2EQ:What was the first form of education in America?
3The History of American Education In the early years of America education was only for those who could afford it.There was no uniform education in AmericaRich children had a tutor (usually a man)Children were taught to read and write by parents at homeUsed the Bible
4The History of American Education 1830s – Americans demanded changePennsylvania established tax-supported public school systemMassachusetts established a state board of education
5The History of American Education Horace Mann called for free public education-known as the great equalizer
6Common SchoolsCommon-school advocates worked to establish a free elementary education accessible to everyone and financed by public fundspublic schools should be accountable to local school boards and state governments.They also helped establish attendance laws for elementary-age children
7One Room School HouseMost schools during this time period were one room schools, also used as church in many towns. All ages of children attended.
8Common Schools Arguments for the Common School: Used to "Americanize" all foreignersThe more educated the people are, the more productive they can beMcGuffey Readers - expanded what was learnedDilute culture / religion
9McGuffey Reader First known textbook for Public education Showed moral valuesWrote 6 readers: each reader got harder and discussed more topicsIt contained reading and spelling85 lessons, 16 pictures and one-hundred sixty-six pages.outlined history, biology, astronomy, zoology, botany; table manners, behavior towards family, attitudes toward God and teachers, the poor; the great and the good. The duties of youth are stressed.
11Public High SchoolsPublic High Schools were developed in the early 1800's as a public education alternative to the private academies of the 18th CenturyThe schools focused on a practical curriculum with college preparatory classes.
12The Industrial Revolution and a shift in Education America began to move away from a farming societyMore people moving to the citiesSaw more of a push for educationImportant for every AmericanNeeded in order for America to succeed and reach the goals set forth for the nation.
13Unit EQ:What steps did the American Government take to integrate the public school system
14After the Civil War Freedman's Bureau promoted voting and education More women became teachers, but the salary was kept very low"Jim Crow" laws legally segregated schools - Southern schools were already segregated.
15Plessey v. FergusonThe 1896 Supreme Court case in which the Court upheld a Louisiana law requiring segregated railroad facilities as long as such facilities were equal to each other.“ separate but equal” –ok in all areas including educationNot always equal especially in education
16Brown v. Board of Education In 1954, the Supreme Court officially struck down the "separate but equal" doctrine of Plessey v. Ferguson in its Brown v. Board of Education decisionruled that separate educational facilities were unequal
17Integration BeginsSchools placed many problems with the prospect of integrating schoolsIssues they faced were:Increased violenceMeeting all of the students needs & disabilitiesMany schools had to bus students across town in order to achieve integration
18School Integration in Little Rock, Arkansas 1957Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus joined local whites in resisting integration by dispatching the Arkansas National GuardPresident Dwight Eisenhower responded by sending federal troops to protect the students.Proved that the president was serious and would enforce desegregation
20LEQ:How are American schools systems held accountable?
21No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act was signed into law on January 8, 2002.federal and state initiatives have been put into place to support higher student achievement, stronger public schools and a better-prepared teacher workforce.The overall purpose of the law is to ensure that each child in America is able to meet the high learning standards of the state where he or she lives.
22Goals to meet by 2014All students will reach high standards, at a minimum attaining proficiency or better in reading and mathematics byBy , all students will be proficient in reading by the end of the third grade.All limited English proficient students will become proficient in English.By , all students will be taught by highly qualified teachers.All students will be educated in learning environments that are safe, drug free and conducive to learning.All students will graduate from high school.
23Requirements includeAnnual testing of all students against state standards in reading and mathematics in grades 3-8 and in science at three times in a student’s school career (including once in high school).“Verification” of each state’s assessment system via required participation (every other year) by selected districts in the NAEP test.Aggregate and disaggregate analysis and reporting of student achievement results.A state definition and timeline for determining whether a school, district and the state are making “adequate yearly progress” (AYP) toward the goal of 100 percent of students meeting state standards by the school year.
24Requirements Continued Technical assistance and then sanctions for schools, districts and the state for failure to make AYP.Highly qualified teachers in core academic subjects byHighly qualified aides or paraprofessionals.Support for students not meeting standards and/or for those who have special needs (e.g., homeless, limited-English-proficiency).The use of “scientifically-based” programs and strategies.
25Vouchersredirect the flow of education funding, channeling it directly to individual families rather than to school districts.allows families to select the public or private schools of their choice and have all or part of the tuition paid.advocated on the grounds that parental choice and competition between public and private schools will improve education for all children
26Public vs. Private Schools Public schools are free to all children of school age in the U.S.Public schools are schools that are provided by state and federal funding.Ninety percent of the children today in America attend public school.There are different types of private schoolsPay a tuition to go to private schoolMost CommonReligious based schoolNon-religious based
27Private vs. PublicPublic schools have to educate all students were as private schools can pick and chose who they educatePublic schools are free were as private schools cost moneyPrivate schools usually have a more rigorous academic reputationPrivate schools can guarantee class sizes were as public schools can not
28Unfunded MandateAn unfunded mandate is a statute or regulation that requires a state or local government to perform certain actions, yet provides no money for fulfilling the requirements.When a federal government imposes a law or regulation without necessary funding, it becomes the responsibility of the state or local government to pay for the implementation of the law. In the end, it is local taxpayers who end up footing the bill.
29Unfunded MandatesMost of the recent policies and laws that have been placed on the schools by NCLB are unfunded mandatesThis means that the states and local school systems are required to follow the law but that they have to find their own way to pay for it.Falls on the taxpayers through an increase in taxes