Presentation on theme: "Patricia Sherman, Ph.D., LCSW. People must learn their own history and culture in order to understand the importance of history and culture to others."— Presentation transcript:
Involve changes in self-concept and transition to a new stage of identity Provide for sanctioned public articulation of private distress Allow for reincorporation of bereaved into the social fabric and reaffirmation of their solidarity with the group
Determines how loss is perceived Provides norms Prioritizes ranking of loss Suggests expectations about social support and coping styles Gives rules for ways of regarding and responding to death
Decline of kinship and religion Nuclearization and high mobility of the family Diminished sense of community Disengagement of the elderly Laws governing disposal of dead bodies Place of death Employer leave policies
Religious and other social rituals Values and beliefs by which people are comforted Shared norms that provide meaning Networks that supply supportive needs Structures to support emotional expression of feelings and needs
How are cultural traditions and customs regarding death transmitted from generation to generation? What moral and ethical issues relate to end of-life care and death and how do people of diverse cultural backgrounds react to these moral and ethical principles?
How are life and death conceptualized in different cultures? What are the different roles of religion and spirituality? How has history affected the mourning process of various cultures?
What are the culturally prescribed rituals for managing the dying process, the deceaseds body, the disposal of the body, and commemoration of the death? What are the familys beliefs about what happens after death?
What does the family consider an appropriate emotional expression and integration of the loss? What does the family consider to be the gender rules for handling the death? Do certain types of death carry a stigma (e.g., suicide) or are certain types of death especially traumatic (e.g., death of a child)?
What does the immediate family do when a family member dies? What do friends and other relatives do when a family member dies? What expectations do people have for the immediate family and other relatives? How long is bereavement expected to last?
What is different if it is a child or adult who dies? What meaning is attached to the death of an infant or child? How does religious affiliation affect what family members do and what is expected of them?
Body should be placed on the floor facing North Issue death certificate promptly to ensure cremation (unless a child) Post mortem only if essential Only persons of same gender should touch body after death
Stoic acceptance of death; crying discouraged Life seen as transient stage towards Nirvana Close eyes, straighten limbs Family will wash and dress body Lay out body at home Children and adults are cremated; stillborn and infants are buried Organ donation OK Post mortems only if necessary
Dress deceased in white cotton shroud along with 5 Ks (Kara – bangle worn on right wrist serves as reminder of faith; Kesh uncut hair; Kanga – small wooden or plastic comb, denoting ordered and disciplined life; Kirpan – symbolic sword worn under clothes symbolizing protection of the weak; Katchera – special underwear symbolizing modesty and sexual morality)
Spanish; Roman Catholic Vocal expressions of grief expected Prefer to die at home (may believe soul will be lost if die in hospital) Family attends to body Prolonged wakes Dead are often worshipped – Day of the Dead, November 1 st and 2 nd
Combination of Buddhist and Christian religions (or none, since religious practice outlawed in 1949) Dying at home considered bad luck Quiet expressions of grief (to save face) Mourning reactions often somatized
Clean and dress body in new clothing, shoes, jewelry and ornaments after it is completely cold Close eyes Seal corpse in coffin Altar set up in front of coffin for displaying offerings of candles, flowers, incense, and fruits
If accidental death, family members go tospot of accident to call and escort thesoul home Delay sending body to funeral home because of belief that before the consciousness has left completely, refrigeration, use of chemicals, and cremation may cause suffering White piece of paper announcing the death is posted outside main entrance to home
Temporary altar with deceaseds photo and lotus seat is established Visitors come for next 49 days, bringing incense, flowers and food for thedeceased and present money or posters honoring the deceased for the family Rituals performed every seven days, since Buddhism teaches that consciousness in the limbo state goes through dying process every seven days
Close eyes, cover body with clean sheet Wash and shroud body (unless a martyr –then bury in clothes they died in) Body treated minimally and quickly with funeral service held within 24 hours of death Only men accompany body to gravesite No coffin, if possible; body lies on right side, facing Mecca Excessive grief a sign of lack of faith
Body treated minimally and quickly with funeral service held within 24 hours of death Tearing of black ribbon or garment Pallbearers carry casket, stopping seven times to commemorate seven stages of life Bowl of water placed in cup at entrance of home to dispel spirits of uncleanness
Light Shiva candle to begin seven days of mourning First meal after funeral is prepared by neighbors and friends – often contains round foods, such as hard boiled eggs and lentils, to symbolize cyclical nature of life Recite Kaddish (ritual prayer affirming lifeand faith in God) at graveside, anniversaryof death, and four sacred times during the year
Each tribe has different cultural practices Avoid contact with dying; often prefer to die in hospital Fear of openly expressing religious beliefsdue to past persecution Discomfort with idea of afterlife – place large rocks over gravesite