Presentation on theme: "PDHPE HSC Enrichment Days Improving Performance"— Presentation transcript:
1 PDHPE HSC Enrichment Days Improving Performance ACHPER NSWPDHPE HSC Enrichment Days2009Improving PerformanceThis option is an extension of Core 2 – Factors affecting performance. It provides an opportunity for you to examine the factors that directly affect the preparation of athletes for competition.By studying this option, hopefully you will develop the knowledge and skills that will enable you to improve your own sporting performances or coaching styles.Display slide 2.
2 Concept map of focus questions Today we are going to focus on a few aspects of the syllabus – training for endurance, environmental considerations, and technology – to see how they can be used to improve the performance of an endurance cyclist, such as Lance Armstrong. We will be investigating what types of training are most beneficial for an endurance cyclist, what aspects of the environment endurance cyclists need to consider when training, and how the use of technology can improve the performance of an endurance cyclist.Question: Who can tell me something significant about Lance Armstrong? (He is an elite endurance cyclist who has competed in a number of Tour de France events. He is equally famous for surviving testicular cancer).Students complete Activity 1 in their workbooks – Brainstorm a list of factors that would affect Lance’s performance in the Tour de France. (Factors include the environment, training, diet, quality of bike, etc). Students share ideas.Display slide 3.
3 Profile of case study athlete: Cyclist – Lance Armstrong Event: Tour de FranceCharacteristics of Event:Runs for 3 weeks, consists of 20 stages- Total distance= 2657km, longest stage = 239.5km2004m was the altitude of the highest climb on the 2005 tourTraining: Endurance, resistance, and altitude trainingBest known as:Seven-time winner of the Tour de France (from )Briefly outline Lance’s profile.Display slide 4
4 Endurance trainingThe main training methods used to develop aerobic capacity are:Interval training (combining several high intensity bouts of activity)Continuous training (consistent activity at a steady intensity)Fartlek training (continuous activity with bursts of high intensity activity)Resistance training (working against a weight, force or gravity, such as weight training with a low load and high reps)One reason Lance is very successful in his sport is because his training is specific to the requirements of his sport. Because he competes in long distance cycling, he engages in endurance training to improve his aerobic capacity.The main training methods used to develop endurance are interval, continuous, fartlek, and resistance training.Students complete Activity 2 in workbooks– Explain which principal training method would you recommend for improved performance of a cyclist competing in the Tour de France?(Explain that a combination will be best for performance as well as for maintaining motivation. WHY? Interval and fartlek training have been shown to improve an athlete’s anaerobic threshold, lactate tolerance, and max VO2. This will enable Lance Armstrong, for example, to sprint to the finish line. Continuous training (continuous cycling) will assist the cyclist in developing and maintaining their aerobic fitness. Resistance training will develop the cyclist’s muscular endurance - the ability of their muscles to continue working during the long event- which is also important in affecting the outcome of endurance performance).Students complete Activity 3 in workbooks – In pairs, suggest a suitable resistance training program for an endurance cyclist, consisting of six stations. (Exercises they could include are leg presses, abdominal crunches, hamstring curls, calf raises, squats etc. Emphasise that such exercises should be performed using a reduced load and higher repetitions RM - if the cyclist wishes to improve their muscular endurance).Display slide 5.Which method would you recommend for improving the performance of acyclist competing in the Tour de France?
5 Some effects of training on the aerobic system Effect of trainingWhy/How? (Explanation)Reduced heart rateThe heart becomes more efficient as it can pump blood without needing to pump a lot of timesIncreased stroke volumeThe heart pumps out more blood with each beat as it is more efficientIncreased cardiac outputMore blood is available to tissues due to increased stroke volumeIncreased oxygen uptakeEndurance training increases the body’s capacity to use the oxygen inspired efficientlyIncreased lung capacityThere is an increase in air breathed in and out during a single breath with trainingIncrease in haemoglobinDue to increased blood volume leading to more access to oxygen for aerobic performanceEndurance training in the long run will produce training effects to an athlete’s aerobic energy system, which will make it more efficient, thereby improving the athlete’s endurance performance.Some of the adaptations that occur in response to endurance training are shown on the slide.Briefly explain some of the effects of endurance training.Such effects lead to improved performance of endurance athletes as exercise can be sustained at higher intensities for longer periods of time.As mentioned previously, endurance training increases VO2 max.Questions: Can anyone suggest how you could measure Lance Armstrong’s VO2 max? Are there any disadvantages associated with such methods?Display slide 6.
6 Measuring Training Effect VO2 max = amount of oxygen consumed per minute.A measure of VO2 max determines an athlete’s endurance capacity. The greater an athlete’s VO2 max, the better their cardiovascular endurance.Tests are usually done under lab conditions.However, they are:expensive, time consuming, not accessible to everyone, and physically demanding.VO2 max prediction tests include the Astrand bicycle test, 12 minute run, and beep test.Test should be specific to the athlete’s sportDefine V02 max. The greater an athlete’s VO2 max, the better their cardiovascular endurance.VO2 max tests, such as that performed on a bicycle ergometer, are usually done under lab conditions, where the athlete is attached to a machine that collects their expired air. The VO2 max reading is taken at the point when the athlete’s 02 uptake plateaus or begins to decrease.Explain some disadvantages of the test indicated on the slide.Outline what can be done instead – athlete can undertake a V02 max prediction test, or sub-maximal test can be performed. Examples are provided on the slide.The best one for an endurance cyclist to use would be the Astrand bicycle test, as it is the most closely related to the sport of cycling.Students complete Activity 4 in their workbooks – Explain the factors that affect a person’s VO2 max?Provide answers - (Age – VO2 max increases until mid 20s, and then declines, Gender – males have a higher VO2 max on average, Level of intensity – increased training levels leads to increased VO2 max).Performance in the Tour de France is not only dependant on the type of training undertaken but also other factors such as the environment.As mentioned previously, the stages of the Tour de France differ in their altitude levels.Display slide 7.
7 Environmental considerations Altitude = height above sea levelAs altitudes increase to above 1500m,the ability to sustain physical activity is affected.As altitude increases, the partial pressure of oxygen decreases. How does altitude then affect performance?Altitude changes at one stage of the Tour de FranceThe graph shows the different altitude levels in stage 7 of the Tour de France.Explain slide 7.Ask the group the following question: How does altitude affect performance? (It decreases performance).Students complete Activity 5 in their workbooks. (Answers have been provided for you for reference in your supplementary material)
8 Explain flowchart.Students complete Activity 6 in their workbooks – What precautions then must Lance Armstrong take to cater for the high altitudes during the Tour de France?Display slide 9
9 How do athletes prepare for competition at high altitudes? Acclimatise = ensure body adjusts and adapts to the demands of competing in a certain climateIncrease fluid intakeWear sun protectionLance Armstrong can engage in altitude training, where he acclimatises to the environmental conditions in which he will be competing by training in that environment for a set amount of time (this may mean training in France at high altitudes 2-5 weeks before the event). Thus, he will train at high altitudes, where his body will become accustomed to the extra stress placed on his cardiovascular system.He must also ensure his fluid intake is high to avoid dehydration, and wear sun protection as there is less moisture at high altitudes to absorb the sun’s rays.Students complete Activity 7 in their workbooks – Are there any costs associated with altitude training?Explain that training intensity may have to be reduced while at high altitude due to reduced availability of oxygen. This may mean training intensities are not sufficiently high to bring about the desired physical adaptations. Therefore, most altitude training is now conducted at between 1500m and 2000m, where the volume is not as affected.The use of technology in sport today is another factor that can help determine the quality of performance.Coaches can make training more advanced and more beneficial to athletes if they incorporate the use of technology, such as training innovations.Display slide 10.Are there any costsassociated with altitudetraining?
10 The use of technology in endurance cycling Training innovation = an aid that assists training and competition performance.State what a training innovation is.Ask the group for examples of training innovations used in any sport today. Challenge them by asking them to explain how they assist performance in the sport.After viewing the pictures on the slide, students are to complete Activity 8 in their workbooks – (in the table provided, explain the examples of training innovations that are beneficial to endurance cyclists. The first example has been done).Briefly explain to the students some of the innovations listed below:Carbon fibre components - Frames, pedals and wheels weigh less so they create less resistance. Therefore, the efficiency of the cyclist’s effort is increased.Aerodynamic clothing - Increases speedSuspension on bikes - Cyclists can ride more safely. The stress on cyclists’ bodies is reduced, so energy can be focused on creating forward motion.10 speeds on rear wheels instead of 8 - Allow riders to break and shift gears without taking their hands off the handlebars.State that other uses of technology can include video analysis and computer data processing. Ask the group how these may be useful to an endurance cyclist such as Lance Armstrong. Answers could include to gather data on the different altitudes and wind currents during a race to help prepare athletes for competition, gather data on race times completed during the different stages to identify areas of weakness so as to improve on them etc