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Where in the world is the world? The Scientific World of the 17 th and 18 th centuries.

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Presentation on theme: "Where in the world is the world? The Scientific World of the 17 th and 18 th centuries."— Presentation transcript:

1 Where in the world is the world? The Scientific World of the 17 th and 18 th centuries.

2 The objectives of this slide show are You will understand the impact of the discoveries of Galileo, Copernicus, and Newton You will assess in what ways the ancient scholars limited scientific inquiry. You will judge for yourself the risk that these scientists took to publish their findings.

3 If we remember, the Catholic church had folded into its doctrine various classical scholars. This was done quite early to win over pagan converts.

4 Aristotle Made proclamations, then proceeded to explain why it was so. The result was knowledge was set in stone. The conclusions were made before extensive observation.

5 Ptolemy a.d. The sun revolves around the earth Used fabricated data But, once again, accepted and embraced by the early Catholic church

6 Ptolemy developed certain astronomical theories and discovered that they were not consistent with observation. Instead of abandoning the theories, he deliberately fabricated observations from the theories so that he could claim that the observations prove the validity of his theories. In every scientific or scholarly setting known, this practice is called fraud, and it is a crime against science and scholarship. Heres what Isaac Newton said about Ptolemy:

7 Copernicus was born in Krakow, Poland in 1473 and lived until 1543.

8 People began to question the Catholic idea of the universe. They began to observe, write down, and publish what they learned.













21 His famous book was the Revolution of Heavenly Orbs

22 He came to the conclusion that the earth and the planets revolved around the sun.

23 There is a legend that the book was placed in his hands at his death, because of its controversial content.

24 Shakespeare and Galileo were both born in 1564!

25 Galileo invented a telescope that helped Venetian merchants set prices.




29 The telescope enabled him to see the moons of Jupiter and the craters of our moon.


31 He wrote about his observations in The Starry Messenger in 1610.

32 Up until that time, people thought the moon had a smooth surface, despite the shadows that could be seen with the naked eye.

33 The observations were stunning.

34 The Catholic church was upset about this information, and saw it as an attack on their traditions.

35 The reformation and counter- reformation was in full swingand so the church began to keep a secret file on Galileo for 17 years.

36 I hold that the Sun is located at the centre of the revolutions of the heavenly orbs and does not change place, and that the Earth rotates on itself and moves around it. Moreover... I confirm this view not only by refuting Ptolemy's and Aristotle's arguments, but also by producing many for the other side, especially some pertaining to physical effects whose causes perhaps cannot be determined in any other way; these discoveries clearly confute the Ptolemaic system.PtolemyAristotle --Galileo.

37 Galileo was eventually brought up before the inquisition in 1633.


39 The charges were for heresy.

40 He was kept under house arrest

41 Even then, it was too late...with the invention of the printing press, ideas were bouncing all over Europe.

42 And the year that Galileo died, 1642,, a baby boy was born who would change the world...



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