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United States Involvement in the Middle East

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1 United States Involvement in the Middle East

2 Already KNOW NEED to Know Will Learn

3 Words to Know (Write these vocabulary terms in your INB on the right hand side)
Iraq Iran-Iraq War Afghanistan Persian Gulf War 1 (Operation Desert Storm) Persian Gulf War 2 (Operation Iraqi Freedom) War in Afghanistan (Operation Enduring Freedom) Saddam Hussein Weapons of Mass Destruction Kuwait Al-Qaeda

4 Draw this graphic organizer on the right side of your notebook.

5 Iraqi History British Mandate Post WWI British colony
British Backed Monarchy King chosen by England Dictatorships 1958 Baath Revolution King Faisal I of Iraq Original caption: Death of King Faisal. Faisal, King of Iraq, whose sudden death is just announced. Image: © Hulton-Deutsch Collection/CORBIS Date Photographed: ca. 1930

6 Dictatorships1958 Baath Revolution
A. British Mandate Post WWI British colony Draw this graphic organizer on the right side of your notebook. British Backed Monarchy King chosen by England Iraq History Dictatorships1958 Baath Revolution

7 Draw a 2nd copy of this graphic organizer on the right side of your notebook.

8 Baath Party Secular (non-religious) government
Uses oil $ for government projects Hussein begins to eliminate opponents HUSSEIN CARD AS PART OF DECK OF 55 CARDS OF US CHARACTERS WANTED Reuters/CORBIS

9 Draw this graphic organizer on the right side of your notebook.
Secular (non-religious) government Draw this graphic organizer on the right side of your notebook. Uses oil $ for government projects Baath Party Hussein begins to eliminate opponents

10 Draw a 3rd copy of this graphic organizer on the right side of your notebook.

11 The Iranian hostage crisis
was a diplomatic crisis between Iran and the United States where 53 Americans were held hostage for 444 days from November 4, 1979 to January 20, 1981, after a group of Islamist students and militants took over the American embassy in support of the Iranian Revolution.

12 Iraq-Iran War Iraq invaded Iran in 1980 following a long history of border disputes and fears of Shia insurgency among Iraq's long-suppressed Shia majority influenced by the Iranian Revolution. For the next six years the war came at a great cost in lives and economic damage - a half a million Iraqi and Iranian soldiers as well as civilians are believed to have died in the war with many more injured and wounded.

13 Persian Gulf War (the 1st one!)
Iraq claimed the land Claimed Kuwait was stealing oil (“slant drilling”) $ owed to other countries for previous Iran-Iraq War. Hussein thought no one would stop him

14 Claimed Kuwait was stealing oil (“slant drilling”)
Iraq claimed the land Draw a 3rd copy of this graphic organizer on the right side of your notebook. Hussein thought no one would stop him Persian Gulf War $ owed to other countries for previous Iran-Iraq War.

15 Interactive Notebook Question (left side)
Why did Saddam invade Kuwait in 1990?

16 1st Persian Gulf War Starts (Operation Desert Storm)
Iraq invaded Kuwait in August of 1990, under the direction of Iraqi President Saddam Hussein. The Iraqi army took control of Kuwait in a very short amount of time. The United nations responded to the Iraqi invasion by demanding that Iraq withdraw its troops from Kuwait. The United nations asked other countries to cut off trade to Iraq (Embargo) in an attempt to force them to withdraw, that attempt failed. The United States and thirty other countries formed a coalition and began sending military troops into Saudi Arabia over the next few months.


18 The united Nations set a date for Iraq to leave Kuwait, Iraq rejected the date and refused to leave. The U.S. and their allies began attacking Iraq through the use of air power then by a ground assault. After a devastating battle resulting in many Iraqi deaths, the Iraqi’s were driven out of Kuwait.

19 Although the war was a decisive military victory for the coalition, Kuwait and Iraq suffered enormous property damage, and Saddam Hussein was not removed from power. In fact, Hussein was free to turn his attention to suppressing internal Shiite and Kurd revolts, which the U.S.-led coalition did not support, in part because of concerns over the possible breakup of Iraq if the revolts were successful. Coalition peace terms were agreed to by Iraq, but every effort was made by the Iraqis to frustrate implementation of the terms, particularly UN weapons inspections.

20 Afghanistan On September 11, 2001, al-Qaeda attacked two targets in the U.S. Al-Qaeda is a group of Islamic terrorists that were largely based in Afghanistan. They hijacked four airplanes and intentionally crashed two of them into the World Trade Center in new York. The third plane was crashed into the Pentagon in Virginia and the fourth crashed in rural Pennsylvania in route to its target, the White House in Washington, D.C. The terrorist attacks on that day killed nearly 3,000 people.

21 Interactive Notebook Question (left side)
Why did the U.S. invade Afghanistan in 2001?


23 Osama bin Laden was blamed for the attacks, U. S
Osama bin Laden was blamed for the attacks, U.S. President George Bush called on other countries to help wage a war on terrorism to crush al-Qaeda. In October 2001, U.S., British, and Canadian forces invaded Afghanistan in search of bin Laden and to destroy al-Qaeda and their allies the Taliban (Operation Enduring Freedom). Bin Laden was found and killed in Pakistan in May of The grip of the Taliban and al-Qaeda on Afghanistan was broken. The U.S. led forces still struggle to control portions of the country as of 2012.

24 The Iraq War (Persian Gulf War 2, Operation Iraqi Freedom)
Saddam Hussein was still president of Iraq at the time of the Afghanistan invasion. Officials in the U.S government feared connections between Hussein and al-Qaeda and the allegations that Iraq was building Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD’s) in the form of Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical weapons. The United Nations sent inspectors to Iraq to check for WMD’s however Iraq failed to allow them to complete their inspections. In response the U.S. Congress passed an Iraq War Resolution that authorized the president to go forward with a war in Iraq.

25 In march 2003, the U.S. began bombing targets in the capital of Baghdad. British, Australian, Polish, and American soldiers invaded Iraq and defeated the Iraqi army. Saddam Hussein was captured, put on trial for crimes against humanity by the Iraqi’s, and later executed.

26 Weapons of Mass Destruction were never found in Iraq
Weapons of Mass Destruction were never found in Iraq. It is difficult to determine how many Iraqis have died since the invasion, but as of 2007, more than 500,000 Iraqis may have died according to one study. Many deaths are due to sectarian violence. Over 4,000 American soldiers have been killed and over 20,000 have been wounded in Iraq thus far.

27 Interactive Notebook Question (left side)
3-2-1 List three types of Weapons of Mass Destruction Name two wars the U.S. fought against Iraq Name the former dictator of Iraq

28 Why is the U.S. interested in the M.E.?
Oil Stop Terrorists Spread democracy

29 Al-Qaeda The group is wanted by the United States for its September 11, 2001, attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, as well as a host of lesser attacks. To escape the post-9/11 U.S.-led war in Afghanistan, al-Qaeda’s central leadership believed fled eastward into Pakistan, securing a safe haven in loosely governed areas there. However, in May, 2011 Bin Laden was found and killed in Pakistan.

30 What is al-Qaeda? Al-Qaeda seeks to rid Muslim countries of what it sees as the influence of the West and replace their governments with fundamentalist Islamic regimes. After al-Qaeda’s September 11, 2001, attacks on America, the United States launched a war in Afghanistan to destroy al-Qaeda’s bases there and overthrow the Taliban, the country’s Muslim fundamentalist rulers who harbored bin Laden and his followers. “Al-Qaeda” is Arabic for “The Base.”

31 What are al-Qaeda’s origins?
Al-Qaeda grew out of the opposition to the 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. In the 1980s, bin Laden and the Palestinian religious scholar Abdullah Azzam, recruited, trained, and financed thousands of foreign mujahadeen, or holy warriors, from more than fifty countries. Bin Laden wanted these fighters to continue the "holy war" beyond Afghanistan. He formed al-Qaeda around 1988.

32 Who are al-Qaeda’s leaders?
At the top was bin Laden. He was killed during a US Special Forces raid on May in Pakistan. Ayman al-Zawahiri, the head of Egyptian Islamic Jihad, was thought to be bin Laden's top lieutenant and al-Qaeda's ideological adviser: killed by a US drone attack. Abu Yahya al-Libi, a Libyan who was captured by Pakistani authorities in 2002 but managed to escape from a U.S. prison in Afghanistan in 2005, has emerged as the public face of al-Qaeda and another top-level leader. Some counterterrorism experts consider him a top strategist and a theological scholar, arguing that his religious scholarship makes him one of the most effective promoters of global jihad. This article quotes Jarret Brachman, a former analyst for the Central Intelligence Agency who is now research director of the Combating Terrorism Center at West Point: “I think he has become the heir apparent to Osama bin Laden in terms of taking over the entire global jihadist movement.”

33 Who are al-Qaeda’s leaders?
Mustafa Abu al-Yazid, an Egyptian, was an original member of al-Qaeda's leadership council and had been a trusted adviser to bin Laden for more than a decade. He served time in prison in the early 1980s with deputy leader al-Zawahiri for their role as conspirators in the 1981 assassination of Egyptian President Anwar Sadat. He was killed June 1, 2010. Saif al-Adel, an Egyptian, who is believed to be under house arrest in Iran along with some other top leaders of the organization. He remains one of the FBI’s most wanted terrorists. Abdullah Ahmed Abdullah, an Egyptian and financial officer of al-Qaeda Saad bin Laden, Osama bin Laden’s son and possible successor, believed killed by a missile attack in 2009. Adel and Abdullah are wanted for their role in the 1998 bombings of the U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania, which killed more than 200 people.

34 Who are al-Qaeda’s leaders?
The Jordanian radical Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, who established the Sunni Muslim extremist group al-Qaeda in Iraq (AQI) and directed a series of deadly terror attacks in Iraq—including the beheadings of kidnapped foreigners—was also associated with al-Qaeda. Zarqawi pledged his allegiance to bin Laden in October 2004, and bin Laden praised Zarqawi as "the prince of al-Qaeda in Iraq." Zarqawi was killed in a U.S. air strike near Baghdad in 2006. Abu Ayyub al-Masri, one of al-Zawahiri’s disciples since joining the Egyptian Islamic Jihad in 1982, succeeded Zarqawi as AQ #1 leader until he was killed on April 18th, 2010

35 U. S. officials say several top al-Qaeda leaders are in their custody
U.S. officials say several top al-Qaeda leaders are in their custody. These include a senior lieutenant, Abu Zubaydah, who was captured in Pakistan in March 2002, and Abd al-Hadi al-Iraqi, a senior commander in Afghanistan. In March 2003, the alleged mastermind of the September 11 attacks, Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, and al-Qaeda's treasurer, Mustafa Ahmed al-Hawsawi, were also captured in Pakistan. They, along with four others detained at Guantanamo Bay, were charged with murder, terrorism, and violating rules of war in February 2008.

36 Who are al-Qaeda’s leaders?
Besides being detained, several senior leaders in the network have died or have been killed in the U.S.-led war against terrorists. A senior al-Qaeda commander, Muhammad Atef, died in the U.S. air strikes in Afghanistan. Media reports said Abu Obaidah al-Masri, a senior al-Qaeda leader believed to be involved in the 2005 London subway and bus bombings and in planning attacks in Afghanistan, died of hepatitis in Pakistan in April   In April 2006, Abdul Rahman al-Muhajir and Abu Bakr al-Suri, two of al-Qaeda's top bomb makers, were killed in Pakistan.  In January 2008, Abu Laith al-Libi, al-Qaeda’s senior military commander and a key link between the group and its affiliates in North Africa, was killed in Pakistan’s tribal areas in a secret U.S. missile strike.

37 Interactive Notebook Question (left side)
What event led Osama bin Laden to form Al-Qaeda in 1988?

38 Where does al-Qaeda operate?
There is no single headquarters. From 1991 to 1996, al-Qaeda worked out of Pakistan along the Afghan border, or inside Pakistani cities. Al-Qaeda has autonomous underground cells in some 100 countries, including the United States. Law enforcement has broken up al-Qaeda cells in the United Kingdom, the United States, Italy, France, Spain, Germany, Albania, Uganda, and elsewhere. To escape the U.S.-led war in Afghanistan, al-Qaeda’s leadership once again sought refuge in Pakistan’s tribal areas after September 11, Bin Laden, along with some other members of the organization, were found hiding in Pakistan along the Afghan border.

39 Where does al-Qaeda operate?

40 How big is al-Qaeda? It’s impossible to say precisely, because al-Qaeda is decentralized. Estimates range from several hundred to several thousand members.

41 Is al-Qaeda connected to other terrorist organizations?
Egyptian Islamic Jihad The Libyan Islamic Fighting Group Islamic Army of Aden (Yemen) Jama'at al-Tawhid wal Jihad (Iraq) Lashkar-e-Taiba and Jaish-e-Muhammad (Kashmir) Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (Algeria) (formerly Salafist Group for Call and Combat) Armed Islamic Group (Algeria) Abu Sayyaf Group (Malaysia, Philippines) Jemaah Islamiya (Southeast Asia)

42 What major attacks has al-Qaeda been responsible for?
The group has targeted American and other Western interests as well as Jewish targets and Muslim governments it sees as corrupt or impious—above all, the Saudi monarchy. Al-Qaeda linked attacks include: The February 2006 attack on the Abqaiq petroleum processing facility, the largest such facility in the world, in Saudi Arabia. The July 2005 bombings of the London public transportation system. The March 2004 bomb attacks on Madrid commuter trains, which killed nearly 200 people and left more than 1,800 injured. The May 2003 car bomb attacks on three residential compounds in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The November 2002 car bomb attack and a failed attempt to shoot down an Israeli jetliner with shoulder-fired missiles, both in Mombasa, Kenya. The October 2002 attack on a French tanker off the coast of Yemen. Several spring 2002 bombings in Pakistan. The April 2002 explosion of a fuel tanker outside a synagogue in Tunisia. The September 11, 2001, hijacking attacks on four U.S. airplanes, two of which crashed into the World Trade Center, and a third of which crashed into the Pentagon. The October 2000 U.S.S. Cole bombing. The August 1998 bombings of the U.S. embassies in Nairobi, Kenya, and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

43 Bibliography Council for Foreign Relations. Retrieved May 13, 2009

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