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Chemistry Review Nomenclature, Chemical Formulas and Reactions 1.Types of Compounds (Ionic vs. Molecular) 2.Naming Compounds and Writing Formulas 3.Molecular.

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Presentation on theme: "Chemistry Review Nomenclature, Chemical Formulas and Reactions 1.Types of Compounds (Ionic vs. Molecular) 2.Naming Compounds and Writing Formulas 3.Molecular."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chemistry Review Nomenclature, Chemical Formulas and Reactions 1.Types of Compounds (Ionic vs. Molecular) 2.Naming Compounds and Writing Formulas 3.Molecular and Empirical Formulas 4.Reaction Types 5.Balancing Chemical Equations 6.Drawing Lewis Structures and Predicting Geometric Shapes 7.Reaction Rates and Kinetics Use the periodic table.

2 Metals below the staircase Non-metals above the staircase

3 The yellow shaded metals can take on multiple charges/oxidation states (except Zn, Ag, and Cd). Metals below the staircase Non-metals above the staircase

4 Types of Compounds (Ionic vs. Molecular) Ionic compounds form from metals and non-metals (across the tracks) and transfer electrons between elements. You figure out the formula for an ionic compound by criss-crossing charges to subscripts and reducing subscripts if possible. Ca 2+ and F 1- form ___________ Li 1+ and PO 4 3- form____________ Pb 4+ and S 2- form ________ Mn 2+ and ClO 3 -1 form _________

5 Types of Compounds (Ionic vs. Molecular) Ca 2+ and F 1- form CaF 2 Li 1+ and PO 4 3- form Li 3 PO 4 Pb 4+ and S 2- form Pb 2 S 4 which reduces to PbS 2 Mn 2+ and ClO 3 -1 form Mn(ClO 3 ) 2 Ionic compounds form from metals and non-metals (across the tracks) and transfer electrons between elements. You figure out the formula for an ionic compound by criss-crossing charges to subscripts and reducing subscripts if possible.

6 Naming Ionic Compounds Write the name of the cation. If the anion is an element, change its ending to -ide; if the anion is a polyatomic ion, simply write the name of the polyatomic ion. If the cation can have more than one possible charge, write the charge as a Roman numeral in parentheses. Name the following compounds CaF 2 _________________________ Li 3 PO 4 __________________________ PbS 2 _____________________________ Mn(ClO 3 ) 2 ______________________________

7 Naming Ionic Compounds Write the name of the cation. If the anion is an element, change its ending to -ide; if the anion is a polyatomic ion, simply write the name of the polyatomic ion. If the cation can have more than one possible charge, write the charge as a Roman numeral in parentheses. Name the following compounds CaF 2 Calcium fluoride Li 3 PO 4 Lithium phosphate PbS 2 Lead (IV) sufide Mn(ClO 3 ) 2 Manganese (II) chlorate

8 Molecular Compounds Molecular compounds are composed of two non-metals (above the staircase) Indicate # of each atom using prefixes (mono, di, tri, tetra, penta, hexa, hepta, octa, nona, deca) The first element does not use mono if there’s only one. Examples: OF 2 is named oxygen diflouride N 2 O is named dinitrogen monoxide You try: NO 2 ___________________________ P 2 O 4 ____________________________

9 Molecular Compounds Molecular compounds are composed of two non-metals (above the staircase) Indicate # of each atom using prefixes (mono, di, tri, tetra, penta, hexa, hepta, octa, nona, deca) The first element does not use mono if there’s only one. Examples: OF 2 is named oxygen diflouride N 2 O is named dinitrogen monoxide You try: NO 2 nitrogen dioxide P 2 O 4 diphosphorus tetroxide

10 Molecular and Empirical Formulas Molecular Formulas provide the true number of atoms in a compound Empirical formulas give the ratio of the elements found in a compound Structural formulas show how the atoms are connected. Molecular Formula C6H6C6H6 C2H6C2H6 C2H2O4C2H2O4 Empirical Formula CH CH 3 CHO 2

11 Types of Reactions AX + B → BX + Y single replacement AX + BY → AY + BX double replacement AB → A + B decomposition A + B → AB combination or synthesis C x H y + O 2 → CO 2 + H 2 O combustion You identify each type H 2 SO 4 + PbCl 2 → HCl + PbSO 4 Li + Cu(OH) 2 → LiOH + Cu CH 4 + O 2 → CO 2 + H 2 O NH 3 → N 2 + H 2 H 2 O + O 2 → H 2 O 2

12 Types of Reactions AX + B → BX + Y single replacement AX + BY → AY + BX double replacement AB → A + B decomposition A + B → AB combination or synthesis C x H y + O 2 → CO 2 + H 2 O combustion You identify each type H 2 SO 4 + PbCl 2 → HCl + PbSO 4 Double Replacement Li + Cu(OH) 2 → LiOH + Cu Single Replacement CH 4 + O 2 → CO 2 + H 2 OCombustion NH 3 → N 2 + H 2 Decomposition H 2 O + O 2 → H 2 O 2 Synthesis or combination

13 Balancing Equations Chemical Reactions should have the same number of atoms on each side to follow the Law of Conservation of Mass. Use coefficients (numbers in front) to balance the equations. ___Al + ___FeCl 2 → ___AlCl 3 +___Fe Al1 1 Fe2 1 Cl2 3 Count the number of atoms on each side and track the changes as you make them.

14 Balancing Equations Chemical Reactions should have the same number of atoms on each side to follow the Law of Conservation of Mass. Use coefficients (numbers in front) to balance the equations. ___Al + ___FeCl 2 → ___AlCl 3 +___Fe Al1 1 Fe2 1 Cl2 3 Count the number of atoms on each side and track the changes as you make them.

15 Balancing Equations Chemical Reactions should have the same number of atoms on each side to follow the Law of Conservation of Mass. Use coefficients (numbers in front) to balance the equations. ___Al + 3FeCl 2 → ___AlCl 3 +___Fe Al1 1 Fe1 →3Fe1 Cl2 →6Cl3 Count the number of atoms on each side and track the changes as you make them.

16 Balancing Equations Chemical Reactions should have the same number of atoms on each side to follow the Law of Conservation of Mass. Use coefficients (numbers in front) to balance the equations. ___Al + 3FeCl 2 → 2AlCl 3 +___Fe Al1 1 →2 Fe1 →3Fe1 Cl2 →6Cl3 →6 Count the number of atoms on each side and track the changes as you make them.

17 Balancing Equations Chemical Reactions should have the same number of atoms on each side to follow the Law of Conservation of Mass. Use coefficients (numbers in front) to balance the equations. 2Al + 3FeCl 2 → 2AlCl 3 +___Fe Al1 →2Al1 →2 Fe1 →3Fe1 Cl2 →6Cl3 →6 Count the number of atoms on each side and track the changes as you make them.

18 Balancing Equations Chemical Reactions should have the same number of atoms on each side to follow the Law of Conservation of Mass. Use coefficients (numbers in front) to balance the equations. 2Al + 3FeCl 2 → 2AlCl 3 +3Fe Al1 →2Al1 →2 Fe1 →3Fe1 →3 Cl2 →6Cl3 →6 Count the number of atoms on each side and track the changes as you make them.

19 References for New York Regent’s exam powerpoint.


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