Presentation on theme: "India’s attractiveness as an investment destination"— Presentation transcript:
1India’s attractiveness as an investment destination India’s attractiveness as an investment destination. Myths, perceptions and the reality. Sectoral analysis and case studiesANZ CEO ForumIntercontinental HotelNew Delhi, IndiaDavid TwineDecember 2002
2IntroductionAs an element of investment due diligence and risk assessment, we sought to explore India’s attractiveness as an investment destination based on:actual government stances and actions (as opposed to rhetoric), and;case studies of foreign investors and how they have fared in India.
3To examine the hypotheses ….. ‘Success’ or ‘failure’ is determined by …the nature of policy evolution for the industry segment;being an MNC or otherwise;specific company’s operating style and/or strategies.
4Approach Examine how: Companies in different sectors have evolved; The sectoral categorisation reflects the policy evolution in India i.e.where domestic and foreign participation has always been allowedwhere domestic private participation was and/or is allowedthat were only open to government agencies.
5Framework A Company’s Success or failure Macro: Era and sector correlation. Assess its impactGovt. and policy makers Specific political parties outlook and perspectiveMedia and other institutions’ roles.A Company’sSuccess or failureMarket place acceptability:Market shareCompetitive scenarioAcceptance by societyBrand building / recognitionNGO / other bodiesSpecially for resource sector
6Case studies done in … FMCG Automotive Power Gas Refinery An overview on India’s economic liberalisation and current thoughts on disinvestment have been provided to qualify the analysis
7Presentation Structure India’s economic liberalisationCommon concernsMyths and perceptionsSectoral analysis and case studiesImplicationsCurrent thoughts on privatisationIndia: environment for investment
8India’s economic liberalisation Historical perspective Pre 90’s, industrial development followed a socialist model. Key sectors (infrastructure, steel etc.) were nationalised, others were licensed;Private capital flows were discouraged by a tight regulatory regime, which restricted foreign ownership, technology transfers and portfolio investments in companies operating in India;Foreign capital flowing into India consisted of aid, commercial borrowings, government debt and bank deposits from Non Resident Indians.
9Key sectors opened to foreign and private investments India – the last decade Key sectors opening up to foreign investment and privatisation1991 saw the beginning of economic liberalisation in IndiaKey sectors opened to foreign and private investments1991Power and energyTelecom1993BankingDurablesAutomotive19962000Insurance
10Current scenarioRestrictions for Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) have been removed from most industries, barring a select list of hazardous and environmentally sensitive industriesForeign exchange regulations have been simplified further
11Common concerns (1) Stringent FIPB approval process In the early years of liberalisation, the FIPB (Foreign Investment Promotion Board), under the Ministry of Commerce and Industry kept a strict vigil on investments;Any company wishing to set up operations in India had to go through long and tedious procedures to obtain a clearance;Today however a significant shift in mindset is seen; from ‘seeking a reason to holdback’ towards ‘finding reasons to approve’.
12Common concerns (2)While the Board still has policies and guidelines governing investments in certain sectors, these are not as stringent as they were previously.Flexibilities are built into the system for:substantive investment and commitments – not for marginal investors;‘genuine’ proposals, e.g. not for products with no intention to manufacture domestically.
13Common concerns (3) Press Note 18 (FIPB) This note disallows companies having a JV in India to qualify for automatic approval to set up a 100% subsidiary.Provisions exist that equally protect MNCs against their Indian counterparts ‘bullying’ them
14Common concerns (4) Policies protect the Indian manufacturer The reality however is …India is one of the original signatories to GATT and is committed to WTO agreements in full spiritQRs on almost all items have been removedFDI restrictions on most items have been removed as wellHowever the government would stretch the commitments to protect India’s concerns as any other country would
15Myths and perceptions Harassment and corruption Bureaucratic interference does slow down and frustrate business operationsCorruption and often harassment are de-motivating
16Myths and perceptions Harassment and corruption But,a strong and pro-active judiciary has emerged in the recent past (note its role in relation to the Narmada Dam construction which is rife with controversies amongst NGOs and project leaders);Extremely strong Central Vigilance Commission (CVC – reporting directly to the President of India) is making a beginning to ‘clean up’ the system.
17Summary of key issuesEconomic development in India initially driven by financial bankruptcyToday however it is increasingly driven by:International commitments - WTO; IMF; etc.Pressures of foreign governments;Lobbying by industriesby a small political establishment that seeks to do what is economically right and fiscally responsible.Foreign Policy is now being drafted along economic considerations - countries with economic clout will leverage access to markets
18Sectoral Analysis Where foreign investment has always been allowed Case: FMCG
19FMCG in India: Policy development (1) MNCs have been allowed to operate in India ever since its independence in Most international big players have had operations in India, e.g,Hindustan Levers had manufacturing facilitiesColgate and Nestle had only trading activitiesIn 1978 however the government reserved several product categories only for the small scale manufacturersFurther, MNCs were asked to reduce equity stake to 40% or else to leave the country
20FMCG in India: Policy development (2) Government’s perspective on this sector was - these products are luxury items and therefore do not warrant encouragementLater in the 80’s, governments policies of higher excise duties on toiletries and cosmetics made the environment difficult in this sector
21FMCG in India: How it all opened up Local players who did not have technology and capital could not provide good quality products and remained ‘in-competitive’MNCs were better equipped to sustain higher costs and benefited from the controls. They were able to spread out to reach larger massesIn the post 1991 era, duty rates have been slashed, there has been a progressive reduction in excise duties and licensing restrictions have been eased
22FMCG in India: TodayForeign FMCG companies dominate most product categoriesFew national level Indian FMCG companies exist, mainly in niche segmentsThere is a large and fragmented ‘unorganised’ sector, which, sheltered under government incentives competes with the organised sector on price and availability (but not quality)
23FMCG in India: Indian organisations As a fragmented and unorganised industry it has been difficult for the industry to meet mass consumer needs;To cater to all consumer needs required investments and technology as well;Most Indian companies never had the capabilities to meet these expectations;The FMCG sector even otherwise has not been a priority for big industrial houses like Tata, Reliance etc.
24FMCG in India: How the operating environment changed In 1978 due to the policy of protecting the small scale sector the environment turned hostile towards the then big players in the market. Many like Coca Cola did leave IndiaHowever, there were others like Hindustan Levers who adapted to the changing environment and stayed on demonstrating a long term commitment
25Case studies were carried out for the following companies (but are not included in this pack) Hindustan LeverCoca ColaKFCMcDonalds
26FMCG sector in India Summary Almost all leading players are MNCs.Indian companies exist in niche and regional segments onlyIndian consumers consider the overseas FMCG organisations as ‘Indian’ as the local companiesSuccess for the companies has come from long term commitment towards the Indian market and adapting themselves to its diverse culture
27Sectoral AnalysisWhere foreign investment has been allowed post liberalisation in 1991Case: Passenger Cars
28Passenger Cars in India Historical perspective (1) Untill the 1940’s, passenger cars were only being imported into IndiaIn 1946 Premier Automobiles Limited (PAL) became the first manufacturer of cars in India by assembling Dodge DeSoto and Plymouth carsLater in 1949 another Indian company, Hindustan Motors (HM), started manufacturing cars
29Passenger Cars in India Historical perspective (2) Until this time foreign companies operating in India were allowed to assemble carsIn 1952, the government set up a tariff commission to develop an indigenous automobile industryForeign companies which were assembling cars and did not have plans to manufacture in India were asked to shut downAs a result General Motors, Ford and others left IndiaThe next three decades saw only two models on Indian roads -- Ambassador (from HM) and Padmini (from PAL)
30Passenger Cars in India Policy controls These restrictive set of policies were mainly aimed at building an indigenous auto industryBut further controls that were imposed related to production, distribution and even extended to fixation of prices of cars and dealer commissions. This started affecting the Indian manufacturers as well
31Passenger Cars in India Changing environment In early 1980’s Maruti Udyog Limited (MUL), a Government of India JV with Suzuki of Japan was set upThis became the turning point in the Indian auto industry. Most controls were abolished during this eraThough the govt. liberalised policies by announcing foreign collaborations for technology and finance, these policies mainly favoured MUL. Other Indian manufacturers like TELCO, PAL and HM were denied permissions by a strict FIPB.
32Passenger Cars in India Post liberalisation In 1993 the industry was de-licensed and gates were opened for foreign investors to set up operations in India;As a result Daewoo, Hyundai, Ford, Mitsubishi, General Motors,Honda, Fiat, Toyota have set up their manufacturing units;With the advent of technology and newer models that these companies brought in, Indian manufacturers faced stiff competition.
33Passenger Cars in India Post liberalisation (2) This has resulted in PAL having closed its operations and HM’s share in the market has continuously been on the declineThe only Indian manufacturers now are TELCO and Mahindra.Overall the industry is dominated by MNCs.
34Passenger Cars in India MNC success India (1) All MNCs have invested heavily in IndiaCompanies like Daewoo and Ford have their manufacturing plants planned for exports from India as wellFor instance Ford has built a plant that conforms to ISO and has a capacity to produce 100,000 cars per annumMost MNCs are addressing the Indian consumers needs in terms and quality. They have altered their car designs and included variants to cater to their tastes.
35Passenger Cars in India MNC success in India (2) Today these companies have successfully convinced the Indian government to protect them from imports of used vehicles in India, even though such vehicles could be from their parent company
36Case study was carried out for Ford company (but is not included in this pack)
37Passenger Cars in India Summary With only two private India operators and a Public sector undertaking, the sector remained closed for foreign investment for a long timeToday however the Indian operators are no longer in existence and the industry is lead by foreign companiesCertain policies did favour Maruti for a few years, but with dis- investment of public sector companies on the cards a level playing field is now clearly in place.The industry is more capable and competitive and the consumer is a major beneficiary.
38Sectoral AnalysisWhere foreign investment has been allowed post liberalisation in 1991 Case: Power and energy
39Power sector in India (1) Until early 90’s power generation was undertaken exclusively by the public sector and select Indian organisationsThe door to Foreign Direct Investment was opened in Indian delegations travelled the globe to attract investorsNearly a decade after the sector was opened up, the progress is abysmal. Of about 50 projects sanctioned, including a tranche of so- called “fast track” projects, less than one fifth have been commissioned
40Power sector in India (2) Many large players like Cogentrix have pulled out of the country completely and Enron (the most famous of all) is on the verge of pulling outToday there are hardly any success stories upon which to comment in this sector – either of a foreign company or IndianThe Enron project has the ‘distinction’ of bringing out a number of lessons in the otherwise uncharted recesses of the Indian power sectorA case study on Enron and PowerGen discusses the issues in this sector
41Case studies were carried out for the following companies (but are not included in this pack) EnronPowerGen
42Power sector in India Summary Only one major foreign power plant having been able to start operations in India affirms an environment that is extremely slow – so slow that several high profile companies have been sufficiently discouraged and de-motivated to exitIn this sector neither enough Indian or foreign companies have been able to demonstrate material successSuccessful Indian and foreign ventures exist in the mini power generation segment.
43Sectoral AnalysisThat were only open to Government agencies Case: Gas sector
44Gas sector in IndiaIndian consumption of natural gas has risen faster that any other fuel in the recent years. Use of Natural Gas in power generation and the Indian government’s encouragement to build gas-fired electric power plants has been the main reasonGiven that a large gap exists between the domestic gas supply and demand, India remains a large importer of gas. The imports are facilitated via ship or cross border pipelines.
45Gas sector in India Opening up of the sector Until the beginning of liberalisation in 1991, this sector was completely regulatedThereafter the sector was partially opened with permission granted to parallel marketers to sell LPGGiven the overall reliance on imports, India is investing heavily in the infrastructure required to support the same, by building LNG import terminals and pipelines
46Gas Sector in India Environment today The FIPB has already approved almost a dozen prospective LNG import terminal projects;However, to keep the demand and supply situation under control, GoI believes that not all terminals should be built according to the approved schedule, as their combined capacity would exceed the projected demandGoI has thus frozen approvals for new terminals. (This unfortunately presupposes that all of the approved projects will materialise, and on schedule and at the approved capacity – this is not remotely probable or possible).
47Gas sector in India Current players (1) The largest state government projects have been established by Petronet – a JV between Oil and Natural Gas Commission (ONGC), Indian Oil Corporation (IOC), Gas Authority of India Limited (GAIL), National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC) and Gaz de FranceUnder this plan each of the state firms hold a 10% stake, the Gujarat state government would hold another 5% stake. The rest is offered to private investors.
48Gas sector in India Current players (2) Other projects include consortiums such as:British Gas and NTPCSiemens and CMS energy, Woodside petroleum and UnocalTotal Fina Elf with Tata electric and GAILShell has received approval for an LNG import terminal at Hazira, GujaratReliance Industries also has plans of an LNG import terminal at Jamnagar, Gujarat - near its oil refinery
49Gas Sector in India Environment today (1) But, the progress on most of these is slow, due to the government’s lack of experience in negotiating and entering agreements, e.g. Power Purchase Agreements, Financial Guarantees, EscrowsAnother problem with the current climate in LNG imports is the lack of a coherent regulatory structureIndia is currently working on a new legal framework for natural gas – the Gas Regulation Bill.
50Gas Sector in India Environment today (2) This bill seeks to set up a regulatory body for natural gas and to allow for exclusive distribution rights in some areas to guarantee a market for new gas projectsAlthough the bill has been drafted it is yet to be discussed by the Indian parliament. It is a long way from becoming law.
51Case Study: British Gas (1) BG International is one of the successful MNC’s operating in the gas sector in India. Currently it has a controlling stake in Gujarat Gas Company Limited (GGCL), is in partnership with the Mahanagar Gas JV and is developing an LNG import and regasification project at Pipavav.BG holds 65% of GGCL and 50% of Mahanagar Gas.
52Case Study: British Gas (2) BG is aiming to cater to the vast demand and supply gap that exists in India, and likely to remain so. It has based its plans on a long term commitment.BG has been active and visible and has made bids for various projects including the trans-border Indo Bangladesh natural gas project. During 1998, when this plan was promoted (by Enron), BG took the initiative to lobby with Bangladesh as well for generating source gas.
53Case Study: British Gas (3) But not everything has been smooth. BG faced initial restrictions by FIPB on its plans to invest in India. More recently FIPB has granted exemption to BG from seeking any approvals in the automatic approval sectors. BG was the first foreign holding company to have been granted this exemption;BG has also faced some resistance in relation to raising its stakes in various of its JVs – but mainly from its own JV partners not the government per se.
54Sectoral AnalysisSectors that were previously only open to Indian Government agenciesCase: Refinery
55Refinery sector in India Reasons for deregulation In an initiative aimed at attracting FDI, India Hydrocarbon Vision (an advisory group overseen by the Prime Minister’s Office), has recommended 100% foreign equity participation in the sectorThe need for deregulation also stems from the following factors:Increase in demand of petroleum productsStagnation in crude oil productionDifficulty in administration of APMIncrease in the oil pool deficit
56Refinery sector in India Environment today (1) Opportunity in India’s downstream sector is restricted to sale of lubricants onlyElf, Mobil, Total, British Petroleum etc. have already made their presence feltThis sector otherwise has left bitter memories. Exxon, Saudi Aramco, Shell and Kuwait Petroleum have all tried, and have failed, to enter into JV agreements for construction of greenfield refineries in IndiaEven amongst Indian organisations, only Reliance has been able to demonstrate any meaningful success.
57Refinery sector in India Environment today (2) These failures are blamed on inconsistent government policies regulating foreign investment in the sectorFurther, no foreign oil company is allowed to market oil products in India. This remains the purview of IOC and other state-owned refinersUntil this sector is opened up, foreign oil company interest in the downstream sector will remain weakAlso, red tape and vested interests remain a hurdle.
58Refinery sector in India Summary There is general agreement that prospects for Indian petrochemical industries are positive. However limitations of public policy restricts FDI making in roads in this sector;Environment, infrastructure, tariffs and taxes are the primary constraints above any other factors;GoI is otherwise planning to privatise its holdings. The process has already begun for the public sector undertaking IPCL.
59The other sectors … Cellular services in India (1) Being a new service to the world, cellular telephony saw all major international players investing in - or at least courting - IndiaToday most foreign operators are out of the market. Main reasons being:An over estimation of market size. e.g. France Telecom estimated high returns in the Gujarat Market but was never able to secure many subscriptions thereSlowdown in the global industry. e.g. British Telecom which is marred with slow growth in its worldwide operations is in a delicate position in India as well.
60The other sectors … Cellular services in India (2) Indian organisations neither had the capital or the technology to be in the market solely. JVs were necessary and Indian organisations became the front end of the alliances while foreign collaborators supported them;The liberalisation process appeared to be marred with controversies from the beginning:Licenses were issued on a highest bidder basis, without checking on the antecedents of the firm – led to default in license fees;Controversy on critical issues such as limited mobility to basic operators - opposed by cellular firms.
61Cellular services in India Way forward Mergers and acquisitions for consolidation is now the primary area of activity.Companies have realised the fault in the system of licensing and know that the only way out to achieve profitability is to have wider spread / scale and reach;This sector has been a classic learning curve for the Indian government on how to go about designing policies in ‘new’ economy sectors.
62The other sectors … Mining Case study (various mining companies) (1) The nature of mining is such that a key challenge is to gain the confidence and advocacy of the local communities.Each of the mining companies reviewed has policies in place to engage the local communities and articulate what is planned and the benefits to the community.
63The other sectors … Mining Case study (various mining companies) (2) Each company believes that there is no anti-MNC sentiment in the Union Government, though at times regional and State governments have demonstrated favour to local / Indian companies;Such sentiments however are believed to be dissipating as State governments increasingly appreciate that investment is good for growth and progress, and that foreign investment is often superior in terms of the State’s strategic interests and economic multiplier benefits.
64The other sectors … Mining Case study (various mining companies) (3) The companies believe that putting the blame on ‘anti-MNC sentiment in India’ is an easy way (excuse) for companies to pull out and in turn a ‘believable’ reason to communicate to investors and stakeholders for companies who don’t have the will to be in India for the longer term.This is particularly unfortunate too because such cases also tend to attract higher profile press coverage – unjustifiably.
65India - privatisation sentiment The Union Government is no longer embarrassed or apologetic about reforms – privatisation is being talked about freely;The Government has also begun to admit that reforms have been meaningful on poverty, unemployment and literacy – fears have remained as possible for the negative impact.
66India privatisation: anti MNC? The activity of privatisation, is politically amongst the most sensitive. In general, the process has seen an ample demonstration of ‘may the best man win’;They attract attention from all quarters and must therefore be able to stand up to scrutiny.
67Indian government privatisation: anti MNC? Two ‘disinvestments’ have been actioned in India - they have raised controversies and stiff opposition from various quarters (mainly political)sell off of the aluminum company Balco to Sterlite Industries (an Indian group)sell off of Modern foods to HLL (an MNC)Controversies and negative publicity were greater and extended for a much longer period for the Balco saleTherefore not about the origin of the buyer per se …..
68FindingsSectors that have been opened up to private investment post liberalisation in 1991, and have required large investments for setting up operations such as power and refining, have no material successes even among the Indian operators;Others which were open to foreign investments earlier (FMCG) and those which have no Indian company with technology to compete (passenger cars) are dominated by MNCs.
69FindingsThere is no common theme or link to suggest an anti MNC sentiment exists in any quarter;Successes have been a result of a company’s own strengths and “taking people along” – positive and productive community and stakeholder engagement;Government demonstrates ample flexibilities for foreign companies who show long term commitment to the market in part demonstrated by substantial investments.
70FindingsAnti-MNC / anti-foreigner sentiments have led to failures and penal treatment for those who have not respected local sentiments, culture, sensitivities and ideologies. e.g EnronLack of demonstrable India-specific strategy/ products , e.g. KFC, Kelloggs.
71FindingsIt is imperative to be perceived and operate as an Indian company (and with the highest international standards of governance and integrity) not a ‘non-adaptive’ global corporationFactors affecting this image includeNature of product and servicesAdaptability to local sentiments and tastesOperating styles i.e, Indian vs. expat managers, advertising campaigns etc.A successful MNC is run like an Indian company within a framework of international standards of governance and ethical conduct
72Issues that remain to be resolved Lack of transparency and accountabilities in the systemBureaucratic hurdlesCorruption and harassmentSlow progress in infrastructure development…. not an anti- MNC sentiment per se
73The Opportunity …India is a long haul market – most successful foreign companies have come with a clear vision to adapt and stay for long periodsProgress is slow … but positive.
74India’s attractiveness as an investment destination - myths, perceptions and the reality. Sectoral analysis and case studiesANZ CEO ForumIntercontinental HotelNew Delhi, IndiaDavid TwineDecember 2002