What is reading? When reading, we are trying to interpret the meaning from the text…….it more than decoding words……barking at print.
Phonics Phonemic awareness Decoding strategies & How you can support your child in reading……… …..instilling a love of books and reading!
What is a text? A text can be aural, written, visual or multi-modal. It could be in the form of a magazine article; a symbol or logo; movie; book; map; diagram; play; and so on.
What skills are needed? Concepts of print Phonics & Phonemic awareness Alphabetic code Sight words Real engagement in text
Can be used to determine the student’s knowledge of the nature and function of written text. How to hold a book - where to start Front of book and back of the book Read from left to right What a letter is and what a word is Where the first letter of a word is to be found Upper case letters Lower case letters Some punctuation Visual and order information CONCEPTS ABOUT PRINT Kindergarten
Phonics & Phonemic Awareness Phonics - making the connection between sounds and letters when reading and spelling. Including sounds and names of letters Phonemic Awareness - involves hearing and manipulating the sounds in spoken language. For example: rhyme, identify words with the same sound – hear it, to phoneme manipulation deletion and addition.
PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS TASKS 1.Sound-to-word matching: e.g. Does fence start with /f/ Does pig end with /g/ 2.Word-to word matching: e.g. Does fish start with the same sound as fence? 3.Recognition of rhyme: e.g. Does dog rhyme with hog? 4.Isolation: e.g. What is the first sound in pig? What is the last sound in fan? 5.Phonemic segmentation: e.g. What are the three sounds in back? 6.Counting phonemes: e.g. How many sounds do you hear in the word phone? 7.Blending: What word is this? /b/, /a/, /ck? 8.Deletion of a phoneme: e.g. Say mat. Now say it without the /m/ 9.Specifying which phoneme has been deleted: e.g. Say seat. Now say eat. What sound was left out in the second word? 10.Phoneme substitution: e.g. Say seat. Now say it with /f/ instead of /s/
Reading Strategies: When reading, students must draw on a range of strategies to decode the symbols. Look at the Picture, Get your lips ready, Stretch it out, Chunk the word, Skip it, Try it Again, Ask for Help. Flip the Vowel
Learning to read When learning to read, students start with the letter sounds and basic book conventions. As students acquire new sounds, they learn how to make and read words. Task: Recite the alphabet using each letter’s most common sound. Take care not to overemphasise sounds as this makes it challenging when stretching words to ‘hear’ the word being decoded.
Carnine’s Sequence a m s t i f d r o g h l u c n k b v e p j w y x qu z
Learning to read cont. Most students start their learning journey at Level 1 in Kindergarten. Level 1: one-to-one correspondence and basic book conventions Level 2: as above but with a return sweep Level 3: students are required to start to use a small range of sight words, high frequency words, letter/sound knowledge, picture cues Students must build knowledge of letter sounds, the sounds of letter combinations, vocabulary, sight word and high frequency words to continue through subsequent levels. Lack of knowledge in these areas will prevent students from moving on.
a, is, am, to, come, like, see, the, we, and, at, here, on, up, look, go, this, it, me
Letter Combination Sounds The English language is a very difficult language to master. Letters and letter combinations often have more than one sound and many spelling conventions exist. When students come to decode words they must apply a range of spelling strategies, sound knowledge, the context, etc. Eg: ‘ir’, ‘er’, ‘ur’ can all make the same sound. Fir, person, turn
Task: When reading a text, a student comes to the word ‘bough’ but does not recognise it. How many sounds for ‘ough’ exist that the child may need to know in order to decode this word?
‘ough’ ‘uff’ as in enough ‘o’ as in though ‘oo’ as in through ‘ow’ as in bough ‘or’ as in bought ‘off’ as in cough ‘up’ as in hiccough ‘u’ (schwa) as in thorough
WHAT DO RELUCTANT READERS NEED? 1.Success 2.Instructional Level Books 3.Real Engagement in Reading 4.Frequency of Instruction /Short lessons 5.Small, sequenced steps 6.An appropriate time to practice 7. Re-reading of familiar text 8.Praise
How do we create a good learning climate in the home?
Regular practice of any skill leads to improvement
Book Level Guide (Five Finger Test) APPLICABLE TO ANY READING MATERIAL 1.Choose the book/story 2.Count off the first 50 words 3.Hear the child read the passage 0-2 errors=easy leisure reading (home readers) 3-4 errors=instructional level (learning at school) 4+ errors=frustration level (read to the child)
READING TOGETHER BEFORE READING Find a comfortable, quiet spot, away from distractions Sit beside the child. Let the child hold the book Look at the book title together Discuss what the story could be about Look through the book at the pictures Discuss child’s own experiences relevant to the text Deliberately discuss and point out harder words that are contained in the text, in preparation for meeting them Show you enthusiasm for having the child commence reading the story to you
Orientation Extremely important at all levels It helps students to succeed, build required vocabulary for reading the specific text, heighten interest and engagement, understand the purpose of the text, make predictions, creates connections to the child so they can bring their own experiences and understandings to aid comprehension Proficient readers will be able to self-orientate
Orientation cont. Cover, title Make predictions about text type, content, storyline Make connections, talk about their experiences to help them relate Look for difficult words Build vocabulary specific to text or topic Discuss decoding strategies, fluency and expression Make inferences Do a picture walk Ask questions and have students ask questions Adapt orientation to suit student’s level and age
DURING READING Engage the child in discussion of illustration, prediction of events, character analysis etc. Where appropriate, involve the child in shared reading. (The use of Big Books in the class imitate this intimate sharing)
Fluency/Expression Students lacking in fluency are using their efforts to decode words rather than draw meaning. They have difficulty going beyond the words to the big picture Need to sound like they are speaking when reading Students who are fluent are more efficient in drawing on a range of decoding and comprehension strategies.
Fluency cont. The most productive model for the structure of a scientific explanation is that of a valid deductive argument whose conclusion is the event to be explained. Some of the premises of this argument will be factual statements of the antecedent circumstances, while the others will be the scientific hypotheses offered as a way of linking those circumstances to the outcome stated by the conclusion. Scientific predictions have exactly the same structure; the only difference between the explanation and the prediction of an event is whether or not it has already occurred.scientific explanationscientific hypothesespredictions On this deductive-nomological model for scientific explanation, the conclusion of the argument must be true (that is, the event must occur) if all of the premises are true. Those of its premises that state the antecedent circumstances will naturally be true so long as we have our facts straight. But the truth of the hypotheses, which try to capture the lawlike relationship between those circumstances and the event to be explained, will always remain open to question. So the quality of the explanation as a whole typically rests upon the extent to which these hypotheses are reliable.
AFTER READING Provide the child with opportunity to respond to the text eg. Reactions to the story plot so far, Opinion about characters, Prediction about the rest of the story line.
PAUSE, PROMPT and PRAISE If the child makes a mistake or cannot work out a word PAUSE Wait (about 5 Seconds) Look at the word while waiting!
PROMPT Give a suitable clue- About the sounds in the word Ask if the given word sounds right or makes sense Help the child guess the word by encouraging them to read on, or reread the sentence After 2 prompts, if they still can’t work it out, tell them the word!
PRAISE: Be specific. Tell them exactly what they did right! Praise for- Checking sounds before making an attempt Trying hard to work out a word Reading a page/sentence with no mistakes