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US Ch. 11 The Civil War.

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1 US Ch. 11 The Civil War

2 Confederates Fire on Fort Sumter
Conf. soldiers take over gov. and Military installations Fort Sumter- Union outpost in Charleston harbor Conf. demand surrender of Fort Sumter

3 Lincoln’s Dilemma Reinforcing fort by force would lead rest of slave states to secede Evacuating fort would recognize legitimize Confederacy and endanger the Union

4 First Shots Lincoln does not reinforce or evacuate just sends food
For South, no action would damge sovereignty of Confederacy Jefferson Davis chooses to turn peaceful secession into war South fires on Sumter April 12, 1861

5 Virginia Secedes Fall of Fort Sumter unites the North volunteers rush to enlist Virginia unwilling to fight the South and secedes from the Union Anti-slavery western counties secede from VA 3 more states secede but border states remain with Union

6 Union and Confederate Strategies
Union advantages: Soldiers, Factories, Food and the RR Confederate Advantages: Cotton profits, Generals, and Motivation Union’s Strategy Anaconda Plan-Union strategy to conquer the South, blockade Southern ports, Divide Confederacy in two in west Capture Richmond (Confederate Capital)

7 Confederate Strategy- Defense, invade North if opportunity arises

8 Bull Run Bull Run- first battle, near Wash. D.C.
Result- Confederate victory Thomas J. Jackson- Stonewall Jackson holds firm in battle

9 Protecting Wash. DC After Bull Run, Lincoln calls for 1 million additional soldiers Appts. Gen. George McClellan to lead army of the Potomac

10 Forts Henry and Donelson
Gen. U.S. Grant- brave,tough and decisive commander in West Feb. 1862, Grant captures Conf. Forts Henry and Donelson

11 Shiloh March 1862, Conf. troops surprise Union soldiers at Shiloh
Grant counterattacks; Conf. retreat; thousands dead and wounded Shiloh teaches preparation needed and that Conf. are vulnerable in the West

12 Ironclads New ironclad ships instrumental in victories of Grant and Farragut Ironclads splinter wooden ships, can withstand cannons and resist burning March 1862, North’s Monitor v. South’s Merrimack fight to a draw

13 “On to Richmond” McClellan waits to attack Richmond; drills troops for 5 months Spring 1862, Robert E. Lee takes command of Southern army Lee and McClellan fight Seven Days’ Battle; Union leaves Richmond area

14 Antietam Lee wins Second Battle of Bull Run and marches into Maryland
Lee and McClellan clash at Antietam- bloodiest single-day battle Battle is a standoff- Confederates retreat and McClellan does not pursue Lincoln fires McClellan

15 Sect. II Britain Pursues Its Own Interests
Britain has cotton inventory and new sources and doesn’t need the South’s cotton It does need the North’s wheat, corn and chooses neutrality

16 Trent Affair Conf. diplomats travel on Trent to get British and French support US Navy arrests them, Lincoln frees them and averts war with Britain

17 Lincoln’s View on Slavery
Fed. Gov. has no power to abolish slavery where it exists Lincoln decides army can emancipate slaves who labor for Confederacy Emancipation discourages Britain from supporting the South

18 Emancipation Proclamation
Emancipation Proclamation- is issued by Lincoln in 1863 it says: Free slaves behind the Confederate lines Does not apply to areas occupied by Union or slave state in the Union

19 Reactions Proclamation has symbolic value and gives war high moral purpose Free blacks welcome ability to fight against slavery Northern Dem. Claim it will antagonize the South and prolong the war Confederacy becomes more determined to preserve way of life Compromise no longer possible one side must defeat the other

20 Dealing with Dissent Neither side completely unified, both sides face divided loyalties Lincoln suspends Habeas Corpus-Which is order to bring accused to court and name charges against them Seizes telegraph offices so can’t be used for subversion

21 Copperheads- Northern Dem. Advocating peace are also arrested
Davis denounces Lincoln and then suspends habeas corpus in the South Lincoln expands presidential powers and sets precedent

22 Conscription Casualties and desertions lead to Conscription – the draft to serve in the army Both armies allow draftees to hire substitutes to serve for them Planters with more than 20 slaves exempted 90% eligible for South to serve 92% Northern soldiers volunteer

23 Draft Riots White workers fear Southern blacks will come to the North and compete for jobs Angry at having to free blacks mobs rampage through New York City

24 Sect. III African American Soldiers
Af. Am 1% of North’s Pop. By war’s end 10% of army Lower pay than white troops for most of war and limits on military rank High morality from disease ; POWs killed or returned to slavery Fort Pillow, TN Confederates massacre over 200 Af. AM. POWs

25 Slave Resistance in the Confederacy
Slaves seek freedom behind Union army lines On plantations, they destroy property and refuse to go with fleeing owners

26 Southern Shortages Food shortage from lost manpower, Unoin occupation and loss of slaves Blockade creates other shortages some Conf. trade with the enemy

27 Northern Economic Growth
Industries that supply army boom; some contractors cheat and profit Wages do not keep up with prices workers standard of living drops Women replace men on farms, city jobs and gov. jobs Congress est. first income tax on earnings to help pay for war

28 Lives on the Lines Lack of sanitation, personal hygiene lead to disease in camps Diets are unvaried, limited and unappealing

29 Civil War Medicine US Sanitary Commission works to better hygiene and hire and train nurses Dorothea Dix superintendent of women nurses Union death rate drops Surgeon general orders at least 1/3 of Union nurses be women Union nurse Clara Barton serves on Front line Southern women also volunteer as Conf. nurses

30 Prisons Living conditions in prisons worse than in army camps
Andersonville- worst Conf. prison It has no shelter, sanitation 1/3 prisoners die Northern prisons more space, food, and shelter than the South 12% of Conf. prisoners and 15% of Union prisoners die

31 Sect. IV North Takes Charge
Prelude to Gettysburg May 1863, South defeats North at Chncellorsville Stonewall Jackson mistakenly shot by own troops and dies 8 days later Lee invades the North to get supplies and gets support of Democrats

32 Gettysburg 3 day battle at Gettysburg which cripples the South It’s the turning point of the war Confederates go to find shoes and meet Union cavalry July 1, Conf. drive Union back and take town

33 Second Day South attacks Union led by Gen. George Meade on Cemetery Ridge North repulses repeated attacks on Little Round Top Many exhausted Conf. surrender and Union line holds

34 Third Day Armies exchange vicious artillery fire
Lee orders attack on Union lines; North cuts down the Confederates Meade does not counterattack; Lee retreats to Virginia Staggering losses on both sides

35 Vicksburg Under Seige Conf. Vicksburg prevents Union from controlling the Miss. River Spring of 1863, Union destroys MS rail lines and sacks Jackson Grants assault on Vicksburg fail and begins siege in May Starving Conf. surrender on July 4 Port Hudson,LA falls 5 days later; Conf. completely divided

36 Memorial Ceremony Nov. 1863, ceremony held to dedicate cemetery in Gettysburg Edward Everett, noted speaker, gives flowery 2 hour speech Lincoln’s 2 minute Gettysburg Address asserts unity of US and honors the dead It calls for living to dedicate selves to preserve the Union and freedom

37 Confederate Morale South unable to attack; hopes to undo North’s morale and get armistice Civilian morale plummets and public calls for peace Discord in gov. prevents Davis from governing effectively

38 Grant Appoints Sherman
March 1864, Lincoln appts. Grant commander of all Union armies Grant appts. William Tecumseh Sherman commander of MS division Grant, Sherman believe in total war to destroy South’s will to fight

39 Grant and Lee in Virginia
Grant’s strategy; immobilize Lee in VA while Sherman raids Georgia May 1864-April 1865, Grant and Lee fight many battles Heavy losses on both sides but North can replace soldiers and South can’t

40 Sherman’s March Sept Sherman takes Atlanta; South tries to cut supply lines Sherman cuts wide path of destruction in Georgia and lives off of land Dec. he takes Savannah and turns north to help Grant fight Lee He inflicts more destruction in S.C.

41 Election of 1864 Dem. want immediate armistice and nominate McClellan
Radical Republicans- harsh conditions for readmission to the Union Republicans change name, choose pro-Union Democrat as running mate Lincoln pessimistic; Northern victories and troops give him win

42 Surrender at Appomatox
After Petersburg, Davis gov. leaves Richmond and sets it afire Lee surrenders April 1865 at village of Appomattox Court House Lee’s soldiers paroled on generous terms

43 Sect. V War ends threat of secession; increases power of federal government

44 Economic Changes National Bank Act of federal system of chartered banks Gap between North and South widens; North; Industry booms; commercial agriculture takes hold South; Industry and farms destroyed

45 Cost of War Hundreds of thousands dead and wounded; lives are disruptes Financially, war costs government around 3.3 billion

46 New Birth of Freedom In 1865 Thirteenth Amendment abolishes slavery in all states

47 Civilians Follow New Paths
Some soldiers stay in army and others become civilians and many go West Clara Barton helps found the American Red Cross in 1881

48 Assassination of Lincoln
April 14, 1865, Lincoln is shot at Ford’s Theatre The assassin John Wilkes Booth escapes and is trapped by Union calvary and shot 7 million people pay respects to Lincoln’s funeral train

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