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EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Energy Systems. EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Types of energy Chemical Mechanical Heat Light Electric Nuclear.

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Presentation on theme: "EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Energy Systems. EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Types of energy Chemical Mechanical Heat Light Electric Nuclear."— Presentation transcript:

1 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Energy Systems

2 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Types of energy Chemical Mechanical Heat Light Electric Nuclear

3 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Laws of Thermodynamics energy transfer always proceeds in the direction of increased entropy and the release of free energy 1- Energy cannot be created or destroyed –Chemical energy  mechanical energy

4 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Definitions Enzymes –Highly specific protein catalysts –Accelerate the forward and reverse reactions –Are neither consumed nor changed in the reaction Coenzymes –Complex nonprotein organic substances –facilitate enzyme action by binding the substrate with its specific enzyme –transport chemical groups from one enzyme to another.

5 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Catabolism : Metabolic pathways that break down molecules into smaller units and release energy Catabolism and Anabolism

6 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Overview of Catabolism GlucoseFFA’sAmino acids glycolysis mitochondria  - oxidation TCA Cycle deamination NH 2 NADH + H + FADH + H + CO 2 Acetyl CoA Electron Transport Chain Figure 3.4, simplified

7 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Anabolism Covalent bonding of electrons, protons and small molecules to produce larger molecules  building up - Catabolism and anabolism function in a dynamic balance. Anna

8 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance More definitions Exergonic is a spontaneous reaction that releases energy.Exergonic Endergonic is an anabolic reaction that consumes energy.Endergonic

9 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Energy systems Generate ATP under different conditions ATP-PC Lactic acid/ glycolysis Aerobic/ Oxidative

10 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance ATP- Adenosine Triphosphate –Powers all of cell’s energy-requiring processes –Potential energy extracted from food –Energy is stored in bonds of ATP –80-100g is stored

11 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Energy Systems Immediate energy  8 seconds –ATP-PC Short-term energy  1 or 2 minutes –Lactic acid system –Glycolytic system –Anaerobic glcolysis Long-term energy >3 minutes –Aerobic system

12 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance stopwatch/

13 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance ATP All gone after 2 seconds maximal intensity

14 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance ATP-PC system Anaerobic resynthesis of ATP- 5-8 seconds of energy Hydrolyzed by the enzyme, creatine kinase ADP is phosphorylated to ATP Creatine may be phosphorylated back to PCr

15 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Adenosine Diphosphate ADP is ATP minus one phosphate group 14 calories of energy is released each time ATP  ADP

16 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Remember the Spare Phosphate?? The Spare P that was released from ATP  ADP hooks up with Creatine to form … Creatine Phosphate (CrP) Cells store ~ 4 – 6 times more PCr than ATP

17 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance

18 Creatine Supplementation If Phosphocreatine (PCr) is depleted, it cannot regenerate ATP Ingestion Creatine monohydrate (20 g per day) over 5 days  increased stores PC Therefore improves performance short intense exercise in non weight bearing exercise Also enhanced physiologic adaptation to resistance training  Increased dynamic muscular strength and muscle mass Beware of side effects  long term still unknown

19 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Glycolysis During performances of short duration and high intensity that require rapid energy transfer that exceeds that supplied by phosphagens –400-m sprint –100-m swim –Multi-sprint sports Anything up to 3 minutes Lactate is the by product “Lactic acid system’

20 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Glycolysis Breakdown of glucose or glycogen to form 2 molecules pyruvate and 4 ATP Requires 2 molecules ATP for the process to occur = Net gain 2 molecules ATP

21 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Lactic acid? Lactate? Not the same Lactate that accumulates during anaerobic metabolism does not cause acidosis Lactate  Pyruvate  Acetyl CoA  Kreb’s cycle & Aerobic production ATP

22 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Lactic Acid System Blood rest is usually 1-2 mmol/L but can rise to over 20 mmol/L during intense exertion. Lactate accumulation –rate of lactate production exceeds the rate of lactate removal Lactate removal –Gluconeogenesis- conversion to glucose through Cori cycle in the liver If oxygen present: –Oxidation to pyruvate Fuels citric acid cycle

23 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Lactate Inflexion Point- LIP Intensity of exercise above which anaerobic energy system is required to meet energy demands. Lactate accumulates as removal cannot exceed production Measurable as blood lactate levels increase substantially Page 109 of text

24 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Aerobic Oxidative Phosphorylation Lipids –Lipolysis –Beta oxidation –Kreb’s cycle Carbs –Glycolysis –Pyruvate  Acetyl CoA –Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle or tricarboxylic acid cycle) –Electron transport chain

25 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Krebs Cycle Also known as the TCA cycle, or citric acid cycle Continues oxidation of –Carbohydrates following glycolysis –Fatty acids following beta oxidation –Some amino acids following deamination

26 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance

27 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Anaerobic/ aerobic systems 12 chemical reactions to convert carbohydrate (either stored glycogen or circulating blood glucose) to pyruvate No Oxygen Pyruvate converted to Lactate Produces 2-3 mol ATP Oxygen Pyruvate enters Krebs cycle and is used to generate ATP Produces mol ATP

28 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance What you need to know:

29 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Transition to Exercise O2 consumption

30 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Recovery -EPOC O2 consumption remains elevated O2 Dept = payment for O2 deficit Pg 118 text

31 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Vo2 Max Determines cardiovascular fitness O2 uptake increases with intensity of exercise up until a certain point ml/kg/minute Factors influencing: –Delivery –uptake

32 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Yield: 1g = 4.1 Cal Yield: 1g = 9.4 Cal

33 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Chronic Adaptations to Training

34 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Implications

35 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Sources of Fatigue- p 113 text PCr depletion Muscle glycogen depletion Neuromuscular- nerve impulses CNS- muscle recruitment Metabolic by-products –Lactate –Hydrogen ions  low ph –Buffers- bicarbonate

36 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Muscle Fibre Types Type 1 = Slow twitch –Generates energy aerobically –For endurance exercise Type 2 = fast twitch 2a- some aerobic power / anaerobic 2b-predominantly anaerobic –Generates energy anaerobically –For short intense exercise

37 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Recovery from exercise Remove lactate Re-oxygenation muscle myoglobin Replace –Muscle glycogen –PCr –Lipid levels

38 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Active recovery Movement at a lower intensity/ submax performed immediately after exercise Assists with oxidation of lactate (Lactate shuttling) But as is aerobic may impair glycogen synthesis

39 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Passive recovery Lie down  complete inactivity Theory is that this ‘frees’ oxygen for the recovery process Downfall  no lactate shuttling

40 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Which is best? Research inconclusive Depends on exercise to recover from Steady rate exercise –PCr stores not depleted –Lactate levels not increased –Depends on post exercise glucose intake Intense/Non-Steady rate exercise –Large O2 deficit

41 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Lactate Removal ExerciseRecovery Passive Active Passive

42 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance

43 Summary Energy is never created nor destroyed. Complex chemical process synthesize glucose/ glycogen from our foods Immediate energy  ATP-PC Short-term energy  Lactic acid system Long-term energy  Aerobic system Dynamic balance Training Recovery

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