2What is a “Shogun”? What was the position of the emperor in Japan? A “Shogun” was the military leader of all Japan. This was achieved through military conquestThe emperor was largely a dynastic title. The real power was held by the Shogun
3Describe the feudal system in Japan during the 600-1200 C.E. period The Heiji War, marks the beginning of feudal Japan, for the relationship of various provincial generals and lords to the shogun was the relationship of vassals to a lord. The individual provinces were more or less independent; their lords, or daimyo, took oaths of allegiance to the shogun.
4Political aspects of feudal Japan What was significant about the Kamakura shogunate?1st of three de-centralized military –led governmentsRise of Samurai class of warriorsCompare European and Japanese feudalism
5Who is Murasaki Shikibu? Female noblewoman-author of Tales of the GenjiBook about the son of the Japanese emperor in Kyoto around 1000 C.E.
6What technological achievements of the Koryo dynasty of Korea? Beautifully printed editions of Buddhist textsWoodblock printingMoveable type-improved by the Chinese led to more cheaply printed texts, available to allWhat is Champa rice?Originally from India, became the staple crop in southern Viet Nam (Champa) and was brought as tribute to the Song China court and became popular with Chinese farmers because it matured faster than their own rice variety.
7Compare the philosophies of Buddhism and Confucianism Although both began as guidelines for living, Buddhism has developed into a religion. Confucianism emphasized inner harmony with nature and ancestor veneration, but Buddhism focused on development of the individual with nirvana, or total spiritual satisfaction as the goal.
8What are the differences between Confucianism and Neo-Confucianism? Neo-Confucianism became popular during the Song dynasty in China. It was a new interpretation of the teachings of Confucius. This new interpretation emphasized individual moral and social responsibility with the “sage” who deals with social problems calmly as the human idealPg. 258
9Buddhists & Confucianists continued… Neo-Confucianists & Buddhists used meditationCivil examinations for government positions included questions from Confucian classics and although this meant that positions were based on merit, noble sons who had the time to study the classics were more often successful.Success meant good marriage prospects, high salary and prestige. Failure could ruin a man and his family
10What factors contributed to the growth of cities after 1200 C.E.? “Communes” of citizens demanded more autonomy for self-governmentIncrease in agriculture=increase in population (use of horse collar, plow)Return to money based economy=more craftspeople rather than farmersDevelopment of manufacturing and trade
11Where is Kievan Rus? Why was it important to trade? The Slav peoples, ruled by the Swedish Vikings (Varangians) who lived in the area of Kiev controlled the trade on the Dnieper and Volga Rivers, much of trade was with the Byzantine Empire (blue)Pg. 232
12Who are the Slavs?member of the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe, residing chiefly in eastern and southeastern Europe but extending also across northern Asia to the Pacific Ocean. Slavic languages belong to the Indo-European family. Customarily Slavs are subdivided into east Slavs (chiefly Russians, Ukrainians, and Belarusians), west Slavs (chiefly Poles, Czechs, Slovaks, and Wends, or Sorbs), and south Slavs (chiefly Serbs, Croats, Slovenes, and Macedonians). Bulgarians, though of mixed origin like the Hungarians, speak a Slavic language and are often designated as south Slavs.
13What factors led to the development of a middle class in many post-classical societies? Change from subsistence farming to technological diffusion, increase in population and consequently trade increases led to the development of a merchant class. The merchant class developed power through control of the economy.
14What effect did the Franks have on Europe? member of a Germanic-speaking people who invaded the western Roman Empire in the 5th century ad. Dominating present-day northern France, Belgium, and western Germany, the Franks established the most powerful Christian kingdom of early medieval western Europe. The name France (Francia) is derived from their name.
15In general, what rights did women have before 800 C.E.? Some rights in marriage as to choice of partner or to choose divorceSome rights to property, laws upheld their rights to have protection and support from a husbandWomen had control of the home and children although subservient to the husband.Some women could work outside the home in markets or as mid-wives.
17Compare the Tang dynasty with the Byzantine empire Christianity became popular but Buddhism was predominantMajor trade center of Asia on Silk RoadBuilt on accomplishments of Sui dynastyTang Code of laws streamlined legal systemByzantineChristianity became predominant religionMajor trade inter-section on Silk RoadBuilt on accomplishments of Roman EmpireJustinian Code of laws streamlined legal system
18Compare classical Rome to the Islamic Golden Age Innovations in architecture and building practical inventions such as aquaductsIslamic Golden AgeInventions were more intellectual such as mathmatics, astronomy, medicine
19How are the Song dynasty and Italian city-states similar? River side cities became centers of bustling tradeCanals improved travel in and between cities“Flying money” allowed credit in other citiesItalian city-statesLocated on the rivers and seaways of ItalyDominated the maritime trade in the MediterraneanCities became independent through the power of tradeGold coinage became prolific due to trade increase
20Compare the Byzantine Empire to Rome Flourished due to location on Silk RoadChristianity became predominantArt centered on religious iconsSuffered from attacks from Germanic tribes and MuslimsRomeBegan to lose economic stability due to droughts & plaguePolytheismArt was bas-relief, realistic sculpture in stoneSuffered attacks from Germanic tribes