Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Senior Engineers Leadership Residential 25 October, 2010 Barb Wood Assistant Professor University of Western Australia.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Senior Engineers Leadership Residential 25 October, 2010 Barb Wood Assistant Professor University of Western Australia."— Presentation transcript:

1 Senior Engineers Leadership Residential 25 October, 2010 Barb Wood Assistant Professor University of Western Australia

2 Learning Objectives for this session: 1. Appreciate the impact of behaviours within organisations. 2. Consider perceptual processes in teams. 3. Enable you to work well with others in this engineers residential program. 4. Consider the art of possibility in your working life.

3 Why study Behaviours in Organisations? Organisational behaviour research Understandorganisationalevents Predictorganisationalevents Influenceorganisationalevents

4 Behaving in Organisations What do we know about human behaviour ?

5 Who are YOU? 1. Background details Name Type of works that interests you 2. Respond to this question: If you had the opportunity to get one tattoo by the end of this residential what image would you choose and where would you place it on your body?

6 Selective attention Emotions and behaviour Organisation and interpretation Perceptual process model Environmental stimuli Feeling Hearing Seeing Smelling Tasting

7 Perceptual process model Environmental stimuli Feeling Hearing Seeing Smelling Tasting

8 Selective attention Characteristics of the object size, intensity, motion, repetition, novelty Perceptual context Characteristics of the perceiver values and attitudes perceptual defence expectations  condition us to expect events

9 Selective attention Perceptual process model Environmental stimuli Feeling Hearing Seeing Smelling Tasting

10 Perceptual Organisation/Interpretation Categorical thinking Mostly unconscious process of organising people/things Perceptual grouping principles Closure – filling in missing pieces Identifying trends Similarity or proximity

11 Selective attention Organisation and interpretation Perceptual process model Environmental stimuli Feeling Hearing Seeing Smelling Tasting

12 Perceptual Organisation/Interpretation Our Mental models broad world-views or ‘theories-in-use’ can blind people to potentially better perspectives Mental boxes used to store information Assumptions used to interpret events

13 Iceberg Model Behaviours Thoughts and Emotions Values and Beliefs Unconscious Core Beliefs Self-talk

14 Cognitive Schema These neural networks (cognitive schema) become habitual and automatic Act as filters (filters in what fits, filters out what contradicts). Beliefs can change but we tend to keep these beliefs and act them out over time… Beliefs are NOT WRONG …just self- limiting Especially if they remain unconscious Jeff Young

15 Selective attention Emotions and behaviour Organisation and interpretation Perceptual process model Environmental stimuli Feeling Hearing Seeing Smelling Tasting

16 Attribution process Our process to decide whether an observed behaviour or event is largely caused by internal or external factors. Kelley, 1971

17 Attribution process Internal attribution perception that outcomes are due to motivation/ability rather than situation or fate External attribution perception that outcomes are due to situation or fate rather than the person

18 Perceptual errors Primacy first impressions Recency most recent information dominates perceptions Halo one trait forms a general impression Projection believing other people are similar to you

19 Self Fulfilling Prophecy Our expectations about a person affect our behaviour towards the person which can affect the person’s ability and self-efficacy Behaviour becomes consistent with expectations!

20 Self Fulfilling Prophecy Supervisorformsexpectations Expectations affect supervisor’s behaviour Supervisor’s behaviour affects employee Employee’s behaviour matches expectations

21 Self-Fulfilling Prophecy Contingencies Self-fulfilling prophecy effect is strongest: 1. At the beginning of the relationship (e.g. employee joins the team) 2. When several people have similar expectations about the person 3. When the employee has low rather than high past achievement

22 Dealing with self-fulfilling prophecy Self fulfilling prophecy is less prevalent when: Awareness training - leaders learn effects of negative perceptions and support a learning orientation Leaders use contingency leadership styles Employees strengthen their self-efficacy

23 Disclosing and Predicting Read the purpose and background INSTRUCTIONS – rank yourself through all five statements – reflect for a moment!! Assess the choices made by others evaluating one statement at a time and discuss your selections after each statement. Continue to move through all five statements.

24 Improving Perceptions Decision making accountability and meaningful interaction with others Training in: Empathy Sensitivity to the feelings, thoughts and situation of others Cognitive and emotional component Self-awareness Awareness of your values, beliefs and prejudices Applying Johari Window

25 Known to selfUnknown to self Known to others Unknown to others OpenAreaBlindArea UnknownArea HiddenArea Know yourself (Johari Window) OpenareaBlindarea HiddenareaUnknownarea Disclosure Feedback

26 What are Teams? Groups of two or more people Exist to fulfil a purpose Interdependent – interact and influence each other Mutually accountable for achieving common goals Perceive themselves as a social entity 26

27 Advantages of Teams Advantages 1. Make better decisions, products/services 2. Better information sharing 3. Increase employee motivation/engagement Fulfils drive to bond Closer scrutiny by team members Team members are benchmarks of comparison 27

28 Disadvantages of Teams Disadvantages 1. Individuals better/faster on some tasks 2. Process losses – cost of developing and maintaining teams 3. Social loafing - the tendency for individuals to exert less effort when working in a group than when working alone 28

29 Team Design Elements Task characteristics clear, easy to implement task interdependence - share common inputs, work processes, or outcomes Team size smaller teams are better but large enough to accomplish task

30 30 Existing teams might regress back to an earlier stage of development Forming StormingNormingPerforming Adjourning Stages of team development

31 Team Effectiveness Model 31 Task characteristics Team size Team composition Team Design Accomplish tasks Satisfy member needs Maintain team survival Team Effectiveness Team development Team norms Team cohesiveness Team trust Team Processes Rewards Communication Org structure Org leadership Physical space Organisational and Team Environment

32 Team Composition Effective team members must be willing and able to work on the team Effective team members possess specific competencies (5 Cs) 32

33 Five Cs of Team-member Competencies 33

34 Decision Making Pitfall #1 - Groupthink Team members place consensus above decision quality Deterioration of mental efficiency, reality testing, moral judgement Results from a group pressures toward conformity of opinion Desire to agree becomes so dominant that it overrides any realistic appraisal of alternative courses of action

35 Problem Too Rapid Convergence which moves into Action Groupthink Ideal Group Process Gathering IntelligenceComing to Conclusions Problem Debate Action Divergent Thinking Convergent Thinking Debating Society Problem (No Closure)No Action

36 Decision Making Pitfall #2 – Escalation of Commitment A choice by the team to persist with a losing course of action even in the face of clear evidence to the contrary Decision makers would likely make a different choice if they had not been involved in decisions up until this point Further resources are expected to “turn the situation around”

37 Decision Making Pitfall #3 – Abilene Paradox Results from team members wanting to avoid conflict Pluralistic ignorance – members pursue a position because they think other members desire it Expectation bubble – a set of expectations about other people’s expectations that could burst if even one person expressed a contrary view

38 Decision Making Pitfall #4 – Group Polarisation The tendency for a group discussion to intensify group opinions, producing more extreme judgment These extreme views would not be obtained from pooling the individuals views Usually results in cautious shift and a risky shift

39 Decision process High risk Individual opinions Low risk Group polarisation process Team decision Social support Persuasion Shifting responsibility

40 Team Tower Power Receive your materials Newspaper Chocolate Egg Tape Use your teams – tower must be free standing!!!! Build your tower Identify the winner

41 Structure Discussion Principles Beware of Time Pressure Invite Different Perspectives & protect alternative viewpoints when needed Frame the task as a decision to be made Shape the task as a decision Provide a formal forum for controversial views Take responsibility for failure Understand what drives conformity (need to be right, need to be liked) Overcoming Pitfalls

42 The Art of Possibility It’s time for a new kind of leadership


Download ppt "Senior Engineers Leadership Residential 25 October, 2010 Barb Wood Assistant Professor University of Western Australia."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google