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Education in America.

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1 Education in America

2 EQ: What was the first form of education in America?

3 The History of American Education
In the early years of America education was only for those who could afford it. There was no uniform education in America Rich children had a tutor (usually a man) Children were taught to read and write by parents at home Used the Bible

4 The History of American Education
1830s – Americans demanded change Pennsylvania established tax-supported public school system Massachusetts established a state board of education

5 The History of American Education
Horace Mann called for free public education-known as the great equalizer

6 Common Schools Common-school advocates worked to establish a free elementary education accessible to everyone and financed by public funds public schools should be accountable to local school boards and state governments. They also helped establish attendance laws for elementary-age children

7 One Room School House Most schools during this time period were one room schools, also used as church in many towns. All ages of children attended.

8 Common Schools Arguments for the Common School:
Used to "Americanize" all foreigners The more educated the people are, the more productive they can be McGuffey Readers - expanded what was learned Dilute culture / religion

9 McGuffey Reader First known textbook for Public education
Showed moral values Wrote 6 readers: each reader got harder and discussed more topics It contained reading and spelling 85 lessons, 16 pictures and one-hundred sixty-six pages. outlined history, biology, astronomy, zoology, botany; table manners, behavior towards family, attitudes toward God and teachers, the poor; the great and the good. The duties of youth are stressed.

10 McGuffey Reader

11 Public High Schools Public High Schools were developed in the early 1800's as a public education alternative to the private academies of the 18th Century The schools focused on a practical curriculum with college preparatory classes.

12 The Industrial Revolution and a shift in Education
America began to move away from a farming society More people moving to the cities Saw more of a push for education Important for every American Needed in order for America to succeed and reach the goals set forth for the nation.

13 Unit EQ: What steps did the American Government take to integrate the public school system

14 After the Civil War Freedman's Bureau promoted voting and education
More women became teachers, but the salary was kept very low "Jim Crow" laws legally segregated schools - Southern schools were already segregated.

15 Plessey v. Ferguson The 1896 Supreme Court case in which the Court upheld a Louisiana law requiring segregated railroad facilities as long as such facilities were equal to each other. “ separate but equal” –ok in all areas including education Not always equal especially in education

16 Brown v. Board of Education
In 1954, the Supreme Court officially struck down the "separate but equal" doctrine of Plessey v. Ferguson in its Brown v. Board of Education decision ruled that separate educational facilities were unequal

17 Integration Begins Schools placed many problems with the prospect of integrating schools Issues they faced were: Increased violence Meeting all of the students needs & disabilities Many schools had to bus students across town in order to achieve integration

18 School Integration in Little Rock, Arkansas
1957 Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus joined local whites in resisting integration by dispatching the Arkansas National Guard President Dwight Eisenhower responded by sending federal troops to protect the students. Proved that the president was serious and would enforce desegregation

19 Little Rock Nine

20 LEQ: How are American schools systems held accountable?

21 No Child Left Behind Act of 2001
The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act was signed into law on January 8, 2002. federal and state initiatives have been put into place to support higher student achievement, stronger public schools and a better-prepared teacher workforce. The overall purpose of the law is to ensure that each child in America is able to meet the high learning standards of the state where he or she lives.

22 Goals to meet by 2014 All students will reach high standards, at a minimum attaining proficiency or better in reading and mathematics by By , all students will be proficient in reading by the end of the third grade. All limited English proficient students will become proficient in English. By , all students will be taught by highly qualified teachers. All students will be educated in learning environments that are safe, drug free and conducive to learning. All students will graduate from high school.

23 Requirements include Annual testing of all students against state standards in reading and mathematics in grades 3-8 and in science at three times in a student’s school career (including once in high school). “Verification” of each state’s assessment system via required participation (every other year) by selected districts in the NAEP test. Aggregate and disaggregate analysis and reporting of student achievement results. A state definition and timeline for determining whether a school, district and the state are making “adequate yearly progress” (AYP) toward the goal of 100 percent of students meeting state standards by the school year.

24 Requirements Continued
Technical assistance and then sanctions for schools, districts and the state for failure to make AYP. Highly qualified teachers in core academic subjects by Highly qualified aides or paraprofessionals. Support for students not meeting standards and/or for those who have special needs (e.g., homeless, limited-English-proficiency). The use of “scientifically-based” programs and strategies.

25 Vouchers redirect the flow of education funding, channeling it directly to individual families rather than to school districts. allows families to select the public or private schools of their choice and have all or part of the tuition paid. advocated on the grounds that parental choice and competition between public and private schools will improve education for all children

26 Public vs. Private Schools
Public schools are free to all children of school age in the U.S. Public schools are schools that are provided by state and federal funding. Ninety percent of the children today in America attend public school. There are different types of private schools Pay a tuition to go to private school Most Common Religious based school Non-religious based

27 Private vs. Public Public schools have to educate all students were as private schools can pick and chose who they educate Public schools are free were as private schools cost money Private schools usually have a more rigorous academic reputation Private schools can guarantee class sizes were as public schools can not

28 Unfunded Mandate An unfunded mandate is a statute or regulation that requires a state or local government to perform certain actions, yet provides no money for fulfilling the requirements. When a federal government imposes a law or regulation without necessary funding, it becomes the responsibility of the state or local government to pay for the implementation of the law. In the end, it is local taxpayers who end up footing the bill.

29 Unfunded Mandates Most of the recent policies and laws that have been placed on the schools by NCLB are unfunded mandates This means that the states and local school systems are required to follow the law but that they have to find their own way to pay for it. Falls on the taxpayers through an increase in taxes

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