Media Literacy Media Construct our society Media contain ideological and value messages Individuals construct their own meanings from media The human brain processes moving images different than text Media is most powerful when it operates on an emotional level
Statistics Interpersonal violence is the second leading cause of death for young people ages 15-24 Second only to motor vehicles accidents A large majority of victims are related to or acquainted with their assailant
Crime Clock VIOLENT CRIME One VIOLENT CRIME every 17 seconds AGGRAVATED ASSAULT One AGGRAVATED ASSAULT every 28 seconds ROBBERY One ROBBERY every 51 seconds RAPE One RAPE every 5 minutes MURDER One MURDER every 23 minutes
Figure 1 Substance Appearance in Popular Movies and Songs Percentages reflect the number of movies (200 total) and songs (1,000 total) in which substances appeared, whether or not they were used.
Figure 2 Percentage of Movies and Songs Associating Illicit Drug Use With: Movies Popular Songs Wealth or luxury Sexual activity Crime or violence Anti-use statement Refusal to use Pro-use statement or advocacy of use No consequence to user Wealth or luxury Sexual activity Crime or violence Anti-use statement Refusal to use Pro-use statement or advocacy of use No consequence to user Based on the 33 movies and 156 songs that portrayed illicit drug use.
Figure 3 Percentage of Movies and Songs Associating Alcohol Use With: Based on the 183 movies and 149 songs that portrayed alcohol use. Movies Popular Songs Wealth or luxury Sexual activity Crime or violence Anti-use statement Refusal to use Pro-use statement or advocacy of use No consequence to user Wealth or luxury Sexual activity Crime or violence Anti-use statement Refusal to use Pro-use statement or advocacy of use No consequence to user
Figure 4 Percentage of Songs and 5-Minute Movie Segments with Substance Appearance In order to measure the concentration of substance appearances within movies, each movie was divided into 5- minute segments, and each segment examined separately for substances. The height of the columns above represents the percentage of all 5-minute movie segments (4,372) or songs (1,000) that contained a substance appearance. The 2% above therefore means that illicit drugs appeared one or more times in the 4,372 movie segments. The percentages refer to the intervals, not the number of appearances.
Figure 5 Substance Use in G or PG, PG-13, and R-Rated Movies Percentages based on 38 G or PG, 65 PG-13, and 97 R-rated movies.
Figure 6 Substance Use in Movies by Genre Percentages based on 60 Action Adventures, 69 Comedies, and 71 Dramas.
Figure 7 Substance Use by Age of Major Characters Percentages based on 79 major characters under 18 years, 473 characters between 18 and 39, and 196 characters 40 and older.
Figure 8 Types of Illicit Drugs, Tobacco, and Alcohol in Movies Marijuana Powder cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin or other opiates Miscellaneous other Cigarettes Cigars Pipes or chewing tobacco Beer Percentage of movies with illicit drugs that show: Percentage of movies with tobacco portrayals that show use of: Crack cocaine Percentage of movies with alcohol portrayals that show use of: Based on 43 movies in which illicit drugs appeared, 172 movies portraying tobacco use, and 183 movies portraying alcohol use. Percentages sum to more than 100% because multiple substances appeared in the same movie. Wine or champagne Hard liquor/ mixed drinks
Figure 9 Percentage of Songs with Substance References by Genre Based on 212 Rap songs, 211 Alternative Rock, 212 Hot-100, 211 Heavy Metal, and 212 Country-Western.
Figure 10 Types of Illicit Drugs and Alcohol in Songs Percentage of songs with illicit drug portrayals that refer to: Percentage of songs with alcohol portrayals that refer to: Based on 182 songs with illicit drug references and 166 songs with alcohol references. This includes songs in which substances were mentioned but not used. Marijuana Crack cocaine Powder cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin or other opiates Miscellaneous other (amphetamines, inhalants, etc.) Beer or malt liquor Wine or champagne Hard liquor or mixed drinks Generic terms--e.g., “booze”