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So, Whats New in the Common Core State Standards? Susan A Gendron Senior Fellow International Center for Leadership in Education June 2011

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Standards Charge

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Common Core State Standards Fewer Clearer Higher

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Common Core Standards Criteria Rigorous Clear and specific Teachable and learnable Measurable Coherent Grade by grade standards Internationally benchmarked

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44 States + DC Have Adopted the Common Core State Standards *Minnesota adopted the CCSS in ELA only

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STANDARDS FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS & LITERACY IN HISTORY/SOCIAL STUDIES, SCIENCE, AND TECHNICAL SUBJECTS JUNE 2010

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Design and Organization Three main sections K-5 (cross-disciplinary) 6-12 English Language Arts 6-12 Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects

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Design and Organization Three appendices A: Research and evidence; glossary of key terms B: Reading text exemplars; sample performance tasks C: Annotated student writing samples

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Design and Organization Shared responsibilities for students literacy development

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Design and Organization Focus on results rather than means

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Design and Organization An integrated model of literacy

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Design and Organization Media skills blended throughout

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Design and Organization K12 standards Grade-specific end-of-year expectations Developmentally appropriate, cumulative progression of skills and understandings One-to-one correspondence with College Career Anchor standards

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Design and Organization Four strands: –Reading (including Reading Foundational Skills) –Writing –Speaking and Listening –Language

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Reading Design and Organization Three sections: 1. Literature 2. Informational Text 3. Foundational Skills (K-5)

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Literary/Informational Text Literature Informational Text StoriesDramaPoetryLiterary Nonfiction and Historical, Scientific, and Technical Texts Includes childrens adventure stories, folktales, legends, fables, fantasy, realistic fiction, and myth Includes staged dialogue and brief familiar scenes Includes nursery rhymes and the subgenres of the narrative poem, limerick, and free verse poem Includes biographies and autobiographies; books about history, social studies, science, and the arts; technical texts, including directions, forms, and information displayed in graphs, charts, or maps; and digital sources on a range of topics

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Reading Framework for NAEP 2009 Grade Literary Informational 4 50% 8 45% 55% 12 30% 70%

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College and Career Readiness Standards for Reading Key Ideas and Details 1. Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text. 2. Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas. 3. Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of a text.

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College and Career Readiness Standards for Reading Craft and Structure 4. Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone. 5. Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text (e.g., a section, chapter, scene, or stanza) relate to each other and the whole. 6. Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text.

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College and Career Readiness Standards for Reading Integration of Knowledge and Ideas 7. Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words. *8. Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence. 9. Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take.

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College and Career Readiness Standards for Reading Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity 10.Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently.

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23 Overview of Text Complexity Reading Standards include over exemplar texts (stories and literature, poetry, and informational texts) that illustrate appropriate level of complexity by grade Text complexity is defined by: Qualitative 1.Qualitative measures – levels of meaning, structure, language conventionality and clarity, and knowledge demands Quantitative 2.Quantitative measures – readability and other scores of text complexity Reader and Task 3.Reader and Task – background knowledge of reader, motivation, interests, and complexity generated by tasks assigned

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Qualitative Measure Levels of Meaning (literary texts) or Purpose (informational texts) Structure Language Conventionality and Clarity Knowledge Demands: Life Experiences (literary texts) Knowledge Demands: Cultural/Literary Knowledge (chiefly literary texts) Knowledge Demands: Content/Discipline Knowledge (chiefly informational texts)

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Quantitative Measures Readability tools: (Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level test, Lexile Framework for Reading, Dale-Chall) Use multiple tools

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Text Complexity Grade Bands and Associated Lexile Ranges Text Complexity Grade Band in the Standards Old Lexile RangesLexile Ranges Aligned to CCR expectations K-1N/A CCR

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Lexile Analyzer

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Grade 4 Informational Integration of Knowledge and Ideas 8 Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text.

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Performance Task Students explain how Melvin Berger uses reasons and evidence in his book Discovering Mars: The Amazing Story of the Red Planet to support particular points regarding the topology of the planet. [RI.4.8]

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Grade 7 Informational Craft and Structure 4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the impact of a specific word choice on meaning and tone.

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Performance Task Students determine the figurative and connotative meanings of words such as wayfaring, laconic, and taciturnity as well as of phrases such as hold his peace in John Steinbecks Travels with Charley: In Search of America. They analyze how Steinbecks specific word choices and diction impact the meaning and tone of his writing and the characterization of the individuals and places he describes. [RI.7.4 ]

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College and Career Readiness Writing Standards Text Types and Purposes 1.Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence. 2.Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content. 3.Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective techniques, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.

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NAEP 2011 Writing Framework GradeTo PersuadeTo ExplainTo Convey Experience 430%35% 8 30% 1240% 20%

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College and Career Readiness Writing Standards Production and Distribution of Writing 4.Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. 5.Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach. 6.Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and to interact and collaborate with others.

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College and Career Readiness Writing Standards Research to Build and Present Knowledge 7.Conduct short, as well as more sustained research projects based on questions, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. 8.Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, assess the credibility and accuracy of each source, and integrate the information while avoiding plagiarism. 9.Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

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Example/ Science Technical Sample Task A: Evaluating Evidence Compare what the latest science tells us about Genetically Modified food against the arguments for and against Genetically Modified food. Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, conclusions of each side, and including determining the extent to which each side in the debate relied on the available science, argues from an economical perspective, or appeals to the political and emotional concerns. Verify the data and either support or challenge the conclusions with other sources of information. CCSS RST.8 Source: Achieve

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Example/ Science Technical Sample B – Making a claim Read and view different examples of case-making materials related to GM food. Take a position and cite specific textual evidence from your sources, attending to important distinctions each authors makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. Defend your conclusion from counter-claims Create a presentation of your analysis that highlights key evidence and your strongest claims. CCSS RST 1. and RST 9. Source: Achieve

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College and Career Readiness Writing Standards Range of Writing 10.Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.

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College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Speaking and Listening Comprehension and Collaboration 1. Range of conversations and collaborations, diverse partners, building on others ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively. 2. Integrate and evaluate information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally. 3. Evaluate a speakers point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric.

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College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Speaking and Listening Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas 4. Present information, findings, and supporting evidence such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. 5. Make strategic use of digital media and visual displays of data to express information and enhance understanding of presentations. 6. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and communicative tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate.

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College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Language Conventions of Standard English 1.When writing or speaking. 2.Use capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. Knowledge of Language 3.To comprehend more fully when reading or listening. Vocabulary Acquisition and Use 4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases by using context clues, analyzing meaningful word parts, 5. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings 6. Acquire and use accurately a range of general academic and domain- specific words

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Building Analytic Thinking Skills Word analysis appears 57 times in the CCSS with 77 mentions of associated analysis words such as compare and contrast Analysis – precursor to high level thinking »Lin Kuzmich »Stretch Learning Handbook

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Analytic Thinking Process What is the purpose of this material? What is a key question that is addressed or needs to be addressed? What is the most important information? What are the main inferences that can be made? What are the key ideas or concepts?

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Analytic Thinking Process What are the assumptions the author(s) made in this information, issue, or source What are the implications of this information? What is the main point of view that is presented? Paul,R. and Elder, L. (2003) Analytic Thinking Foundation for Critical Thinking Press (page 23)

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Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects Common Core Reading Standard for Informational Text Anchor Standard Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects Grades 9-10 Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects Grades Integration of Knowledge & Ideas 7.Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse formats and media, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words.* 7.Translate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual form (e.g., a table or chart) and translate information expressed visually or mathematically (e.g., in an equation) into words. 7.Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve a problem.

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STANDARDS FOR MATHEMATICS JUNE 2010

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Characteristics Fewer and more rigorous. Aligned with college and career expectations – prepare all students for success upon graduating from high school. Internationally benchmarked, so that all students are prepared for succeeding in our global economy and society. Includes rigorous content and application of higher- order skills. Builds upon strengths and lessons of current state standards. Research based

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Coherence Articulated progressions of topics and performances that are developmental and connected to other progressions Conceptual understanding and procedural skills emphasized equally NCTM states coherence also means that instruction, assessment, and curriculum are aligned

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Focus Key ideas, understandings, and skills are identified Deep learning of concepts is stressed –That is, time is spent on a topic and on learning it well. This counters the mile wide, inch deep criticism leveled at most current U.S. standards.

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Clarity and Specificity Skills and concepts are clearly defined Being able to apply concepts and skills to new situations is expected

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Standards for Mathematical Practice Describe mathematical habits of mind Standards for mathematical proficiency: reasoning, problem solving, modeling, decision making, and engagement Connect with content standards in each grade

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Mathematics/Standards for Mathematical Practice 1.Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them 2.Reason abstractly and quantitatively 3.Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others 4.Model with mathematics 5.Use appropriate tools strategically 6.Attend to precision 7.Look for and make use of structure 8.Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning

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Grade Level Overview Critical Areas – similar to NCTMs Curriculum Focal Points

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Format of K-8 Standards Grade Level DomainDomain

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Format of K-8 StandardsStandardStandard ClusterCluster ClusterCluster StandardStandard Domain Statement

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Cognitively-Guided Instruction Process Start the study of a new concept with a rich problem or hypothesis Invite your students to engage in the problem Communicate multiple representations of solutions Questions, justify, and critique thinking Use your understanding of student thinking to guide further instruction

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The K-5 standards: Counting and Cardinality (K) Operations & Algebraic Thinking Number & Operations in Base Ten Number & Operations – Fractions (3-5) Measurement & Data Geometry

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Kindergarten

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Common Addition and Subtraction Situations Results Unknown Change Unknown Start Unknown Add toSally has 4 rocks. John gave her 6 more rocks. How many rocks does S Sally had 4 rocks. How many rocks does she need to have 10 rocks altogether? Sally had some rocks. John gave her 6 more rocks. Now she has 10 rocks. How many rocks did Sally have to start with? Take fromSally had 10 rocks. She gave 4 to John. How many rocks does Sally have left? Sally had 10 rocks. She gave some to John. Now she has 6 rocks left. How many rocks did Sally give to John? Sally had some rocks. She gave 4 to John. Now she has 6 rocks left. How many rocks did Sally have to start with?

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Common addition and subtraction situations Total UnknownAdded UnknownBoth Addends Unknown Put Together/Take apart Sally has 4 red rocks and 6 blue rocks. How many rocks does she have? = ? Sally has 10 rocks. 4 are red and the rest are blue. How many blue rocks does Sally have? 4 + ? = 10 Sally has 10 rocks. How many can she put in the blue box and how many in her red box? 10 = 0 +10, 10= = = 6 + 4

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Compare Addition and Subtraction situations Differences Unknown Bigger UnknownSmaller Unknown CompareSally has 10 rocks. John has 6 rocks. How many more rocks does Sally have than John? 10 – 6 = ? 6 + ? = 10 John has 6 rocks. Sally has 4 more than John. How many rocks does Sally have? = ? = ? Sally has 10 rocks. She has 6 more rocks than John. How many rocks does John have? ? + 6 = – 6 = ?

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Common multiplication and division situations Problem TypesMultiplicationPartition Division Measurement Division Equal Group(Whole unknown) Mark has 4 bags of apples. There are 5 apples in each bag. How many apples does Mark have altogether (Size of groups unknown) Mark has 20 apples. He wants to share them equally among his 4 friends. How many apples will each friend receive? (Number of groups unknown) Mark has 20 apples. He puts them in bags with 5 apples in each. How many bags did he use? Equal Group Problems (rate (Whole unknown) If apples cost 4 cents each, how much would 5 apples cost? (Size of groups unknown) Jill paid 20 cents for 5 apples. What is the cost of 1 apple? (Number of groups unknown) Jill bought apples for 4 cents each. She spent 20 cents. How many apples did she buy?

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Common multiplication and division situations Equal Group Problems (rate) (Whole unknown) Peter walked for 5 hours at 4 miles per hour. How far did he walk? (Size of groups unknown) Peter walked 20 miles in 5 hours. How fast was he walking (in miles per hour)? (Number of groups unknown) Peter walked 20 miles at a rate of 4 miles per hour. How long did he walk for? Compare Problems (Product unknown) Jill picked 4 apples. Bill picked 5 times as many. How many apples did Bill pick? (Set size unknown) Mark picked 20 apples. He picked 4 times as many as Jill. How many apples did Jill pick? (Multiplier Unknown) Mark Picked 20 apples and Jill picked only 4. How many times as many apples did Mark pick as Jill did?

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Grade 6-8 Ratios and Proportional Relationships (6-7) Number Systems Expressions & Equations Geometry Statistics & Probability Functions (8)

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K-8 Learning Progressions s.com/

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HS Pathways 1.) Traditional (US) – 2 Algebra, Geometry and Data, probability and statistics included in each course 2.) International (integrated) three courses including number, algebra, geometry, probability and statistics each year 3.) Compacted version of traditional – grade 7/8 and algebra completed by end of 8 th grade 4.) Compacted integrated model, allowing students to reach Calculus or other college level courses

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Number and Quantity Overview Real Number System Quantities Complex Number System Vector and Matrix Quantities

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Algebra Overview Seeing Structure in Expressions Arithmetic with Polynomials and Rational Expressions Creating Equations Reasoning with Equations and Inequalities

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Functions Interpreting Functions Building Functions Linear, Quadratic and Exponential Models Trigonometric Functions

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Modeling Identify the problem Formulate a model Analyze and perform operations Interpret results Validate the conclusion Report on the conclusion

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Geometry Congruence Similarity, Right Triangles, and Trigonometry Circles Expressing Geometric Properties with Equations Geometric Measurement and Dimension Modeling and Geometry

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Statistics and Probability Interpreting Categorical and Quantitative Data Making Inferences and Justifying Conclusions Conditional Probability and the Rules of Probability Using Probability to Make Decisions

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Key Advances Focus and coherence Focus on key topics at each grade level. Coherent progressions across grade levels. Balance of concepts and skills Content standards require both conceptual understanding and procedural fluency. Mathematical practices Foster reasoning and sense-making in mathematics. College and career readiness Level is ambitious but achievable.

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Recommended Professional Development Grades K–2, Counting and Cardinality and Number and Operations in Base Grades K–5 Operations and Algebraic Thinking Grades 3–5 Number and OperationsFractions Grades 6–7 Ratios and Proportional Reasoning Grade 8 Geometry

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Prepare for this important transition By Sue Gendron Policy Coordinator, SMARTER Balance Assessment Consortium This informative and practical new resource kit provides insight into: How the new in-depth performance events differ from current assessments How the Rigor / Relevance Framework® can help facilitate college and career readiness What fewer, clearer, higher standards mean for states and schools What must be done now to prepare for implementation in 2014

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Sue Gendron Senior Fellow International Center

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