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Nomenclature, Chemical Formulas and Reactions

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1 Nomenclature, Chemical Formulas and Reactions
Chemistry Review Nomenclature, Chemical Formulas and Reactions Types of Compounds (Ionic vs. Molecular) Naming Compounds and Writing Formulas Molecular and Empirical Formulas Reaction Types Balancing Chemical Equations Drawing Lewis Structures and Predicting Geometric Shapes Reaction Rates and Kinetics Use the periodic table.

2 Non-metals above the staircase
Metals below the staircase

3 Non-metals above the staircase
Metals below the staircase The yellow shaded metals can take on multiple charges/oxidation states (except Zn, Ag, and Cd).

4 Types of Compounds (Ionic vs. Molecular)
Ionic compounds form from metals and non-metals (across the tracks) and transfer electrons between elements. You figure out the formula for an ionic compound by criss-crossing charges to subscripts and reducing subscripts if possible. Ca2+ and F1- form ___________ Li1+ and PO43- form____________ Pb4+ and S2- form ________ Mn2+ and ClO3-1 form _________

5 Types of Compounds (Ionic vs. Molecular)
Ionic compounds form from metals and non-metals (across the tracks) and transfer electrons between elements. You figure out the formula for an ionic compound by criss-crossing charges to subscripts and reducing subscripts if possible. Ca2+ and F1- form CaF2 Li1+ and PO43- form Li3PO4 Pb4+ and S2- form Pb2S4 which reduces to PbS2 Mn2+ and ClO3-1 form Mn(ClO3)2

6 Naming Ionic Compounds
Write the name of the cation. If the anion is an element, change its ending to -ide; if the anion is a polyatomic ion, simply write the name of the polyatomic ion. If the cation can have more than one possible charge, write the charge as a Roman numeral in parentheses. Name the following compounds CaF2 _________________________ Li3PO4 __________________________ PbS2 _____________________________ Mn(ClO3)2 ______________________________

7 Naming Ionic Compounds
Write the name of the cation. If the anion is an element, change its ending to -ide; if the anion is a polyatomic ion, simply write the name of the polyatomic ion. If the cation can have more than one possible charge, write the charge as a Roman numeral in parentheses. Name the following compounds CaF2 Calcium fluoride Li3PO4 Lithium phosphate PbS2 Lead (IV) sufide Mn(ClO3)2 Manganese (II) chlorate

8 Molecular Compounds Molecular compounds are composed of two non-metals (above the staircase) Indicate # of each atom using prefixes (mono, di, tri, tetra, penta, hexa, hepta, octa, nona, deca) The first element does not use mono if there’s only one. Examples: OF2 is named oxygen diflouride N2O is named dinitrogen monoxide You try: NO2 ___________________________ P2O4 ____________________________

9 Molecular Compounds Molecular compounds are composed of two non-metals (above the staircase) Indicate # of each atom using prefixes (mono, di, tri, tetra, penta, hexa, hepta, octa, nona, deca) The first element does not use mono if there’s only one. Examples: OF2 is named oxygen diflouride N2O is named dinitrogen monoxide You try: NO2 nitrogen dioxide P2O4 diphosphorus tetroxide

10 Molecular and Empirical Formulas
Molecular Formulas provide the true number of atoms in a compound Empirical formulas give the ratio of the elements found in a compound Structural formulas show how the atoms are connected. Molecular Formula C6H6 C2H6 C2H2O4 Empirical Formula CH CH3 CHO2

11 Types of Reactions AX + B → BX + Y single replacement AX + BY → AY + BX double replacement AB → A + B decomposition A + B → AB combination or synthesis CxHy + O2 → CO2 + H2O combustion You identify each type H2SO4 + PbCl2 → HCl + PbSO4 Li + Cu(OH)2 → LiOH + Cu CH4 + O2 → CO2 + H2O NH3 → N2 + H2 H2O + O2 → H2O2

12 Types of Reactions AX + B → BX + Y single replacement AX + BY → AY + BX double replacement AB → A + B decomposition A + B → AB combination or synthesis CxHy + O2 → CO2 + H2O combustion You identify each type H2SO4 + PbCl2 → HCl + PbSO4 Double Replacement Li + Cu(OH)2 → LiOH + Cu Single Replacement CH4 + O2 → CO2 + H2O Combustion NH3 → N2 + H2 Decomposition H2O + O2 → H2O2 Synthesis or combination

13 Balancing Equations Chemical Reactions should have the same number of atoms on each side to follow the Law of Conservation of Mass. Use coefficients (numbers in front) to balance the equations. ___Al + ___FeCl2 → ___AlCl3 +___Fe Al 1 Fe 2 Cl 3 Count the number of atoms on each side and track the changes as you make them.

14 Balancing Equations Chemical Reactions should have the same number of atoms on each side to follow the Law of Conservation of Mass. Use coefficients (numbers in front) to balance the equations. ___Al + ___FeCl2 → ___AlCl3 +___Fe Al 1 Fe 2 Cl 3 Count the number of atoms on each side and track the changes as you make them.

15 Balancing Equations Chemical Reactions should have the same number of atoms on each side to follow the Law of Conservation of Mass. Use coefficients (numbers in front) to balance the equations. ___Al + 3FeCl2 → ___AlCl3 +___Fe Al 1 Fe 1 →3 Cl 2 →6 3 Count the number of atoms on each side and track the changes as you make them.

16 Balancing Equations Chemical Reactions should have the same number of atoms on each side to follow the Law of Conservation of Mass. Use coefficients (numbers in front) to balance the equations. ___Al + 3FeCl2 → 2AlCl3 +___Fe Al 1 1 →2 Fe 1 →3 Cl 2 →6 3 →6 Count the number of atoms on each side and track the changes as you make them.

17 Balancing Equations Chemical Reactions should have the same number of atoms on each side to follow the Law of Conservation of Mass. Use coefficients (numbers in front) to balance the equations. 2Al + 3FeCl2 → 2AlCl3 +___Fe Al 1 →2 Fe 1 →3 1 Cl 2 →6 3 →6 Count the number of atoms on each side and track the changes as you make them.

18 Balancing Equations Chemical Reactions should have the same number of atoms on each side to follow the Law of Conservation of Mass. Use coefficients (numbers in front) to balance the equations. 2Al + 3FeCl2 → 2AlCl3 +3Fe Al 1 →2 Fe 1 →3 Cl 2 →6 3 →6 Count the number of atoms on each side and track the changes as you make them.

19 References for New York Regent’s exam powerpoint.


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