising the TGA that they are no longer able to supply the listed disinfectants or sterilants. cancelled by the secretary of the Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing. Safety Data Sheets must be kept in areas where disinfectants and sterilants are stored. A clinic needs to check with their local Occupational Health and Safety department for relevant requirements.

60 Book two 60 Laundry practices In the event of spills of blood the clinic practitioner must immediately; Wipe up the spill with disposable absorbent material. Place laundry items soaked with blood in a leak proof linen bag. Clean the spill site with a neutral detergent and water. Clean equipment immediately the spills occurs. Dispose of contaminated articles into the clinical waste bin. Linen soiled with blood and body secretions must be handled and washed in a manner that prevents contamination and transfer of micro-organisms to other clients, co workers and equipment. Used and soiled linen should be handled as little as possible. Linen bags should not be overfilled and should be emptied when three quarters full. Sharps and other objects must not be discarded into linen bags. Clean linen and used linen must not be kept together. Clean linen must be stored; In a clean dry place that prevents contamination by aerosols, dust, moisture and vermin. On clean shelves and, if necessary, wrapped in a protective covering. Separate from used linen. In a manner that allows for an even rotation of items. FORMATIVE TASK 5. CREATE A POLICY DOCUMENT FOR MAINTAINING HYGIENIC CONDITIONS FOR EQUIPMENT AND LAUNDRY USED IN YOUR CLINIC. DOCUMENT Submit your document to your trainer for comment.

61 Book two 61 Personal Protective Equipment (ppe) Allergic reactions may vary from head to head and can happen after years of using the same product. It is the responsibility of the employer to ensure that employees are provided with specific personal protective equipment. These may include;PPE should; Gloves.1. Meet the relevant Australian standard. Clothing.2. Be appropriate to its application. Masks.3. Be issued to an individual, not shared. Eye protection.4. Be properly, stored, cleaned and maintained. Aprons. Footwear. Exposure to blood and body substances may be from; Direct contact, e.g. applying first aid to a bleeding client. Indirect contact, e.g. handling contaminated equipment. Blood or body substances do not have to be visible on an instrument for an infection to be transmitted. When you are dealing with blood, gloves should be worn to avoid contamination. Any contaminated equipment must be cleaned and disinfected. Disposing of waste materials, especially hazardous substances, through the sewage system has a negative impact on local freshwater and marine ecosystems. All waste management should be as environmentally friendly as possible. All waste products must be tipped into layers of old newspapers and wrapped up. This should then be placed in the rubbish bin. Sharp instruments must be disposed of into the ‘sharps’ container. Disposable gloves may cause a sensitivity to latex over a period of time. Latex is used extensively in the manufacture of disposable gloves. Cornstarch powder is often used in latex to make them easier to put on. Latex proteins are absorbed into the cornstarch powder. The powder then irritates the skin causing the allergic reaction. Latex sensitivity usually leads to dry, raw skin. Severe reactions can result in sustained dermatitis with blisters. Employers should provide powder free, low allergen gloves. Dispose of gloves immediately into a bin after use

62 Book two 62 Hand washing considerations Jewellery. Rings should either be removed or moved to ensure washing underneath them. Rings can make donning gloves more difficult and may cause gloves to tear more readily. Condition of fingernails. Numerous studies have documented that there are high concentrations of microorganisms under fingernails. Nails should be kept short, rounded and unvarnished. The routine use of nail brushes should be avoided. Hands, including the nails, should be inflammation free. Do not wear artificial nails or extenders when treating clients and keep natural nails less than ¼ inch long. Drying hands. A variety of methods are used for drying hands. Paper towels are the best method to dry hands. Cloth towels could be used if appropriately recycled. Warm air dryers shorten the time for hands to dry, however, they can only be used by one person at a time and are noisy. There is evidence that they may hold infection bacteria. Hand-drying materials should be placed near the sink in an area that will not become contaminated by splashing. Soap. Plain (non-antimicrobial) soap comes in several forms. If bar soap is used, small bars that can be changed frequently are preferred. Soap should have drainage and should be kept on racks. Liquid soap containers should be cleaned when empty and refilled with fresh soap. Liquids should not be added to a partially full dispenser. Water. Always use running water and if running water is not available consider using; Containers with a tap that can be turned on and off. Containers and pitchers. Alcohol hand rubs.

63 Book two 63 Procedures for washing hands Steps for washing hands with soap and running water. Step 1. Wet hands with warm water Step 2. Apply soap directly onto hands, fingers and wrists Wash application A. Rub palm to palm Wash application B. Rub right and left back of hands Wash application C. Rub in between fingers Wash application D. Rub back of fingers Wash application E. Rub right and left thumb Wash application F. Rub left and right palm Step 3. Rinse hands with warm water Step 4. Dry hands with a single use towel

64 Book two 64 Hand care Frequent exposure of skin to soap and water can result in irritation and damage to skin causing irritant contact dermatitis. Waterless alcohol hand antiseptics that contain emollients can improve skin condition with repeated use. Antiseptic hand wash or alcohol based hand rub. An antiseptic hand wash or alcohol based hand rub reduces the concentration of resident flora as well as inactivated transient microorganisms from hands. Using alcohol alone tends to dry the skin so by adding 2 ml of glycerine, propylene glycol or sorbitol to 100 ml of 60%-90% alcohol will reduce the drying of the skin. Minimal time required for hand rub before rinsing is 2 minutes or according to manufacturers’ instructions. Personal Protective Clothing. Wearing of gowns. Gowns should be appropriate for the treatment being undertaken. They should only be worn once for each client treatment and taken off whilst still in the company of the client. This reduces the risk of contamination being spread outside the treatment room. Use of face mask. A fluid-resistant face mask must be worn while performing any procedure where there is a likelihood of splashing or splattering of body substances and whilst cleaning hazardous waste areas. A mask must be worn and fitted in accordance with the manufacturers’ instructions. It must not be touched by hands while worn and it must cover both the mouth and nose. It must not be worn loosely or folded down around the neck. A mask must be discarded once it has been worn or becomes visibly soiled or moist. It must not be used again. When a mask becomes moist it is no longer effective. It should be removed by only touching the ties. All people with signs or symptoms of a respiratory infection should; Cover their nose and mouth when coughing or sneezing with a tissue and dispose of the tissue into a rubbish bin. Wash hands after contact with nose and mouth secretions and contaminated objects. Wear a mask if coughing or sneezing.

65 Book two 65 Reduce stress and fatigue Working for long periods without sufficient rest may lead to soft tissue injuries. Soft tissue injuries are those injuries affecting the joints or muscles of injured, but not fractured limbs. Sprains, strains and dislocations are considered soft tissue injuries. The treatment for these injuries is known as ‘RICE’. Rest - the injured part in rested immediately to reduce internal bleeding and swelling and to prevent the injury from becoming worse. Ice - helps to limit inflammation and reduce pain. Compression - wrapping the injured part with elastic bandage helps limit swelling. Elevation - raising the injured part above the heart if applicable. Symptoms of soft tissue injuries are; Sudden pain in the joint. Loss of power and ability to bear weight. Bruising. Swelling. Area becomes tender.

66 Book two 66 Slips, trips and falls An employer is required to identify foreseeable hazards, including the potential for people slipping, tripping or falling. Accident investigations and slip-resistance measurements show that it is advisable to install non-slip flooring containing abrasive grit (such as carborundum grit or aluminium oxide) in areas where high slip-resistance is advisable. Potential causes of slips, trips and falls include; Slippery surfaces – surfaces that are wet, polished or oily. Surface texture of the floor is unsuitable. Footwear is not suitable and does not provide enough tread. Moving from one surface to another and changing floor levels. Equipment, tool trolleys and rubbish left in the way. Steps and ladders used incorrectly. Loose clothing caught on furniture or appliances. Lighting is not bright enough. Exposure to some chemicals substances. Being hit by a moving or falling object. Reduce the risk. 1. Identify the hazards – inspect workplace, talk to staff, check incident records. 2. Assess the risks - are some hazards greater than others? 3. Take steps to control them - you must work to eliminate the risk altogether. If this can't be achieved, then work towards reducing the risk. Many accidents are the result of working in a cluttered, untidy workplace. Poor housekeeping can contribute to incidents such as slips, trips and falls. Remember to keep a copy of your completed checklist for your records, particularly if it shows a risk of injury.

67 67 FORMATIVE TASK 6. A CLIENT HAS FALLEN WHILST VISTING YOUR CLINIC. DOCUMENT You are to complete the slips, trips and falls checklist on this incident. Submit your document to your trainer for comment. SLIPS, TRIPS AND FALLS CHECKLIST Type of incident: Date: Incident location: REPORTNG OF INCIDENT Problem identified: Short term timetable to fix problem - immediately to within a few weeks Action required to fix problem: Medium term timetable to fix problem – within a few weeks to a few months Action required to fix problem: Book two

68 68 Common workplace injuries Work injury is an injury, occupational disease or work-connected disability which arises out of or in the course of employment and which requires first-aid or medical treatment. Lost-time injury is a work injury which results in an inability to work for at least one full day or shift any time after the day or shift on which the injury occurred. Soft tissue injuries affect joints and muscles of the limbs and also include strains, sprains and dislocations. Chemicals accidentally splashed in the eye. Gently flush the eye with water from the nearest tap for approximately 20 mins. Do not attempt any other form of first aid. All eye injuries must be seen immediately by a medical doctor. Cuts. Wear gloves to avoid contact with the blood. Apply pressure with a dry sterile dressing until bleeding has stopped. Wash the area with cool water. If required, apply antiseptic and cover with a Band-Aid. Wash and disinfect any bloodstained surfaces. If the cut is severe, seek medical assistance. Ensure that you cover cuts and abrasions on your hands with waterproof dressing, changing as required, whilst working in the clinic. Safe working in a confined space. This standard provides guidance to eliminate or, where this is not practicable, minimise the need to enter confined spaces. It provides for the health and safety of all persons who need to enter or work in confined spaces by preventing exposure to hazards which may otherwise be experienced when working in a confined space and thereby prevent collapse, injury, illness or death arising from exposure to those hazards. Assessing a sick or injured person. Take the time to look at the scene for anything that may threaten your safety or the safety of those on or around the scene. Look for the number of casualties involved. Assess the seriousness of the situation and call for medical assistance if required.

69 Book two 69 General rules for chemical safety Follow safe work practices. Wear appropriate safety equipment, gloves etc. Don’t drink, eat, or smoke while working with hazardous substances. Wash your hands, face and other exposed areas with soap and water before eating and drinking. Don’t put substances into unwashed containers as a chemical reaction may occur. Don’t store incompatible substances together. Wipe up spilt chemicals immediately. Avoid chemicals coming into contact with the skin. Apply barrier cream to the skin. Wear dust masks if applicable. Wear safety glasses where there is a chance of chemicals splashing into eyes. Don’t wear contact lens in work areas as it is difficult to clean the eye if splashed with chemicals. Aprons have to be worn at all times. All chemicals and detergents have to be correctly labelled. All staff have to be trained in first aid and emergency procedures. All staff have to be able to speak English well enough to communicate effectively. A notice on hazardous substances safety rules should be placed in the staff room. Training for people who use or may be exposed to hazardous substances must cover; Nature of the risk. The need for and proper use of safety measures. Hazard ID, risk assessment and control processes. First aid and emergency procedures. Reasons for monitoring and health surveillance. Employee’s rights and obligations. SDS’s and labels.

70 Book two 70 Electrical Safety Most accidents with electricity and electrical equipment can be avoided. Equipment checks take only a few minutes but could ultimately save an accident from occurring. A person can get an electrical shock when they become part of an electrical circuit and the current flows through their body. Managers and owners are responsible for electrical safety. 1. No obvious external damage to connecting leads and plugs. 2. Outer covering of leads are not cut, frayed, worn or otherwise damaged. 3. Extension cords and power boards have no exposed wires. 4. Connection of the lead to the appliance is secure. 5. Appliances do not rattle, have a burning smell or make strange noises. 6. Power sockets are not cracked or broken. 7. Appliances are switched off at the power point before being pulled out. 8. Electrical cords are kept off the floor. 9. Restricting the number of appliances using the same power point. Keeping records. Employers must keep records of all unsafe situations, a fire hazard or any breakdown of equipment. A workplace inspector will issue two items of information to the business owner/manager or the health and safety representative. A. Report of findings. B. Notice of improvement. Cleaning and disinfecting electrical tools. Check manufacturer’s instructions on how to clean the particular tool. Some tools may be cleaned and lubricated by using special disinfectant oils. Electrical equipment such can be disinfected using 70% alcohol or methylated spirits. Single use sachets of alcohol wipes (70% ethyl alcohol or 60% isopropyl alcohol) can also be used. Store or cover all tools to prevent re-contamination.

71 Book two 71 Definition of sustainability Sustainability is the ability to maintain a certain status or process in existing systems. The most frequent use of the term sustainability, is connected to biological or human systems in the context of ecology. The ability of an ecosystem to function and maintain productivity for a prolonged period is also sustainability. Sustainability in general refers to the property of being sustainable. The widely accepted definition of sustainability or sustainable development was given by World Commission on Environment and Development in It defined sustainable development as "forms of progress that meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs.“ Practically, sustainability refers to three broad themes, economic, social and environmental, that must all be coordinated and addressed to ensure the long term viability of a community and the planet. Every business must ensure that economic, social and environmental benefits are achieved. Each person, business and industry has a role and a responsibility to ensure their individual and collective actions support the sustainability of the community. The primary goal of sustainability is using renewable natural resources in a manner that does not eliminate or degrade them or otherwise diminish their usefulness for future generations. Sustainable work practices; Safe disposal of all waste materials to minimise negative impact on the environment. Efficient use of energy, water and other resources used to minimise negative impact on the environment. Ensuring the practice of waste minimisation and recycling is conducted to reduce impact on the environment. Comparing availability of products, equipment and services and adjusting their use to minimise negative impact on the environment.

72 Book two 72 Reporting procedures for maintaining sustainability It is necessary to establish a line of communication with supervising staff members in order to report the misuse of sustainable work practices. Your discussion topics may include; Purchasing procedures of stock. Equipment maintenance and use. Hazardous substances use and storage. Minimisation of power wastage. Minimisation of waste products and water wastage to reduce negative impact on environment. FORMATIVE TASK 7. DEVELOP AN ORGANISATIONAL PLAN FOR CREATING A ENVIRONMENTALLY AWARE MASSAGE CLINIC. DOCUMENT You are to create a document for combating the clinic’s impact on the environment. You need to identify the issues that occur in the clinic that would be considered environmentally damaging and develop a policy for maintaining a sustainable clinic environment. Your document must contain; A list of the activities that are considered damaging and ways in which they can be made more environmentally friendly. A time frame containing commencement of improvement activities and completion date when all environmental improvements have to be implemented by. The tasks and responsibilities of each of the team members must be noted. Steps for monitoring environmental standards within the salon. You are to submit your document to your trainer for comment.

73 Book two 73 Hand hygiene General term that applies to hand washing, antimicrobial hand wash, antimicrobial hand rub, or surgical hand antisepsis. Infection control risk management A systematic approach towards identifying, managing and minimising exposure to sources of infection risks in the organisation. Monitor To check, supervise, observe critically or record the progress of an activity, action or system on a regular basis in order to identify change. Personal protective equipment (PPE) Refers to a variety of infection control barriers and respirators used alone, or in combination, to protect mucous membranes, skin and clothing from contact with recognised and unrecognised sources of infectious agents in organisations. Sharp Any object capable of inflicting a penetrating injury, which may or may not be contaminated with blood and/or body substances. This includes needles and any other sharp objects or instruments designed to perform penetrating procedures. Sharps containerA receptacle designed to the relevant Australian Standard for the disposal of sharps. Standard precautions Precautions designed to reduce the risk of transmission of micro-organisms from both recognised and unrecognised sources of infection in organisations. Sterile Free from all living micro-organisms, usually described as a probability (eg the probability of a surviving microorganism being 1 in 1 million). SterilisationThe destruction of all living organisms, including spores. Ultrasonic cleaner Device that removes debris by a process called cavitation, in which waves of acoustic energy are propagated in aqueous solutions to disrupt the bonds that hold particulate matter to the surfaces of medical devices. Washer-disinfectorAutomatic unit that cleans and thermally disinfects instruments, by using a high-temperature cycle rather than a chemical bath.

74 FORMATIVE CHECKPOINT Before you can proceed with any further learning or tasks you need to submit formative tasks 5,6 and 7 to your trainer. Your trainer will contact you to discuss your submission. They will provide; Comments that will allow you to improve your submission. Questions to gain a better understanding of your knowledge of the subject. General guidance so that you can improve your skills and knowledge. Encouragement to expand your thinking towards better solutions. You are to make the necessary changes as instructed by your trainer and submit the documents for re-evaluation by your trainer. Book two 74 ASSESSMENT A. KNOWLEDGE QUESTIONS 3.

75 Book two 75 SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT A. KNOWLEDGE QUESTIONS You are required to learn the information in this learning material covering the units of; Work within a massage framework. Comply with infection control policies and procedures. Contribute to WHS processes. Administer a practice. At each formative checkpoint your trainer will provide you with a series of knowledge questions covering the information in this learning material. You are to answer these questions within an allocated time frame. You will be assessed on demonstration of your knowledge on this subject matter.

76 Book two 76 Possible questions continued.

77 Book two 77 SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT B. DEVELOP OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES FOR A MASSAGE THERAPY PRACTICE. DOCUMENT ASSESSMENT You are to demonstrate your knowledge and technical skills by developing procedures for the operations of a massage therapy practice. Your procedures are to include daily administration, marketing strategies, financial documentation and human resources for payroll and employee records. You are to address the issues of work health and safety for staff and clients, infection control, waste minimisation and daily cleaning and maintenance tasks. You are to develop procedures for delivering massage treatments using professional standards, treatment timeframes, fee structure, routine duties and stock control. All procedures must comply with statutory and regulatory requirements. Submit your typed document to your trainer for assessment. Marking Criteria This completes the learning and assessment material for these units.


Download ppt "HLT40312 Certificate IV in Massage Therapy Practice Book two: HLTREM401D Work within a massage framework HLTIN301C Comply with infection control policies."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google